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e-CFR data is current as of September 24, 2020

Title 14Chapter ISubchapter CPart 25 → Subpart F


Title 14: Aeronautics and Space
PART 25—AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES


Subpart F—Equipment


Contents

General

§25.1301   Function and installation.
§25.1302   Installed systems and equipment for use by the flightcrew.
§25.1303   Flight and navigation instruments.
§25.1305   Powerplant instruments.
§25.1307   Miscellaneous equipment.
§25.1309   Equipment, systems, and installations.
§25.1310   Power source capacity and distribution.
§25.1316   Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.
§25.1317   High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

Instruments: Installation

§25.1321   Arrangement and visibility.
§25.1322   Flightcrew alerting.
§25.1323   Airspeed indicating system.
§25.1324   Angle of attack system.
§25.1325   Static pressure systems.
§25.1326   Pitot heat indication systems.
§25.1327   Magnetic direction indicator.
§25.1329   Flight guidance system.
§25.1331   Instruments using a power supply.
§25.1333   Instrument systems.
§25.1337   Powerplant instruments.

Electrical Systems and Equipment

§25.1351   General.
§25.1353   Electrical equipment and installations.
§25.1355   Distribution system.
§25.1357   Circuit protective devices.
§25.1360   Precautions against injury.
§25.1362   Electrical supplies for emergency conditions.
§25.1363   Electrical system tests.
§25.1365   Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

Lights

§25.1381   Instrument lights.
§25.1383   Landing lights.
§25.1385   Position light system installation.
§25.1387   Position light system dihedral angles.
§25.1389   Position light distribution and intensities.
§25.1391   Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.
§25.1393   Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights.
§25.1395   Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.
§25.1397   Color specifications.
§25.1399   Riding light.
§25.1401   Anticollision light system.
§25.1403   Wing icing detection lights.

Safety Equipment

§25.1411   General.
§25.1415   Ditching equipment.
§25.1419   Ice protection.
§25.1420   Supercooled large drop icing conditions.
§25.1421   Megaphones.
§25.1423   Public address system.

Miscellaneous Equipment

§25.1431   Electronic equipment.
§25.1433   Vacuum systems.
§25.1435   Hydraulic systems.
§25.1438   Pressurization and pneumatic systems.
§25.1439   Protective breathing equipment.
§25.1441   Oxygen equipment and supply.
§25.1443   Minimum mass flow of supplemental oxygen.
§25.1445   Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system.
§25.1447   Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.
§25.1449   Means for determining use of oxygen.
§25.1450   Chemical oxygen generators.
§25.1453   Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.
§25.1455   Draining of fluids subject to freezing.
§25.1457   Cockpit voice recorders.
§25.1459   Flight data recorders.
§25.1461   Equipment containing high energy rotors.

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General

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§25.1301   Function and installation.

(a) Each item of installed equipment must—

(1) Be of a kind and design appropriate to its intended function;

(2) Be labeled as to its identification, function, or operating limitations, or any applicable combination of these factors;

(3) Be installed according to limitations specified for that equipment; and

(4) Function properly when installed.

(b) EWIS must meet the requirements of subpart H of this part.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18333, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-123, 72 FR 63405, Nov. 8, 2007]

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§25.1302   Installed systems and equipment for use by the flightcrew.

This section applies to installed systems and equipment intended for flightcrew members' use in operating the airplane from their normally seated positions on the flight deck. The applicant must show that these systems and installed equipment, individually and in combination with other such systems and equipment, are designed so that qualified flightcrew members trained in their use can safely perform all of the tasks associated with the systems' and equipment's intended functions. Such installed equipment and systems must meet the following requirements:

(a) Flight deck controls must be installed to allow accomplishment of all the tasks required to safely perform the equipment's intended function, and information must be provided to the flightcrew that is necessary to accomplish the defined tasks.

(b) Flight deck controls and information intended for the flightcrew's use must:

(1) Be provided in a clear and unambiguous manner at a resolution and precision appropriate to the task;

(2) Be accessible and usable by the flightcrew in a manner consistent with the urgency, frequency, and duration of their tasks; and

(3) Enable flightcrew awareness, if awareness is required for safe operation, of the effects on the airplane or systems resulting from flightcrew actions.

(c) Operationally-relevant behavior of the installed equipment must be:

(1) Predictable and unambiguous; and

(2) Designed to enable the flightcrew to intervene in a manner appropriate to the task.

(d) To the extent practicable, installed equipment must incorporate means to enable the flightcrew to manage errors resulting from the kinds of flightcrew interactions with the equipment that can be reasonably expected in service. This paragraph does not apply to any of the following:

(1) Skill-related errors associated with manual control of the airplane;

(2) Errors that result from decisions, actions, or omissions committed with malicious intent;

(3) Errors arising from a crewmember's reckless decisions, actions, or omissions reflecting a substantial disregard for safety; and

(4) Errors resulting from acts or threats of violence, including actions taken under duress.

[Doc. No. FAA-2010-1175, 78 FR 25846, May 3, 2013]

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§25.1303   Flight and navigation instruments.

(a) The following flight and navigation instruments must be installed so that the instrument is visible from each pilot station:

(1) A free air temperature indicator or an air-temperature indicator which provides indications that are convertible to free-air temperature.

(2) A clock displaying hours, minutes, and seconds with a sweep-second pointer or digital presentation.

(3) A direction indicator (nonstabilized magnetic compass).

(b) The following flight and navigation instruments must be installed at each pilot station:

(1) An airspeed indicator. If airspeed limitations vary with altitude, the indicator must have a maximum allowable airspeed indicator showing the variation of VMO with altitude.

(2) An altimeter (sensitive).

(3) A rate-of-climb indicator (vertical speed).

(4) A gyroscopic rate-of-turn indicator combined with an integral slip-skid indicator (turn-and-bank indicator) except that only a slip-skid indicator is required on large airplanes with a third attitude instrument system useable through flight attitudes of 360° of pitch and roll and installed in accordance with §121.305(k) of this title.

(5) A bank and pitch indicator (gyroscopically stabilized).

(6) A direction indicator (gyroscopically stabilized, magnetic or nonmagnetic).

(c) The following flight and navigation instruments are required as prescribed in this paragraph:

(1) A speed warning device is required for turbine engine powered airplanes and for airplanes with VMO/MMO greater than 0.8 VDF/MDF or 0.8 V D/MD. The speed warning device must give effective aural warning (differing distinctively from aural warnings used for other purposes) to the pilots, whenever the speed exceeds VMO plus 6 knots or MMO + 0.01. The upper limit of the production tolerance for the warning device may not exceed the prescribed warning speed.

(2) A machmeter is required at each pilot station for airplanes with compressibility limitations not otherwise indicated to the pilot by the airspeed indicating system required under paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

[Amdt. 25-23, 35 FR 5678, Apr. 8, 1970, as amended by Amdt. 25-24, 35 FR 7108, May 6, 1970; Amdt. 25-38, 41 FR 55467, Dec. 20, 1976; Amdt. 25-90, 62 FR 13253, Mar. 19, 1997]

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§25.1305   Powerplant instruments.

The following are required powerplant instruments:

(a) For all airplanes. (1) A fuel pressure warning means for each engine, or a master warning means for all engines with provision for isolating the individual warning means from the master warning means.

(2) A fuel quantity indicator for each fuel tank.

(3) An oil quantity indicator for each oil tank.

(4) An oil pressure indicator for each independent pressure oil system of each engine.

(5) An oil pressure warning means for each engine, or a master warning means for all engines with provision for isolating the individual warning means from the master warning means.

(6) An oil temperature indicator for each engine.

(7) Fire-warning devices that provide visual and audible warning.

(8) An augmentation liquid quantity indicator (appropriate for the manner in which the liquid is to be used in operation) for each tank.

(b) For reciprocating engine-powered airplanes. In addition to the powerplant instruments required by paragraph (a) of this section, the following powerplant instruments are required:

(1) A carburetor air temperature indicator for each engine.

(2) A cylinder head temperature indicator for each air-cooled engine.

(3) A manifold pressure indicator for each engine.

(4) A fuel pressure indicator (to indicate the pressure at which the fuel is supplied) for each engine.

(5) A fuel flowmeter, or fuel mixture indicator, for each engine without an automatic altitude mixture control.

(6) A tachometer for each engine.

(7) A device that indicates, to the flight crew (during flight), any change in the power output, for each engine with—

(i) An automatic propeller feathering system, whose operation is initiated by a power output measuring system; or

(ii) A total engine piston displacement of 2,000 cubic inches or more.

(8) A means to indicate to the pilot when the propeller is in reverse pitch, for each reversing propeller.

(c) For turbine engine-powered airplanes. In addition to the powerplant instruments required by paragraph (a) of this section, the following powerplant instruments are required:

(1) A gas temperature indicator for each engine.

(2) A fuel flowmeter indicator for each engine.

(3) A tachometer (to indicate the speed of the rotors with established limiting speeds) for each engine.

(4) A means to indicate, to the flight crew, the operation of each engine starter that can be operated continuously but that is neither designed for continuous operation nor designed to prevent hazard if it failed.

(5) An indicator to indicate the functioning of the powerplant ice protection system for each engine.

(6) An indicator for the fuel strainer or filter required by §25.997 to indicate the occurrence of contamination of the strainer or filter before it reaches the capacity established in accordance with §25.997(d).

(7) A warning means for the oil strainer or filter required by §25.1019, if it has no bypass, to warn the pilot of the occurrence of contamination of the strainer or filter screen before it reaches the capacity established in accordance with §25.1019(a)(2).

(8) An indicator to indicate the proper functioning of any heater used to prevent ice clogging of fuel system components.

(d) For turbojet engine powered airplanes. In addition to the powerplant instruments required by paragraphs (a) and (c) of this section, the following powerplant instruments are required:

(1) An indicator to indicate thrust, or a parameter that is directly related to thrust, to the pilot. The indication must be based on the direct measurement of thrust or of parameters that are directly related to thrust. The indicator must indicate a change in thrust resulting from any engine malfunction, damage, or deterioration.

(2) A position indicating means to indicate to the flightcrew when the thrust reversing device—

(i) Is not in the selected position, and

(ii) Is in the reverse thrust position, for each engine using a thrust reversing device.

(3) An indicator to indicate rotor system unbalance.

(e) For turbopropeller-powered airplanes. In addition to the powerplant instruments required by paragraphs (a) and (c) of this section, the following powerplant instruments are required:

(1) A torque indicator for each engine.

(2) Position indicating means to indicate to the flight crew when the propeller blade angle is below the flight low pitch position, for each propeller.

(f) For airplanes equipped with fluid systems (other than fuel) for thrust or power augmentation, an approved means must be provided to indicate the proper functioning of that system to the flight crew.

[Amdt. 25-23, 35 FR 5678, Apr. 8, 1970, as amended by Amdt. 25-35, 39 FR 1831, Jan. 15, 1974; Amdt. 25-36, 39 FR 35461, Oct. 1, 1974; Amdt. 25-38, 41 FR 55467, Dec. 20, 1976; Amdt. 25-54, 45 FR 60173, Sept. 11, 1980; Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29785, July 20, 1990; Amdt. 25-115, 69 FR 40527, July 2, 2004]

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§25.1307   Miscellaneous equipment.

The following is required miscellaneous equipment:

(a) [Reserved]

(b) Two or more independent sources of electrical energy.

(c) Electrical protective devices, as prescribed in this part.

(d) Two systems for two-way radio communications, with controls for each accessible from each pilot station, designed and installed so that failure of one system will not preclude operation of the other system. The use of a common antenna system is acceptable if adequate reliability is shown.

(e) Two systems for radio navigation, with controls for each accessible from each pilot station, designed and installed so that failure of one system will not preclude operation of the other system. The use of a common antenna system is acceptable if adequate reliability is shown.

[Amdt. 25-23, 35 FR 5678, Apr. 8, 1970, as amended by Amdt. 25-46, 43 FR 50598, Oct. 30, 1978; Amdt. 25-54, 45 FR 60173, Sept. 11, 1980; Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29785, July 20, 1990]

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§25.1309   Equipment, systems, and installations.

(a) The equipment, systems, and installations whose functioning is required by this subchapter, must be designed to ensure that they perform their intended functions under any foreseeable operating condition.

(b) The airplane systems and associated components, considered separately and in relation to other systems, must be designed so that—

(1) The occurrence of any failure condition which would prevent the continued safe flight and landing of the airplane is extremely improbable, and

(2) The occurrence of any other failure conditions which would reduce the capability of the airplane or the ability of the crew to cope with adverse operating conditions is improbable.

(c) Warning information must be provided to alert the crew to unsafe system operating conditions, and to enable them to take appropriate corrective action. Systems, controls, and associated monitoring and warning means must be designed to minimize crew errors which could create additional hazards.

(d) Compliance with the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section must be shown by analysis, and where necessary, by appropriate ground, flight, or simulator tests. The analysis must consider—

(1) Possible modes of failure, including malfunctions and damage from external sources.

(2) The probability of multiple failures and undetected failures.

(3) The resulting effects on the airplane and occupants, considering the stage of flight and operating conditions, and

(4) The crew warning cues, corrective action required, and the capability of detecting faults.

(e) In showing compliance with paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section with regard to the electrical system and equipment design and installation, critical environmental conditions must be considered. For electrical generation, distribution, and utilization equipment required by or used in complying with this chapter, except equipment covered by Technical Standard Orders containing environmental test procedures, the ability to provide continuous, safe service under foreseeable environmental conditions may be shown by environmental tests, design analysis, or reference to previous comparable service experience on other aircraft.

(f) EWIS must be assessed in accordance with the requirements of §25.1709.

[Amdt. 25-23, 35 FR 5679, Apr. 8, 1970, as amended by Amdt. 25-38, 41 FR 55467, Dec. 20, 1976; Amdt. 25-41, 42 FR 36970, July 18, 1977; Amdt. 25-123, 72 FR 63405, Nov. 8, 2007]

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§25.1310   Power source capacity and distribution.

(a) Each installation whose functioning is required for type certification or under operating rules and that requires a power supply is an “essential load” on the power supply. The power sources and the system must be able to supply the following power loads in probable operating combinations and for probable durations:

(1) Loads connected to the system with the system functioning normally.

(2) Essential loads, after failure of any one prime mover, power converter, or energy storage device.

(3) Essential loads after failure of—

(i) Any one engine on two-engine airplanes; and

(ii) Any two engines on airplanes with three or more engines.

(4) Essential loads for which an alternate source of power is required, after any failure or malfunction in any one power supply system, distribution system, or other utilization system.

(b) In determining compliance with paragraphs (a)(2) and (3) of this section, the power loads may be assumed to be reduced under a monitoring procedure consistent with safety in the kinds of operation authorized. Loads not required in controlled flight need not be considered for the two-engine-inoperative condition on airplanes with three or more engines.

[Amdt. 25-123, 72 FR 63405, Nov. 8, 2007]

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§25.1316   Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.

(a) Each electrical and electronic system that performs a function, for which failure would prevent the continued safe flight and landing of the airplane, must be designed and installed so that—

(1) The function is not adversely affected during and after the time the airplane is exposed to lightning; and

(2) The system automatically recovers normal operation of that function in a timely manner after the airplane is exposed to lightning.

(b) Each electrical and electronic system that performs a function, for which failure would reduce the capability of the airplane or the ability of the flightcrew to respond to an adverse operating condition, must be designed and installed so that the function recovers normal operation in a timely manner after the airplane is exposed to lightning.

[Doc. No. FAA-2010-0224, Amdt. 25-134, 76 FR 33135, June 8, 2011]

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§25.1317   High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, each electrical and electronic system that performs a function whose failure would prevent the continued safe flight and landing of the airplane must be designed and installed so that—

(1) The function is not adversely affected during and after the time the airplane is exposed to HIRF environment I, as described in appendix L to this part;

(2) The system automatically recovers normal operation of that function, in a timely manner, after the airplane is exposed to HIRF environment I, as described in appendix L to this part, unless the system's recovery conflicts with other operational or functional requirements of the system; and

(3) The system is not adversely affected during and after the time the airplane is exposed to HIRF environment II, as described in appendix L to this part.

(b) Each electrical and electronic system that performs a function whose failure would significantly reduce the capability of the airplane or the ability of the flightcrew to respond to an adverse operating condition must be designed and installed so the system is not adversely affected when the equipment providing these functions is exposed to equipment HIRF test level 1 or 2, as described in appendix L to this part.

(c) Each electrical and electronic system that performs a function whose failure would reduce the capability of the airplane or the ability of the flightcrew to respond to an adverse operating condition must be designed and installed so the system is not adversely affected when the equipment providing the function is exposed to equipment HIRF test level 3, as described in appendix L to this part.

(d) Before December 1, 2012, an electrical or electronic system that performs a function whose failure would prevent the continued safe flight and landing of an airplane may be designed and installed without meeting the provisions of paragraph (a) provided—

(1) The system has previously been shown to comply with special conditions for HIRF, prescribed under §21.16, issued before December 1, 2007;

(2) The HIRF immunity characteristics of the system have not changed since compliance with the special conditions was demonstrated; and

(3) The data used to demonstrate compliance with the special conditions is provided.

[Doc. No. FAA-2006-23657, 72 FR 44025, Aug. 6, 2007]

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Instruments: Installation

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§25.1321   Arrangement and visibility.

(a) Each flight, navigation, and powerplant instrument for use by any pilot must be plainly visible to him from his station with the minimum practicable deviation from his normal position and line of vision when he is looking forward along the flight path.

(b) The flight instruments required by §25.1303 must be grouped on the instrument panel and centered as nearly as practicable about the vertical plane of the pilot's forward vision. In addition—

(1) The instrument that most effectively indicates attitude must be on the panel in the top center position;

(2) The instrument that most effectively indicates airspeed must be adjacent to and directly to the left of the instrument in the top center position:

(3) The instrument that most effectively indicates altitude must be adjacent to and directly to the right of the instrument in the top center position; and

(4) The instrument that most effectively indicates direction of flight must be adjacent to and directly below the instrument in the top center position.

(c) Required powerplant instruments must be closely grouped on the instrument panel. In addition—

(1) The location of identical powerplant instruments for the engines must prevent confusion as to which engine each instrument relates; and

(2) Powerplant instruments vital to the safe operation of the airplane must be plainly visible to the appropriate crewmembers.

(d) Instrument panel vibration may not damage or impair the accuracy of any instrument.

(e) If a visual indicator is provided to indicate malfunction of an instrument, it must be effective under all probable cockpit lighting conditions.

[Amdt. 25-23, 35 FR 5679, Apr. 8, 1970, as amended by Amdt. 25-41, 42 FR 36970, July 18, 1977]

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§25.1322   Flightcrew alerting.

(a) Flightcrew alerts must:

(1) Provide the flightcrew with the information needed to:

(i) Identify non-normal operation or airplane system conditions, and

(ii) Determine the appropriate actions, if any.

(2) Be readily and easily detectable and intelligible by the flightcrew under all foreseeable operating conditions, including conditions where multiple alerts are provided.

(3) Be removed when the alerting condition no longer exists.

(b) Alerts must conform to the following prioritization hierarchy based on the urgency of flightcrew awareness and response.

(1) Warning: For conditions that require immediate flightcrew awareness and immediate flightcrew response.

(2) Caution: For conditions that require immediate flightcrew awareness and subsequent flightcrew response.

(3) Advisory: For conditions that require flightcrew awareness and may require subsequent flightcrew response.

(c) Warning and caution alerts must:

(1) Be prioritized within each category, when necessary.

(2) Provide timely attention-getting cues through at least two different senses by a combination of aural, visual, or tactile indications.

(3) Permit each occurrence of the attention-getting cues required by paragraph (c)(2) of this section to be acknowledged and suppressed, unless they are required to be continuous.

(d) The alert function must be designed to minimize the effects of false and nuisance alerts. In particular, it must be designed to:

(1) Prevent the presentation of an alert that is inappropriate or unnecessary.

(2) Provide a means to suppress an attention-getting component of an alert caused by a failure of the alerting function that interferes with the flightcrew's ability to safely operate the airplane. This means must not be readily available to the flightcrew so that it could be operated inadvertently or by habitual reflexive action. When an alert is suppressed, there must be a clear and unmistakable annunciation to the flightcrew that the alert has been suppressed.

(e) Visual alert indications must:

(1) Conform to the following color convention:

(i) Red for warning alert indications.

(ii) Amber or yellow for caution alert indications.

(iii) Any color except red or green for advisory alert indications.

(2) Use visual coding techniques, together with other alerting function elements on the flight deck, to distinguish between warning, caution, and advisory alert indications, if they are presented on monochromatic displays that are not capable of conforming to the color convention in paragraph (e)(1) of this section.

(f) Use of the colors red, amber, and yellow on the flight deck for functions other than flightcrew alerting must be limited and must not adversely affect flightcrew alerting.

[Amdt. 25-131, 75 FR 67209, Nov. 2, 2010]

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§25.1323   Airspeed indicating system.

For each airspeed indicating system, the following apply:

(a) Each airspeed indicating instrument must be approved and must be calibrated to indicate true airspeed (at sea level with a standard atmosphere) with a minimum practicable instrument calibration error when the corresponding pitot and static pressures are applied.

(b) Each system must be calibrated to determine the system error (that is, the relation between IAS and CAS) in flight and during the accelerated takeoff ground run. The ground run calibration must be determined—

(1) From 0.8 of the minimum value of V1 to the maximum value of V2, considering the approved ranges of altitude and weight; and

(2) With the flaps and power settings corresponding to the values determined in the establishment of the takeoff path under §25.111 assuming that the critical engine fails at the minimum value of V1.

(c) The airspeed error of the installation, excluding the airspeed indicator instrument calibration error, may not exceed three percent or five knots, whichever is greater, throughout the speed range, from—

(1) VMO to 1.23 VSR1, with flaps retracted; and

(2) 1.23 VSR0 to VFE with flaps in the landing position.

(d) From 1.23 VSR to the speed at which stall warning begins, the IAS must change perceptibly with CAS and in the same sense, and at speeds below stall warning speed the IAS must not change in an incorrect sense.

(e) From VMO to VMO + 23 (VDF − VMO), the IAS must change perceptibly with CAS and in the same sense, and at higher speeds up to VDF the IAS must not change in an incorrect sense.

(f) There must be no indication of airspeed that would cause undue difficulty to the pilot during the takeoff between the initiation of rotation and the achievement of a steady climbing condition.

(g) The effects of airspeed indicating system lag may not introduce significant takeoff indicated airspeed bias, or significant errors in takeoff or accelerate-stop distances.

(h) Each system must be arranged, so far as practicable, to prevent malfunction or serious error due to the entry of moisture, dirt, or other substances.

(i) Each system must have a heated pitot tube or an equivalent means of preventing malfunction in the heavy rain conditions defined in Table 1 of this section; mixed phase and ice crystal conditions as defined in part 33, Appendix D, of this chapter; the icing conditions defined in Appendix C of this part; and the following icing conditions specified in Appendix O of this part:

(1) For airplanes certificated in accordance with §25.1420(a)(1), the icing conditions that the airplane is certified to safely exit following detection.

(2) For airplanes certificated in accordance with §25.1420(a)(2), the icing conditions that the airplane is certified to safely operate in and the icing conditions that the airplane is certified to safely exit following detection.

(3) For airplanes certificated in accordance with §25.1420(a)(3) and for airplanes not subject to §25.1420, all icing conditions.

Table 1—Heavy Rain Conditions for Airspeed Indicating System Tests

Altitude rangeLiquid water contentHorizontal extentDroplet MVD
(ft)(m)(g/m3)(km)(nmiles)(µm)
0 to 10 0000 to 30001100501000
   6532000
   1510.52000

(j) Where duplicate airspeed indicators are required, their respective pitot tubes must be far enough apart to avoid damage to both tubes in a collision with a bird.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-57, 49 FR 6849, Feb. 23, 1984; Amdt. 25-108, 67 FR 70828, Nov. 26, 2002; Amdt. 25-109, 67 FR 76656, Dec. 12, 2002; Amdt. 25-140, 79 FR 65526, Nov. 4, 2014]

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§25.1324   Angle of attack system.

Each angle of attack system sensor must be heated or have an equivalent means of preventing malfunction in the heavy rain conditions defined in Table 1 of §25.1323, the mixed phase and ice crystal conditions as defined in part 33, Appendix D, of this chapter, the icing conditions defined in Appendix C of this part, and the following icing conditions specified in Appendix O of this part:

(a) For airplanes certificated in accordance with §25.1420(a)(1), the icing conditions that the airplane is certified to safely exit following detection.

(b) For airplanes certificated in accordance with §25.1420(a)(2), the icing conditions that the airplane is certified to safely operate in and the icing conditions that the airplane is certified to safely exit following detection.

(c) For airplanes certificated in accordance with §25.1420(a)(3) and for airplanes not subject to §25.1420, all icing conditions.

[Amdt. 25-140, 79 FR 65527, Nov. 4, 2014]

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§25.1325   Static pressure systems.

(a) Each instrument with static air case connections must be vented to the outside atmosphere through an appropriate piping system.

(b) Each static port must be designed and located so that:

(1) The static pressure system performance is least affected by airflow variation, or by moisture or other foreign matter; and

(2) The correlation between air pressure in the static pressure system and true ambient atmospheric static pressure is not changed when the airplane is exposed to the icing conditions defined in Appendix C of this part, and the following icing conditions specified in Appendix O of this part:

(i) For airplanes certificated in accordance with §25.1420(a)(1), the icing conditions that the airplane is certified to safely exit following detection.

(ii) For airplanes certificated in accordance with §25.1420(a)(2), the icing conditions that the airplane is certified to safely operate in and the icing conditions that the airplane is certified to safely exit following detection.

(iii) For airplanes certificated in accordance with §25.1420(a)(3) and for airplanes not subject to §25.1420, all icing conditions.

(c) The design and installation of the static pressure system must be such that—

(1) Positive drainage of moisture is provided; chafing of the tubing and excessive distortion or restriction at bends in the tubing is avoided; and the materials used are durable, suitable for the purpose intended, and protected against corrosion; and

(2) It is airtight except for the port into the atmosphere. A proof test must be conducted to demonstrate the integrity of the static pressure system in the following manner:

(i) Unpressurized airplanes. Evacuate the static pressure system to a pressure differential of approximately 1 inch of mercury or to a reading on the altimeter, 1,000 feet above the airplane elevation at the time of the test. Without additional pumping for a period of 1 minute, the loss of indicated altitude must not exceed 100 feet on the altimeter.

(ii) Pressurized airplanes. Evacuate the static pressure system until a pressure differential equivalent to the maximum cabin pressure differential for which the airplane is type certificated is achieved. Without additional pumping for a period of 1 minute, the loss of indicated altitude must not exceed 2 percent of the equivalent altitude of the maximum cabin differential pressure or 100 feet, whichever is greater.

(d) Each pressure altimeter must be approved and must be calibrated to indicate pressure altitude in a standard atmosphere, with a minimum practicable calibration error when the corresponding static pressures are applied.

(e) Each system must be designed and installed so that the error in indicated pressure altitude, at sea level, with a standard atmosphere, excluding instrument calibration error, does not result in an error of more than ±30 feet per 100 knots speed for the appropriate configuration in the speed range between 1.23 VSR0 with flaps extended and 1.7 VSR1 with flaps retracted. However, the error need not be less than ±30 feet.

(f) If an altimeter system is fitted with a device that provides corrections to the altimeter indication, the device must be designed and installed in such manner that it can be bypassed when it malfunctions, unless an alternate altimeter system is provided. Each correction device must be fitted with a means for indicating the occurrence of reasonably probable malfunctions, including power failure, to the flight crew. The indicating means must be effective for any cockpit lighting condition likely to occur.

(g) Except as provided in paragraph (h) of this section, if the static pressure system incorporates both a primary and an alternate static pressure source, the means for selecting one or the other source must be designed so that—

(1) When either source is selected, the other is blocked off; and

(2) Both sources cannot be blocked off simultaneously.

(h) For unpressurized airplanes, paragraph (g)(1) of this section does not apply if it can be demonstrated that the static pressure system calibration, when either static pressure source is selected, is not changed by the other static pressure source being open or blocked.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-5, 30 FR 8261, June 29, 1965; Amdt. 25-12, 32 FR 7587, May 24, 1967; Amdt. 25-41, 42 FR 36970, July 18, 1977; Amdt. 25-108, 67 FR 70828, Nov. 26, 2002; Amdt. 25-140, 79 FR 65527, Nov. 4, 2014]

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§25.1326   Pitot heat indication systems.

If a flight instrument pitot heating system is installed, an indication system must be provided to indicate to the flight crew when that pitot heating system is not operating. The indication system must comply with the following requirements:

(a) The indication provided must incorporate an amber light that is in clear view of a flight crewmember.

(b) The indication provided must be designed to alert the flight crew if either of the following conditions exist:

(1) The pitot heating system is switched “off”.

(2) The pitot heating system is switched “on” and any pitot tube heating element is inoperative.

[Amdt. 25-43, 43 FR 10339, Mar. 13, 1978]

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§25.1327   Magnetic direction indicator.

(a) Each magnetic direction indicator must be installed so that its accuracy is not excessively affected by the airplane's vibration or magnetic fields.

(b) The compensated installation may not have a deviation, in level flight, greater than 10 degrees on any heading.

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§25.1329   Flight guidance system.

(a) Quick disengagement controls for the autopilot and autothrust functions must be provided for each pilot. The autopilot quick disengagement controls must be located on both control wheels (or equivalent). The autothrust quick disengagement controls must be located on the thrust control levers. Quick disengagement controls must be readily accessible to each pilot while operating the control wheel (or equivalent) and thrust control levers.

(b) The effects of a failure of the system to disengage the autopilot or autothrust functions when manually commanded by the pilot must be assessed in accordance with the requirements of §25.1309.

(c) Engagement or switching of the flight guidance system, a mode, or a sensor may not cause a transient response of the airplane's flight path any greater than a minor transient, as defined in paragraph (n)(1) of this section.

(d) Under normal conditions, the disengagement of any automatic control function of a flight guidance system may not cause a transient response of the airplane's flight path any greater than a minor transient.

(e) Under rare normal and non-normal conditions, disengagement of any automatic control function of a flight guidance system may not result in a transient any greater than a significant transient, as defined in paragraph (n)(2) of this section.

(f) The function and direction of motion of each command reference control, such as heading select or vertical speed, must be plainly indicated on, or adjacent to, each control if necessary to prevent inappropriate use or confusion.

(g) Under any condition of flight appropriate to its use, the flight guidance system may not produce hazardous loads on the airplane, nor create hazardous deviations in the flight path. This applies to both fault-free operation and in the event of a malfunction, and assumes that the pilot begins corrective action within a reasonable period of time.

(h) When the flight guidance system is in use, a means must be provided to avoid excursions beyond an acceptable margin from the speed range of the normal flight envelope. If the airplane experiences an excursion outside this range, a means must be provided to prevent the flight guidance system from providing guidance or control to an unsafe speed.

(i) The flight guidance system functions, controls, indications, and alerts must be designed to minimize flightcrew errors and confusion concerning the behavior and operation of the flight guidance system. Means must be provided to indicate the current mode of operation, including any armed modes, transitions, and reversions. Selector switch position is not an acceptable means of indication. The controls and indications must be grouped and presented in a logical and consistent manner. The indications must be visible to each pilot under all expected lighting conditions.

(j) Following disengagement of the autopilot, a warning (visual and auditory) must be provided to each pilot and be timely and distinct from all other cockpit warnings.

(k) Following disengagement of the autothrust function, a caution must be provided to each pilot.

(l) The autopilot may not create a potential hazard when the flightcrew applies an override force to the flight controls.

(m) During autothrust operation, it must be possible for the flightcrew to move the thrust levers without requiring excessive force. The autothrust may not create a potential hazard when the flightcrew applies an override force to the thrust levers.

(n) For purposes of this section, a transient is a disturbance in the control or flight path of the airplane that is not consistent with response to flightcrew inputs or environmental conditions.

(1) A minor transient would not significantly reduce safety margins and would involve flightcrew actions that are well within their capabilities. A minor transient may involve a slight increase in flightcrew workload or some physical discomfort to passengers or cabin crew.

(2) A significant transient may lead to a significant reduction in safety margins, an increase in flightcrew workload, discomfort to the flightcrew, or physical distress to the passengers or cabin crew, possibly including non-fatal injuries. Significant transients do not require, in order to remain within or recover to the normal flight envelope, any of the following:

(i) Exceptional piloting skill, alertness, or strength.

(ii) Forces applied by the pilot which are greater than those specified in §25.143(c).

(iii) Accelerations or attitudes in the airplane that might result in further hazard to secured or non-secured occupants.

[Doc. No. FAA-2004-18775, 71 FR 18191, Apr. 11, 2006]

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§25.1331   Instruments using a power supply.

(a) For each instrument required by §25.1303(b) that uses a power supply, the following apply:

(1) Each instrument must have a visual means integral with, the instrument, to indicate when power adequate to sustain proper instrument performance is not being supplied. The power must be measured at or near the point where it enters the instruments. For electric instruments, the power is considered to be adequate when the voltage is within approved limits.

(2) Each instrument must, in the event of the failure of one power source, be supplied by another power source. This may be accomplished automatically or by manual means.

(3) If an instrument presenting navigation data receives information from sources external to that instrument and loss of that information would render the presented data unreliable, the instrument must incorporate a visual means to warn the crew, when such loss of information occurs, that the presented data should not be relied upon.

(b) As used in this section, “instrument” includes devices that are physically contained in one unit, and devices that are composed of two or more physically separate units or components connected together (such as a remote indicating gyroscopic direction indicator that includes a magnetic sensing element, a gyroscopic unit, an amplifier and an indicator connected together).

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-41, 42 FR 36970, July 18, 1977]

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§25.1333   Instrument systems.

For systems that operate the instruments required by §25.1303(b) which are located at each pilot's station—

(a) Means must be provided to connect the required instruments at the first pilot's station to operating systems which are independent of the operating systems at other flight crew stations, or other equipment;

(b) The equipment, systems, and installations must be designed so that one display of the information essential to the safety of flight which is provided by the instruments, including attitude, direction, airspeed, and altitude will remain available to the pilots, without additional crewmember action, after any single failure or combination of failures that is not shown to be extremely improbable; and

(c) Additional instruments, systems, or equipment may not be connected to the operating systems for the required instruments, unless provisions are made to ensure the continued normal functioning of the required instruments in the event of any malfunction of the additional instruments, systems, or equipment which is not shown to be extremely improbable.

[Amdt. 25-23, 35 FR 5679, Apr. 8, 1970, as amended by Amdt. 25-41, 42 FR 36970, July 18, 1977]

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§25.1337   Powerplant instruments.

(a) Instruments and instrument lines. (1) Each powerplant and auxiliary power unit instrument line must meet the requirements of §§25.993 and 25.1183.

(2) Each line carrying flammable fluids under pressure must—

(i) Have restricting orifices or other safety devices at the source of pressure to prevent the escape of excessive fluid if the line fails; and

(ii) Be installed and located so that the escape of fluids would not create a hazard.

(3) Each powerplant and auxiliary power unit instrument that utilizes flammable fluids must be installed and located so that the escape of fluid would not create a hazard.

(b) Fuel quantity indicator. There must be means to indicate to the flight crewmembers, the quantity, in gallons or equivalent units, of usable fuel in each tank during flight. In addition—

(1) Each fuel quantity indicator must be calibrated to read “zero” during level flight when the quantity of fuel remaining in the tank is equal to the unusable fuel supply determined under §25.959;

(2) Tanks with interconnected outlets and airspaces may be treated as one tank and need not have separate indicators; and

(3) Each exposed sight gauge, used as a fuel quantity indicator, must be protected against damage.

(c) Fuel flowmeter system. If a fuel flowmeter system is installed, each metering component must have a means for bypassing the fuel supply if malfunction of that component severely restricts fuel flow.

(d) Oil quantity indicator. There must be a stick gauge or equivalent means to indicate the quantity of oil in each tank. If an oil transfer or reserve oil supply system is installed, there must be a means to indicate to the flight crew, in flight, the quantity of oil in each tank.

(e) Turbopropeller blade position indicator. Required turbopropeller blade position indicators must begin indicating before the blade moves more than eight degrees below the flight low pitch stop. The source of indication must directly sense the blade position.

(f) Fuel pressure indicator. There must be means to measure fuel pressure, in each system supplying reciprocating engines, at a point downstream of any fuel pump except fuel injection pumps. In addition—

(1) If necessary for the maintenance of proper fuel delivery pressure, there must be a connection to transmit the carburetor air intake static pressure to the proper pump relief valve connection; and

(2) If a connection is required under paragraph (f)(1) of this section, the gauge balance lines must be independently connected to the carburetor inlet pressure to avoid erroneous readings.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-40, 42 FR 15044, Mar. 17, 1977]

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Electrical Systems and Equipment

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§25.1351   General.

(a) Electrical system capacity. The required generating capacity, and number and kinds of power sources must—

(1) Be determined by an electrical load analysis; and

(2) Meet the requirements of §25.1309.

(b) Generating system. The generating system includes electrical power sources, main power busses, transmission cables, and associated control, regulation, and protective devices. It must be designed so that—

(1) Power sources function properly when independent and when connected in combination;

(2) No failure or malfunction of any power source can create a hazard or impair the ability of remaining sources to supply essential loads;

(3) The system voltage and frequency (as applicable) at the terminals of all essential load equipment can be maintained within the limits for which the equipment is designed, during any probable operating condition; and

(4) System transients due to switching, fault clearing, or other causes do not make essential loads inoperative, and do not cause a smoke or fire hazard.

(5) There are means accessible, in flight, to appropriate crewmembers for the individual and collective disconnection of the electrical power sources from the system.

(6) There are means to indicate to appropriate crewmembers the generating system quantities essential for the safe operation of the system, such as the voltage and current supplied by each generator.

(c) External power. If provisions are made for connecting external power to the airplane, and that external power can be electrically connected to equipment other than that used for engine starting, means must be provided to ensure that no external power supply having a reverse polarity, or a reverse phase sequence, can supply power to the airplane's electrical system.

(d) Operation without normal electrical power. It must be shown by analysis, tests, or both, that the airplane can be operated safely in VFR conditions, for a period of not less than five minutes, with the normal electrical power (electrical power sources excluding the battery) inoperative, with critical type fuel (from the standpoint of flameout and restart capability), and with the airplane initially at the maximum certificated altitude. Parts of the electrical system may remain on if—

(1) A single malfunction, including a wire bundle or junction box fire, cannot result in loss of both the part turned off and the part turned on; and

(2) The parts turned on are electrically and mechanically isolated from the parts turned off.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-41, 42 FR 36970, July 18, 1977; Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29785, July 20, 1990]

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§25.1353   Electrical equipment and installations.

(a) Electrical equipment and controls must be installed so that operation of any one unit or system of units will not adversely affect the simultaneous operation of any other electrical unit or system essential to safe operation. Any electrical interference likely to be present in the airplane must not result in hazardous effects on the airplane or its systems.

(b) Storage batteries must be designed and installed as follows:

(1) Safe cell temperatures and pressures must be maintained during any probable charging or discharging condition. No uncontrolled increase in cell temperature may result when the battery is recharged (after previous complete discharge)—

(i) At maximum regulated voltage or power;

(ii) During a flight of maximum duration; and

(iii) Under the most adverse cooling condition likely to occur in service.

(2) Compliance with paragraph (b)(1) of this section must be shown by test unless experience with similar batteries and installations has shown that maintaining safe cell temperatures and pressures presents no problem.

(3) No explosive or toxic gases emitted by any battery in normal operation, or as the result of any probable malfunction in the charging system or battery installation, may accumulate in hazardous quantities within the airplane.

(4) No corrosive fluids or gases that may escape from the battery may damage surrounding airplane structures or adjacent essential equipment.

(5) Each nickel cadmium battery installation must have provisions to prevent any hazardous effect on structure or essential systems that may be caused by the maximum amount of heat the battery can generate during a short circuit of the battery or of individual cells.

(6) Nickel cadmium battery installations must have—

(i) A system to control the charging rate of the battery automatically so as to prevent battery overheating;

(ii) A battery temperature sensing and over-temperature warning system with a means for disconnecting the battery from its charging source in the event of an over-temperature condition; or

(iii) A battery failure sensing and warning system with a means for disconnecting the battery from its charging source in the event of battery failure.

(c) Electrical bonding must provide an adequate electrical return path under both normal and fault conditions, on airplanes having grounded electrical systems.

[Amdt. 25-123, 72 FR 63405, Nov. 8, 2007]

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§25.1355   Distribution system.

(a) The distribution system includes the distribution busses, their associated feeders, and each control and protective device.

(b) [Reserved]

(c) If two independent sources of electrical power for particular equipment or systems are required by this chapter, in the event of the failure of one power source for such equipment or system, another power source (including its separate feeder) must be automatically provided or be manually selectable to maintain equipment or system operation.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-23, 35 FR 5679, Apr. 8, 1970; Amdt. 25-38, 41 FR 55468, Dec. 20, 1976]

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§25.1357   Circuit protective devices.

(a) Automatic protective devices must be used to minimize distress to the electrical system and hazard to the airplane in the event of wiring faults or serious malfunction of the system or connected equipment.

(b) The protective and control devices in the generating system must be designed to de-energize and disconnect faulty power sources and power transmission equipment from their associated busses with sufficient rapidity to provide protection from hazardous over-voltage and other malfunctioning.

(c) Each resettable circuit protective device must be designed so that, when an overload or circuit fault exists, it will open the circuit irrespective of the position of the operating control.

(d) If the ability to reset a circuit breaker or replace a fuse is essential to safety in flight, that circuit breaker or fuse must be located and identified so that it can be readily reset or replaced in flight. Where fuses are used, there must be spare fuses for use in flight equal to at least 50% of the number of fuses of each rating required for complete circuit protection.

(e) Each circuit for essential loads must have individual circuit protection. However, individual protection for each circuit in an essential load system (such as each position light circuit in a system) is not required.

(f) For airplane systems for which the ability to remove or reset power during normal operations is necessary, the system must be designed so that circuit breakers are not the primary means to remove or reset system power unless specifically designed for use as a switch.

(g) Automatic reset circuit breakers may be used as integral protectors for electrical equipment (such as thermal cut-outs) if there is circuit protection to protect the cable to the equipment.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-123, 72 FR 63405, Nov. 8, 2007]

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§25.1360   Precautions against injury.

(a) Shock. The electrical system must be designed to minimize risk of electric shock to crew, passengers, and servicing personnel and to maintenance personnel using normal precautions.

(b) Burns. The temperature of any part that may be handled by a crewmember during normal operations must not cause dangerous inadvertent movement by the crewmember or injury to the crewmember.

[Amdt. 25-123, 72 FR 63406, Nov. 8, 2007]

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§25.1362   Electrical supplies for emergency conditions.

A suitable electrical supply must be provided to those services required for emergency procedures after an emergency landing or ditching. The circuits for these services must be designed, protected, and installed so that the risk of the services being rendered ineffective under these emergency conditions is minimized.

[Amdt. 25-123, 72 FR 63406, Nov. 8, 2007]

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§25.1363   Electrical system tests.

(a) When laboratory tests of the electrical system are conducted—

(1) The tests must be performed on a mock-up using the same generating equipment used in the airplane;

(2) The equipment must simulate the electrical characteristics of the distribution wiring and connected loads to the extent necessary for valid test results; and

(3) Laboratory generator drives must simulate the actual prime movers on the airplane with respect to their reaction to generator loading, including loading due to faults.

(b) For each flight condition that cannot be simulated adequately in the laboratory or by ground tests on the airplane, flight tests must be made.

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§25.1365   Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

(a) Domestic appliances must be designed and installed so that in the event of failures of the electrical supply or control system, the requirements of §25.1309(b), (c), and (d) will be satisfied. Domestic appliances are items such as cooktops, ovens, coffee makers, water heaters, refrigerators, and toilet flush systems that are placed on the airplane to provide service amenities to passengers.

(b) Galleys and cooking appliances must be installed in a way that minimizes risk of overheat or fire.

(c) Domestic appliances, particularly those in galley areas, must be installed or protected so as to prevent damage or contamination of other equipment or systems from fluids or vapors which may be present during normal operation or as a result of spillage, if such damage or contamination could create a hazardous condition.

(d) Unless compliance with §25.1309(b) is provided by the circuit protective device required by §25.1357(a), electric motors and transformers, including those installed in domestic systems, must have a suitable thermal protection device to prevent overheating under normal operation and failure conditions, if overheating could create a smoke or fire hazard.

[Amdt. 25-123, 72 FR 63406, Nov. 8, 2007]

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Lights

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§25.1381   Instrument lights.

(a) The instrument lights must—

(1) Provide sufficient illumination to make each instrument, switch and other device necessary for safe operation easily readable unless sufficient illumination is available from another source; and

(2) Be installed so that—

(i) Their direct rays are shielded from the pilot's eyes; and

(ii) No objectionable reflections are visible to the pilot.

(b) Unless undimmed instrument lights are satisfactory under each expected flight condition, there must be a means to control the intensity of illumination.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29785, July 20, 1990]

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§25.1383   Landing lights.

(a) Each landing light must be approved, and must be installed so that—

(1) No objectionable glare is visible to the pilot;

(2) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and

(3) It provides enough light for night landing.

(b) Except when one switch is used for the lights of a multiple light installation at one location, there must be a separate switch for each light.

(c) There must be a means to indicate to the pilots when the landing lights are extended.

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§25.1385   Position light system installation.

(a) General. Each part of each position light system must meet the applicable requirements of this section and each system as a whole must meet the requirements of §§25.1387 through 25.1397.

(b) Forward position lights. Forward position lights must consist of a red and a green light spaced laterally as far apart as practicable and installed forward on the airplane so that, with the airplane in the normal flying position, the red light is on the left side and the green light is on the right side. Each light must be approved.

(c) Rear position light. The rear position light must be a white light mounted as far aft as practicable on the tail or on each wing tip, and must be approved.

(d) Light covers and color filters. Each light cover or color filter must be at least flame resistant and may not change color or shape or lose any appreciable light transmission during normal use.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-38, 41 FR 55468, Dec. 20, 1976]

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§25.1387   Position light system dihedral angles.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, each forward and rear position light must, as installed, show unbroken light within the dihedral angles described in this section.

(b) Dihedral angle L (left) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes, the first parallel to the longitudinal axis of the airplane, and the other at 110 degrees to the left of the first, as viewed when looking forward along the longitudinal axis.

(c) Dihedral angle R (right) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes, the first parallel to the longitudinal axis of the airplane, and the other at 110 degrees to the right of the first, as viewed when looking forward along the longitudinal axis.

(d) Dihedral angle A (aft) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes making angles of 70 degrees to the right and to the left, respectively, to a vertical plane passing through the longitudinal axis, as viewed when looking aft along the longitudinal axis.

(e) If the rear position light, when mounted as far aft as practicable in accordance with §25.1385(c), cannot show unbroken light within dihedral angle A (as defined in paragraph (d) of this section), a solid angle or angles of obstructed visibility totaling not more than 0.04 steradians is allowable within that dihedral angle, if such solid angle is within a cone whose apex is at the rear position light and whose elements make an angle of 30° with a vertical line passing through the rear position light.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-30, 36 FR 21278, Nov. 5, 1971]

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§25.1389   Position light distribution and intensities.

(a) General. The intensities prescribed in this section must be provided by new equipment with light covers and color filters in place. Intensities must be determined with the light source operating at a steady value equal to the average luminous output of the source at the normal operating voltage of the airplane. The light distribution and intensity of each position light must meet the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) Forward and rear position lights. The light distribution and intensities of forward and rear position lights must be expressed in terms of minimum intensities in the horizontal plane, minimum intensities in any vertical plane, and maximum intensities in overlapping beams, within dihedral angles L, R, and A, and must meet the following requirements:

(1) Intensities in the horizontal plane. Each intensity in the horizontal plane (the plane containing the longitudinal axis of the airplane and perpendicular to the plane of symmetry of the airplane) must equal or exceed the values in §25.1391.

(2) Intensities in any vertical plane. Each intensity in any vertical plane (the plane perpendicular to the horizontal plane) must equal or exceed the appropriate value in §25.1393, where I is the minimum intensity prescribed in §25.1391 for the corresponding angles in the horizontal plane.

(3) Intensities in overlaps between adjacent signals. No intensity in any overlap between adjacent signals may exceed the values given in §25.1395, except that higher intensities in overlaps may be used with main beam intensities substantially greater than the minima specified in §§25.1391 and 25.1393 if the overlap intensities in relation to the main beam intensities do not adversely affect signal clarity. When the peak intensity of the forward position lights is more than 100 candles, the maximum overlap intensities between them may exceed the values given in §25.1395 if the overlap intensity in Area A is not more than 10 percent of peak position light intensity and the overlap intensity in Area B is not greater than 2.5 percent of peak position light intensity.

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§25.1391   Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.

Each position light intensity must equal or exceed the applicable values in the following table:

Dihedral angle (light included)Angle from right or left of longitudinal axis, measured from dead aheadIntensity (candles)
L and R (forward red and green)0° to 10°
10° to 20°
20° to 110°
40
30
5
A (rear white)110° to 180°20

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§25.1393   Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights.

Each position light intensity must equal or exceed the applicable values in the following table:

Angle above or below the horizontal planeIntensity, l
1.00
0° to 5°0.90
5° to 10°0.80
10° to 15°0.70
15° to 20°0.50
20° to 30°0.30
30° to 40°0.10
40° to 90°0.05

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§25.1395   Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

No position light intensity may exceed the applicable values in the following table, except as provided in §25.1389(b)(3).

OverlapsMaximum intensity
Area A (candles)Area B (candles)
Green in dihedral angle L101
Red in dihedral angle R101
Green in dihedral angle A51
Red in dihedral angle A51
Rear white in dihedral angle L51
Rear white in dihedral angle R51

Where—

(a) Area A includes all directions in the adjacent dihedral angle that pass through the light source and intersect the common boundary plane at more than 10 degrees but less than 20 degrees; and

(b) Area B includes all directions in the adjacent dihedral angle that pass through the light source and intersect the common boundary plane at more than 20 degrees.

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§25.1397   Color specifications.

Each position light color must have the applicable International Commission on Illumination chromaticity coordinates as follows:

(a) Aviation red

y is not greater than 0.335; and

z is not greater than 0.002.

(b) Aviation green

x is not greater than 0.440−0.320y ;

x is not greater than y−0.170; and

y is not less than 0.390−0.170x.

(c) Aviation white

x is not less than 0.300 and not greater than 0.540;

y is not less than x−0.040; or y0−0.010, whichever is the smaller; and

y is not greater than x + 0.020 nor 0.636−0.400x;

Where y0 is the y coordinate of the Planckian radiator for the value of x considered.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-27, 36 FR 12972, July 10, 1971]

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§25.1399   Riding light.

(a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian must be installed so that it can—

(1) Show a white light for at least 2 nautical miles at night under clear atmospheric conditions; and

(2) Show the maximum unbroken light practicable when the airplane is moored or drifting on the water.

(b) Externally hung lights may be used.

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§25.1401   Anticollision light system.

(a) General. The airplane must have an anticollision light system that—

(1) Consists of one or more approved anticollision lights located so that their light will not impair the crew's vision or detract from the conspicuity of the position lights; and

(2) Meets the requirements of paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section.

(b) Field of coverage. The system must consist of enough lights to illuminate the vital areas around the airplane considering the physical configuration and flight characteristics of the airplane. The field of coverage must extend in each direction within at least 75 degrees above and 75 degrees below the horizontal plane of the airplane, except that a solid angle or angles of obstructed visibility totaling not more than 0.03 steradians is allowable within a solid angle equal to 0.15 steradians centered about the longitudinal axis in the rearward direction.

(c) Flashing characteristics. The arrangement of the system, that is, the number of light sources, beam width, speed of rotation, and other characteristics, must give an effective flash frequency of not less than 40, nor more than 100 cycles per minute. The effective flash frequency is the frequency at which the airplane's complete anticollision light system is observed from a distance, and applies to each sector of light including any overlaps that exist when the system consists of more than one light source. In overlaps, flash frequencies may exceed 100, but not 180 cycles per minute.

(d) Color. Each anticollision light must be either aviation red or aviation white and must meet the applicable requirements of §25.1397.

(e) Light intensity. The minimum light intensities in all vertical planes, measured with the red filter (if used) and expressed in terms of “effective” intensities, must meet the requirements of paragraph (f) of this section. The following relation must be assumed:

eCFR graphic ec28se91.049.gif

View or download PDF

where:

Ie = effective intensity (candles).

I(t) = instantaneous intensity as a function of time.

t2—t1 = flash time interval (seconds).

Normally, the maximum value of effective intensity is obtained when t2 and t1 are chosen so that the effective intensity is equal to the instantaneous intensity at t2 and t1.

(f) Minimum effective intensities for anticollision lights. Each anticollision light effective intensity must equal or exceed the applicable values in the following table.

Angle above or below the horizontal planeEffective intensity (candles)
0° to 5°400
5° to 10°240
10° to 20°80
20° to 30°40
30° to 75°20

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-27, 36 FR 12972, July 10, 1971; Amdt. 25-41, 42 FR 36970, July 18, 1977]

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§25.1403   Wing icing detection lights.

Unless operations at night in known or forecast icing conditions are prohibited by an operating limitation, a means must be provided for illuminating or otherwise determining the formation of ice on the parts of the wings that are critical from the standpoint of ice accumulation. Any illumination that is used must be of a type that will not cause glare or reflection that would handicap crewmembers in the performance of their duties.

[Amdt. 25-38, 41 FR 55468, Dec. 20, 1976]

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Safety Equipment

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§25.1411   General.

(a) Accessibility. Required safety equipment to be used by the crew in an emergency must be readily accessible.

(b) Stowage provisions. Stowage provisions for required emergency equipment must be furnished and must—

(1) Be arranged so that the equipment is directly accessible and its location is obvious; and

(2) Protect the safety equipment from inadvertent damage.

(c) Emergency exit descent device. The stowage provisions for the emergency exit descent devices required by §25.810(a) must be at each exit for which they are intended.

(d) Liferafts. (1) The stowage provisions for the liferafts described in §25.1415 must accommodate enough rafts for the maximum number of occupants for which certification for ditching is requested.

(2) Liferafts must be stowed near exits through which the rafts can be launched during an unplanned ditching.

(3) Rafts automatically or remotely released outside the airplane must be attached to the airplane by means of the static line prescribed in §25.1415.

(4) The stowage provisions for each portable liferaft must allow rapid detachment and removal of the raft for use at other than the intended exits.

(e) Long-range signaling device. The stowage provisions for the long-range signaling device required by §25.1415 must be near an exit available during an unplanned ditching.

(f) Life preserver stowage provisions. The stowage provisions for life preservers described in §25.1415 must accommodate one life preserver for each occupant for which certification for ditching is requested. Each life preserver must be within easy reach of each seated occupant.

(g) Life line stowage provisions. If certification for ditching under §25.801 is requested, there must be provisions to store life lines. These provisions must—

(1) Allow one life line to be attached to each side of the fuselage; and

(2) Be arranged to allow the life lines to be used to enable the occupants to stay on the wing after ditching.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-32, 37 FR 3972, Feb. 24, 1972; Amdt. 25-46, 43 FR 50598, Oct. 30, 1978; Amdt. 25-53, 45 FR 41593, June 19, 1980; Amdt. 25-70, 54 FR 43925, Oct. 27, 1989; Amdt. 25-79, 58 FR 45229, Aug. 26, 1993; Amdt. 25-116, 69 FR 62789, Oct. 27, 2004]

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§25.1415   Ditching equipment.

(a) Ditching equipment used in airplanes to be certificated for ditching under §25.801, and required by the operating rules of this chapter, must meet the requirements of this section.

(b) Each liferaft and each life preserver must be approved. In addition—

(1) Unless excess rafts of enough capacity are provided, the buoyancy and seating capacity beyond the rated capacity of the rafts must accommodate all occupants of the airplane in the event of a loss of one raft of the largest rated capacity; and

(2) Each raft must have a trailing line, and must have a static line designed to hold the raft near the airplane but to release it if the airplane becomes totally submerged.

(c) Approved survival equipment must be attached to each liferaft.

(d) There must be an approved survival type emergency locator transmitter for use in one life raft.

(e) For airplanes not certificated for ditching under §25.801 and not having approved life preservers, there must be an approved flotation means for each occupant. This means must be within easy reach of each seated occupant and must be readily removable from the airplane.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-29, 36 FR 18722, Sept. 21, 1971; Amdt. 25-50, 45 FR 38348, June 9, 1980; Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29785, July 20, 1990; Amdt. 25-82, 59 FR 32057, June 21, 1994]

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§25.1419   Ice protection.

If the applicant seeks certification for flight in icing conditions, the airplane must be able to safely operate in the continuous maximum and intermittent maximum icing conditions of appendix C. To establish this—

(a) An analysis must be performed to establish that the ice protection for the various components of the airplane is adequate, taking into account the various airplane operational configurations; and

(b) To verify the ice protection analysis, to check for icing anomalies, and to demonstrate that the ice protection system and its components are effective, the airplane or its components must be flight tested in the various operational configurations, in measured natural atmospheric icing conditions and, as found necessary, by one or more of the following means:

(1) Laboratory dry air or simulated icing tests, or a combination of both, of the components or models of the components.

(2) Flight dry air tests of the ice protection system as a whole, or of its individual components.

(3) Flight tests of the airplane or its components in measured simulated icing conditions.

(c) Caution information, such as an amber caution light or equivalent, must be provided to alert the flightcrew when the anti-ice or de-ice system is not functioning normally.

(d) For turbine engine powered airplanes, the ice protection provisions of this section are considered to be applicable primarily to the airframe. For the powerplant installation, certain additional provisions of subpart E of this part may be found applicable.

(e) One of the following methods of icing detection and activation of the airframe ice protection system must be provided:

(1) A primary ice detection system that automatically activates or alerts the flightcrew to activate the airframe ice protection system;

(2) A definition of visual cues for recognition of the first sign of ice accretion on a specified surface combined with an advisory ice detection system that alerts the flightcrew to activate the airframe ice protection system; or

(3) Identification of conditions conducive to airframe icing as defined by an appropriate static or total air temperature and visible moisture for use by the flightcrew to activate the airframe ice protection system.

(f) Unless the applicant shows that the airframe ice protection system need not be operated during specific phases of flight, the requirements of paragraph (e) of this section are applicable to all phases of flight.

(g) After the initial activation of the airframe ice protection system—

(1) The ice protection system must be designed to operate continuously;

(2) The airplane must be equipped with a system that automatically cycles the ice protection system; or

(3) An ice detection system must be provided to alert the flightcrew each time the ice protection system must be cycled.

(h) Procedures for operation of the ice protection system, including activation and deactivation, must be established and documented in the Airplane Flight Manual.

[Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29785, July 20, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 25-121, 72 FR 44669, Aug. 8, 2007; Amdt. 25-129, 74 FR 38339, Aug. 3, 2009]

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§25.1420   Supercooled large drop icing conditions.

(a) If certification for flight in icing conditions is sought, in addition to the requirements of §25.1419, an airplane with a maximum takeoff weight less than 60,000 pounds or with reversible flight controls must be capable of operating in accordance with paragraphs (a)(1), (2), or (3), of this section.

(1) Operating safely after encountering the icing conditions defined in Appendix O of this part:

(i) The airplane must have a means to detect that it is operating in Appendix O icing conditions; and

(ii) Following detection of Appendix O icing conditions, the airplane must be capable of operating safely while exiting all icing conditions.

(2) Operating safely in a portion of the icing conditions defined in Appendix O of this part as selected by the applicant:

(i) The airplane must have a means to detect that it is operating in conditions that exceed the selected portion of Appendix O icing conditions; and

(ii) Following detection, the airplane must be capable of operating safely while exiting all icing conditions.

(3) Operating safely in the icing conditions defined in Appendix O of this part.

(b) To establish that the airplane can operate safely as required in paragraph (a) of this section, an applicant must show through analysis that the ice protection for the various components of the airplane is adequate, taking into account the various airplane operational configurations. To verify the analysis, one, or more as found necessary, of the following methods must be used:

(1) Laboratory dry air or simulated icing tests, or a combination of both, of the components or models of the components.

(2) Laboratory dry air or simulated icing tests, or a combination of both, of models of the airplane.

(3) Flight tests of the airplane or its components in simulated icing conditions, measured as necessary to support the analysis.

(4) Flight tests of the airplane with simulated ice shapes.

(5) Flight tests of the airplane in natural icing conditions, measured as necessary to support the analysis.

(c) For an airplane certified in accordance with paragraph (a)(2) or (3) of this section, the requirements of §25.1419(e), (f), (g), and (h) must be met for the icing conditions defined in Appendix O of this part in which the airplane is certified to operate.

(d) For the purposes of this section, the following definitions apply:

(1) Reversible Flight Controls. Flight controls in the normal operating configuration that have force or motion originating at the airplane's control surface (for example, through aerodynamic loads, static imbalance, or trim or servo tab inputs) that is transmitted back to flight deck controls. This term refers to flight deck controls connected to the pitch, roll, or yaw control surfaces by direct mechanical linkages, cables, or push-pull rods in such a way that pilot effort produces motion or force about the hinge line.

(2) Simulated Icing Test. Testing conducted in simulated icing conditions, such as in an icing tunnel or behind an icing tanker.

(3) Simulated Ice Shape. Ice shape fabricated from wood, epoxy, or other materials by any construction technique.

[Amdt. 25-140, 79 FR 65528, Nov. 4, 2014]

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§25.1421   Megaphones.

If a megaphone is installed, a restraining means must be provided that is capable of restraining the megaphone when it is subjected to the ultimate inertia forces specified in §25.561(b)(3).

[Amdt. 25-41, 42 FR 36970, July 18, 1977]

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§25.1423   Public address system.

A public address system required by this chapter must—

(a) Be powerable when the aircraft is in flight or stopped on the ground, after the shutdown or failure of all engines and auxiliary power units, or the disconnection or failure of all power sources dependent on their continued operation, for—

(1) A time duration of at least 10 minutes, including an aggregate time duration of at least 5 minutes of announcements made by flight and cabin crewmembers, considering all other loads which may remain powered by the same source when all other power sources are inoperative; and

(2) An additional time duration in its standby state appropriate or required for any other loads that are powered by the same source and that are essential to safety of flight or required during emergency conditions.

(b) Be capable of operation within 3 seconds from the time a microphone is removed from its stowage.

(c) Be intelligible at all passenger seats, lavatories, and flight attendant seats and work stations.

(d) Be designed so that no unused, unstowed microphone will render the system inoperative.

(e) Be capable of functioning independently of any required crewmember interphone system.

(f) Be accessible for immediate use from each of two flight crewmember stations in the pilot compartment.

(g) For each required floor-level passenger emergency exit which has an adjacent flight attendant seat, have a microphone which is readily accessible to the seated flight attendant, except that one microphone may serve more than one exit, provided the proximity of the exits allows unassisted verbal communication between seated flight attendants.

[Doc. No. 26003, 58 FR 45229, Aug. 26, 1993, as amended by Amdt. 25-115, 69 FR 40527, July 2, 2004]

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Miscellaneous Equipment

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§25.1431   Electronic equipment.

(a) In showing compliance with §25.1309 (a) and (b) with respect to radio and electronic equipment and their installations, critical environmental conditions must be considered.

(b) Radio and electronic equipment must be supplied with power under the requirements of §25.1355(c).

(c) Radio and electronic equipment, controls, and wiring must be installed so that operation of any one unit or system of units will not adversely affect the simultaneous operation of any other radio or electronic unit, or system of units, required by this chapter.

(d) Electronic equipment must be designed and installed such that it does not cause essential loads to become inoperative as a result of electrical power supply transients or transients from other causes.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-113, 69 FR 12530, Mar. 16, 2004]

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§25.1433   Vacuum systems.

There must be means, in addition to the normal pressure relief, to automatically relieve the pressure in the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes unsafe.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29785, July 20, 1990]

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§25.1435   Hydraulic systems.

(a) Element design. Each element of the hydraulic system must be designed to:

(1) Withstand the proof pressure without permanent deformation that would prevent it from performing its intended functions, and the ultimate pressure without rupture. The proof and ultimate pressures are defined in terms of the design operating pressure (DOP) as follows:

Element Proof
(xDOP)
Ultimate
(xDOP)
1. Tubes and fittings.1.53.0
2. Pressure vessels containing gas:
High pressure (e.g., accumulators)3.04.0
Low pressure (e.g., reservoirs)1.53.0
3. Hoses2.04.0
4. All other elements1.52.0

(2) Withstand, without deformation that would prevent it from performing its intended function, the design operating pressure in combination with limit structural loads that may be imposed;

(3) Withstand, without rupture, the design operating pressure multiplied by a factor of 1.5 in combination with ultimate structural load that can reasonably occur simultaneously;

(4) Withstand the fatigue effects of all cyclic pressures, including transients, and associated externally induced loads, taking into account the consequences of element failure; and

(5) Perform as intended under all environmental conditions for which the airplane is certificated.

(b) System design. Each hydraulic system must:

(1) Have means located at a flightcrew station to indicate appropriate system parameters, if

(i) It performs a function necessary for continued safe flight and landing; or

(ii) In the event of hydraulic system malfunction, corrective action by the crew to ensure continued safe flight and landing is necessary;

(2) Have means to ensure that system pressures, including transient pressures and pressures from fluid volumetric changes in elements that are likely to remain closed long enough for such changes to occur, are within the design capabilities of each element, such that they meet the requirements defined in §25.1435(a)(1) through (a)(5);

(3) Have means to minimize the release of harmful or hazardous concentrations of hydraulic fluid or vapors into the crew and passenger compartments during flight;

(4) Meet the applicable requirements of §§25.863, 25.1183, 25.1185, and 25.1189 if a flammable hydraulic fluid is used; and

(5) Be designed to use any suitable hydraulic fluid specified by the airplane manufacturer, which must be identified by appropriate markings as required by §25.1541.

(c) Tests. Tests must be conducted on the hydraulic system(s), and/or subsystem(s) and elements, except that analysis may be used in place of or to supplement testing, where the analysis is shown to be reliable and appropriate. All internal and external influences must be taken into account to an extent necessary to evaluate their effects, and to assure reliable system and element functioning and integration. Failure or unacceptable deficiency of an element or system must be corrected and be sufficiently retested, where necessary.

(1) The system(s), subsystem(s), or element(s) must be subjected to performance, fatigue, and endurance tests representative of airplane ground and flight operations.

(2) The complete system must be tested to determine proper functional performance and relation to the other systems, including simulation of relevant failure conditions, and to support or validate element design.

(3) The complete hydraulic system(s) must be functionally tested on the airplane in normal operation over the range of motion of all associated user systems. The test must be conducted at the system relief pressure or 1.25 times the DOP if a system pressure relief device is not part of the system design. Clearances between hydraulic system elements and other systems or structural elements must remain adequate and there must be no detrimental effects.

[Doc. No. 28617, 66 FR 27402, May 16, 2001]

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§25.1438   Pressurization and pneumatic systems.

(a) Pressurization system elements must be burst pressure tested to 2.0 times, and proof pressure tested to 1.5 times, the maximum normal operating pressure.

(b) Pneumatic system elements must be burst pressure tested to 3.0 times, and proof pressure tested to 1.5 times, the maximum normal operating pressure.

(c) An analysis, or a combination of analysis and test, may be substituted for any test required by paragraph (a) or (b) of this section if the Administrator finds it equivalent to the required test.

[Amdt. 25-41, 42 FR 36971, July 18, 1977]

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§25.1439   Protective breathing equipment.

(a) Fixed (stationary, or built in) protective breathing equipment must be installed for the use of the flightcrew, and at least one portable protective breathing equipment shall be located at or near the flight deck for use by a flight crewmember. In addition, portable protective breathing equipment must be installed for the use of appropriate crewmembers for fighting fires in compartments accessible in flight other than the flight deck. This includes isolated compartments and upper and lower lobe galleys, in which crewmember occupancy is permitted during flight. Equipment must be installed for the maximum number of crewmembers expected to be in the area during any operation.

(b) For protective breathing equipment required by paragraph (a) of this section or by the applicable Operating Regulations:

(1) The equipment must be designed to protect the appropriate crewmember from smoke, carbon dioxide, and other harmful gases while on flight deck duty or while combating fires.

(2) The equipment must include—

(i) Masks covering the eyes, nose and mouth, or

(ii) Masks covering the nose and mouth, plus accessory equipment to cover the eyes.

(3) Equipment, including portable equipment, must allow communication with other crewmembers while in use. Equipment available at flightcrew assigned duty stations must also enable the flightcrew to use radio equipment.

(4) The part of the equipment protecting the eyes shall not cause any appreciable adverse effect on vision and must allow corrective glasses to be worn.

(5) The equipment must supply protective oxygen of 15 minutes duration per crewmember at a pressure altitude of 8,000 feet with a respiratory minute volume of 30 liters per minute BTPD. The equipment and system must be designed to prevent any inward leakage to the inside of the device and prevent any outward leakage causing significant increase in the oxygen content of the local ambient atmosphere. If a demand oxygen system is used, a supply of 300 liters of free oxygen at 70 °F. and 760 mm. Hg. pressure is considered to be of 15-minute duration at the prescribed altitude and minute volume. If a continuous flow open circuit protective breathing system is used, a flow rate of 60 liters per minute at 8,000 feet (45 liters per minute at sea level) and a supply of 600 liters of free oxygen at 70 °F. and 760 mm. Hg. pressure is considered to be of 15-minute duration at the prescribed altitude and minute volume. Continuous flow systems must not increase the ambient oxygen content of the local atmosphere above that of demand systems. BTPD refers to body temperature conditions (that is, 37 °C., at ambient pressure, dry).

(6) The equipment must meet the requirements of §25.1441.

[Doc. No. FAA-2002-13859, 69 FR 40528, July 2, 2004]

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§25.1441   Oxygen equipment and supply.

(a) If certification with supplemental oxygen equipment is requested, the equipment must meet the requirements of this section and §§25.1443 through 25.1453.

(b) The oxygen system must be free from hazards in itself, in its method of operation, and in its effect upon other components.

(c) There must be a means to allow the crew to readily determine, during flight, the quantity of oxygen available in each source of supply.

(d) The oxygen flow rate and the oxygen equipment for airplanes for which certification for operation above 40,000 feet is requested must be approved.

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§25.1443   Minimum mass flow of supplemental oxygen.

(a) If continuous flow equipment is installed for use by flight crewmembers, the minimum mass flow of supplemental oxygen required for each crewmember may not be less than the flow required to maintain, during inspiration, a mean tracheal oxygen partial pressure of 149 mm. Hg. when breathing 15 liters per minute, BTPS, and with a maximum tidal volume of 700 cc. with a constant time interval between respirations.

(b) If demand equipment is installed for use by flight crewmembers, the minimum mass flow of supplemental oxygen required for each crewmember may not be less than the flow required to maintain, during inspiration, a mean tracheal oxygen partial pressure of 122 mm. Hg., up to and including a cabin pressure altitude of 35,000 feet, and 95 percent oxygen between cabin pressure altitudes of 35,000 and 40,000 feet, when breathing 20 liters per minute BTPS. In addition, there must be means to allow the crew to use undiluted oxygen at their discretion.

(c) For passengers and cabin attendants, the minimum mass flow of supplemental oxygen required for each person at various cabin pressure altitudes may not be less than the flow required to maintain, during inspiration and while using the oxygen equipment (including masks) provided, the following mean tracheal oxygen partial pressures:

(1) At cabin pressure altitudes above 10,000 feet up to and including 18,500 feet, a mean tracheal oxygen partial pressure of 100 mm. Hg. when breathing 15 liters per minute, BTPS, and with a tidal volume of 700 cc. with a constant time interval between respirations.

(2) At cabin pressure altitudes above 18,500 feet up to and including 40,000 feet, a mean tracheal oxygen partial pressure of 83.8 mm. Hg. when breathing 30 liters per minute, BTPS, and with a tidal volume of 1,100 cc. with a constant time interval between respirations.

(d) If first-aid oxygen equipment is installed, the minimum mass flow of oxygen to each user may not be less than four liters per minute, STPD. However, there may be a means to decrease this flow to not less than two liters per minute, STPD, at any cabin altitude. The quantity of oxygen required is based upon an average flow rate of three liters per minute per person for whom first-aid oxygen is required.

(e) If portable oxygen equipment is installed for use by crewmembers, the minimum mass flow of supplemental oxygen is the same as specified in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, whichever is applicable.

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§25.1445   Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system.

(a) When oxygen is supplied to both crew and passengers, the distribution system must be designed for either—

(1) A source of supply for the flight crew on duty and a separate source for the passengers and other crewmembers; or

(2) A common source of supply with means to separately reserve the minimum supply required by the flight crew on duty.

(b) Portable walk-around oxygen units of the continuous flow, diluter-demand, and straight demand kinds may be used to meet the crew or passenger breathing requirements.

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§25.1447   Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

If oxygen dispensing units are installed, the following apply:

(a) There must be an individual dispensing unit for each occupant for whom supplemental oxygen is to be supplied. Units must be designed to cover the nose and mouth and must be equipped with a suitable means to retain the unit in position on the face. Flight crew masks for supplemental oxygen must have provisions for the use of communication equipment.

(b) If certification for operation up to and including 25,000 feet is requested, an oxygen supply terminal and unit of oxygen dispensing equipment for the immediate use of oxygen by each crewmember must be within easy reach of that crewmember. For any other occupants, the supply terminals and dispensing equipment must be located to allow the use of oxygen as required by the operating rules in this chapter.

(c) If certification for operation above 25,000 feet is requested, there must be oxygen dispensing equipment meeting the following requirements:

(1) There must be an oxygen dispensing unit connected to oxygen supply terminals immediately available to each occupant, wherever seated, and at least two oxygen dispensing units connected to oxygen terminals in each lavatory. The total number of dispensing units and outlets in the cabin must exceed the number of seats by at least 10 percent. The extra units must be as uniformly distributed throughout the cabin as practicable. If certification for operation above 30,000 feet is requested, the dispensing units providing the required oxygen flow must be automatically presented to the occupants before the cabin pressure altitude exceeds 15,000 feet. The crew must be provided with a manual means of making the dispensing units immediately available in the event of failure of the automatic system.

(2) Each flight crewmember on flight deck duty must be provided with a quick-donning type oxygen dispensing unit connected to an oxygen supply terminal. This dispensing unit must be immediately available to the flight crewmember when seated at his station, and installed so that it:

(i) Can be placed on the face from its ready position, properly secured, sealed, and supplying oxygen upon demand, with one hand, within five seconds and without disturbing eyeglasses or causing delay in proceeding with emergency duties; and

(ii) Allows, while in place, the performance of normal communication functions.

(3) The oxygen dispensing equipment for the flight crewmembers must be:

(i) The diluter demand or pressure demand (pressure demand mask with a diluter demand pressure breathing regulator) type, or other approved oxygen equipment shown to provide the same degree of protection, for airplanes to be operated above 25,000 feet.

(ii) The pressure demand (pressure demand mask with a diluter demand pressure breathing regulator) type with mask-mounted regulator, or other approved oxygen equipment shown to provide the same degree of protection, for airplanes operated at altitudes where decompressions that are not extremely improbable may expose the flightcrew to cabin pressure altitudes in excess of 34,000 feet.

(4) Portable oxygen equipment must be immediately available for each cabin attendant. The portable oxygen equipment must have the oxygen dispensing unit connected to the portable oxygen supply.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-41, 42 FR 36971, July 18, 1977; Amdt. 25-87, 61 FR 28696, June 5, 1996; Amdt. 25-116, 69 FR 62789, Oct. 27, 2004]

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§25.1449   Means for determining use of oxygen.

There must be a means to allow the crew to determine whether oxygen is being delivered to the dispensing equipment.

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§25.1450   Chemical oxygen generators.

(a) For the purpose of this section, a chemical oxygen generator is defined as a device which produces oxygen by chemical reaction.

(b) Each chemical oxygen generator must be designed and installed in accordance with the following requirements:

(1) Surface temperature developed by the generator during operation may not create a hazard to the airplane or to its occupants.

(2) Means must be provided to relieve any internal pressure that may be hazardous.

(3) Except as provided in SFAR 109, each chemical oxygen generator installation must meet the requirements of §25.795(d).

(c) In addition to meeting the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section, each portable chemical oxygen generator that is capable of sustained operation by successive replacement of a generator element must be placarded to show—

(1) The rate of oxygen flow, in liters per minute;

(2) The duration of oxygen flow, in minutes, for the replaceable generator element; and

(3) A warning that the replaceable generator element may be hot, unless the element construction is such that the surface temperature cannot exceed 100 degrees F.

[Amdt. 25-41, 42 FR 36971, July 18, 1977, as amended at 79 FR 13519, Mar. 11, 2014]

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§25.1453   Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.

Oxygen pressure tanks, and lines between tanks and the shutoff means, must be—

(a) Protected from unsafe temperatures; and

(b) Located where the probability and hazards of rupture in a crash landing are minimized.

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§25.1455   Draining of fluids subject to freezing.

If fluids subject to freezing may be drained overboard in flight or during ground operation, the drains must be designed and located to prevent the formation of hazardous quantities of ice on the airplane as a result of the drainage.

[Amdt. 25-23, 35 FR 5680, Apr. 8, 1970]

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§25.1457   Cockpit voice recorders.

(a) Each cockpit voice recorder required by the operating rules of this chapter must be approved and must be installed so that it will record the following:

(1) Voice communications transmitted from or received in the airplane by radio.

(2) Voice communications of flight crewmembers on the flight deck.

(3) Voice communications of flight crewmembers on the flight deck, using the airplane's interphone system.

(4) Voice or audio signals identifying navigation or approach aids introduced into a headset or speaker.

(5) Voice communications of flight crewmembers using the passenger loudspeaker system, if there is such a system and if the fourth channel is available in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (c)(4)(ii) of this section.

(6) If datalink communication equipment is installed, all datalink communications, using an approved data message set. Datalink messages must be recorded as the output signal from the communications unit that translates the signal into usable data.

(b) The recording requirements of paragraph (a)(2) of this section must be met by installing a cockpit-mounted area microphone, located in the best position for recording voice communications originating at the first and second pilot stations and voice communications of other crewmembers on the flight deck when directed to those stations. The microphone must be so located and, if necessary, the preamplifiers and filters of the recorder must be so adjusted or supplemented, that the intelligibility of the recorded communications is as high as practicable when recorded under flight cockpit noise conditions and played back. Repeated aural or visual playback of the record may be used in evaluating intelligibility.

(c) Each cockpit voice recorder must be installed so that the part of the communication or audio signals specified in paragraph (a) of this section obtained from each of the following sources is recorded on a separate channel:

(1) For the first channel, from each boom, mask, or hand-held microphone, headset, or speaker used at the first pilot station.

(2) For the second channel from each boom, mask, or hand-held microphone, headset, or speaker used at the second pilot station.

(3) For the third channel—from the cockpit-mounted area microphone.

(4) For the fourth channel, from—

(i) Each boom, mask, or hand-held microphone, headset, or speaker used at the station for the third and fourth crew members; or

(ii) If the stations specified in paragraph (c)(4)(i) of this section are not required or if the signal at such a station is picked up by another channel, each microphone on the flight deck that is used with the passenger loudspeaker system, if its signals are not picked up by another channel.

(5) As far as is practicable all sounds received by the microphone listed in paragraphs (c)(1), (2), and (4) of this section must be recorded without interruption irrespective of the position of the interphone-transmitter key switch. The design shall ensure that sidetone for the flight crew is produced only when the interphone, public address system, or radio transmitters are in use.

(d) Each cockpit voice recorder must be installed so that—

(1)(i) It receives its electrical power from the bus that provides the maximum reliability for operation of the cockpit voice recorder without jeopardizing service to essential or emergency loads.

(ii) It remains powered for as long as possible without jeopardizing emergency operation of the airplane.

(2) There is an automatic means to simultaneously stop the recorder and prevent each erasure feature from functioning, within 10 minutes after crash impact;

(3) There is an aural or visual means for preflight checking of the recorder for proper operation;

(4) Any single electrical failure external to the recorder does not disable both the cockpit voice recorder and the flight data recorder;

(5) It has an independent power source—

(i) That provides 10 ±1 minutes of electrical power to operate both the cockpit voice recorder and cockpit-mounted area microphone;

(ii) That is located as close as practicable to the cockpit voice recorder; and

(iii) To which the cockpit voice recorder and cockpit-mounted area microphone are switched automatically in the event that all other power to the cockpit voice recorder is interrupted either by normal shutdown or by any other loss of power to the electrical power bus; and

(6) It is in a separate container from the flight data recorder when both are required. If used to comply with only the cockpit voice recorder requirements, a combination unit may be installed.

(e) The recorder container must be located and mounted to minimize the probability of rupture of the container as a result of crash impact and consequent heat damage to the recorder from fire.

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (e)(2) of this section, the recorder container must be located as far aft as practicable, but need not be outside of the pressurized compartment, and may not be located where aft-mounted engines may crush the container during impact.

(2) If two separate combination digital flight data recorder and cockpit voice recorder units are installed instead of one cockpit voice recorder and one digital flight data recorder, the combination unit that is installed to comply with the cockpit voice recorder requirements may be located near the cockpit.

(f) If the cockpit voice recorder has a bulk erasure device, the installation must be designed to minimize the probability of inadvertent operation and actuation of the device during crash impact.

(g) Each recorder container must—

(1) Be either bright orange or bright yellow;

(2) Have reflective tape affixed to its external surface to facilitate its location under water; and

(3) Have an underwater locating device, when required by the operating rules of this chapter, on or adjacent to the container which is secured in such manner that they are not likely to be separated during crash impact.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-2, 30 FR 3932, Mar. 26, 1965; Amdt. 25-16, 32 FR 13914, Oct. 6, 1967; Amdt. 25-41, 42 FR 36971, July 18, 1977; Amdt. 25-65, 53 FR 26143, July 11, 1988; Amdt. 25-124, 73 FR 12563, Mar. 7, 2008; 74 FR 32800, July 9, 2009]

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§25.1459   Flight data recorders.

(a) Each flight recorder required by the operating rules of this chapter must be installed so that—

(1) It is supplied with airspeed, altitude, and directional data obtained from sources that meet the accuracy requirements of §§25.1323, 25.1325, and 25.1327, as appropriate;

(2) The vertical acceleration sensor is rigidly attached, and located longitudinally either within the approved center of gravity limits of the airplane, or at a distance forward or aft of these limits that does not exceed 25 percent of the airplane's mean aerodynamic chord;

(3)(i) It receives its electrical power from the bus that provides the maximum reliability for operation of the flight data recorder without jeopardizing service to essential or emergency loads.

(ii) It remains powered for as long as possible without jeopardizing emergency operation of the airplane.

(4) There is an aural or visual means for preflight checking of the recorder for proper recording of data in the storage medium;

(5) Except for recorders powered solely by the engine-driven electrical generator system, there is an automatic means to simultaneously stop a recorder that has a data erasure feature and prevent each erasure feature from functioning, within 10 minutes after crash impact;

(6) There is a means to record data from which the time of each radio transmission either to or from ATC can be determined;

(7) Any single electrical failure external to the recorder does not disable both the cockpit voice recorder and the flight data recorder; and

(8) It is in a separate container from the cockpit voice recorder when both are required. If used to comply with only the flight data recorder requirements, a combination unit may be installed. If a combination unit is installed as a cockpit voice recorder to comply with §25.1457(e)(2), a combination unit must be used to comply with this flight data recorder requirement.

(b) Each nonejectable record container must be located and mounted so as to minimize the probability of container rupture resulting from crash impact and subsequent damage to the record from fire. In meeting this requirement the record container must be located as far aft as practicable, but need not be aft of the pressurized compartment, and may not be where aft-mounted engines may crush the container upon impact.

(c) A correlation must be established between the flight recorder readings of airspeed, altitude, and heading and the corresponding readings (taking into account correction factors) of the first pilot's instruments. The correlation must cover the airspeed range over which the airplane is to be operated, the range of altitude to which the airplane is limited, and 360 degrees of heading. Correlation may be established on the ground as appropriate.

(d) Each recorder container must—

(1) Be either bright orange or bright yellow;

(2) Have reflective tape affixed to its external surface to facilitate its location under water; and

(3) Have an underwater locating device, when required by the operating rules of this chapter, on or adjacent to the container which is secured in such a manner that they are not likely to be separated during crash impact.

(e) Any novel or unique design or operational characteristics of the aircraft shall be evaluated to determine if any dedicated parameters must be recorded on flight recorders in addition to or in place of existing requirements.

[Amdt. 25-8, 31 FR 127, Jan. 6, 1966, as amended by Amdt. 25-25, 35 FR 13192, Aug. 19, 1970; Amdt. 25-37, 40 FR 2577, Jan. 14, 1975; Amdt. 25-41, 42 FR 36971, July 18, 1977; Amdt. 25-65, 53 FR 26144, July 11, 1988; Amdt. 25-124, 73 FR 12563, Mar. 7, 2008; 74 FR 32800, July 9, 2009]

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§25.1461   Equipment containing high energy rotors.

(a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section.

(b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must be able to withstand damage caused by malfunctions, vibration, abnormal speeds, and abnormal temperatures. In addition—

(1) Auxiliary rotor cases must be able to contain damage caused by the failure of high energy rotor blades; and

(2) Equipment control devices, systems, and instrumentation must reasonably ensure that no operating limitations affecting the integrity of high energy rotors will be exceeded in service.

(c) It must be shown by test that equipment containing high energy rotors can contain any failure of a high energy rotor that occurs at the highest speed obtainable with the normal speed control devices inoperative.

(d) Equipment containing high energy rotors must be located where rotor failure will neither endanger the occupants nor adversely affect continued safe flight.

[Amdt. 25-41, 42 FR 36971, July 18, 1977]

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