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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of June 2, 2020

Title 13Chapter IPart 123 → Subpart A


Title 13: Business Credit and Assistance
PART 123—DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM


Subpart A—Overview


Contents
§123.1   What do these rules cover?
§123.2   What are disaster loans and disaster declarations?
§123.3   How are disaster declarations made?
§123.4   What is a disaster area and why is it important?
§123.5   What kinds of loans are available?
§123.6   What does SBA look for when considering a disaster loan applicant?
§123.7   Are there restrictions on how disaster loans can be used?
§123.8   Does SBA charge any fees for obtaining a disaster loan?
§123.9   What happens if I don't use loan proceeds for the intended purpose?
§123.10   What happens if I cannot use my insurance proceeds to make repairs?
§123.11   Does SBA require collateral for any of its disaster loans?
§123.12   Are books and records required?
§123.13   What happens if my loan application is denied?
§123.14   How does the Federal Debt Collection Procedures Act of 1990 apply?
§123.15   What if I change my mind?
§123.16   How are loans administered and serviced?
§123.17   Do other Federal requirements apply?
§123.18   Can I request an increase in the amount of a physical disaster loan?
§123.19   May I request an increase in the amount of an economic injury loan?
§123.20   How long do I have to request an increase in the amount of a physical disaster loan or an economic injury loan?
§123.21   What is a mitigation measure?

§123.1   What do these rules cover?

This part covers the disaster loan programs authorized under the Small Business Act, 15 U.S.C. 636(b), (d), and (f); and 15 U.S.C. 657n. Since SBA cannot predict the occurrence or magnitude of disasters, it reserves the right to change the rules in this part, without advance notice, by publishing interim emergency regulations in the Federal Register.

[61 FR 3304, Jan. 31, 1996, as amended at 75 FR 60597, Oct. 1, 2010]

§123.2   What are disaster loans and disaster declarations?

SBA offers low interest, fixed rate loans to disaster victims, enabling them to repair or replace property damaged or destroyed in declared disasters. It also offers such loans to affected small businesses to help them recover from economic injury caused by such disasters. SBA also offers interim guaranteed disaster loans, in participation with financial institutions, to affected small businesses (“IDAP loans”). Disaster declarations are official notices recognizing that specific geographic areas have been damaged by floods and other acts of nature, riots, civil disorders, or industrial accidents such as oil spills. These disasters are sudden events which cause severe physical damage, and do not include slower physical occurrences such as shoreline erosion or gradual land settling. However, for purposes of economic injury disaster loans only, they do include droughts and below average water levels in the Great Lakes or on any body of water in the United States that supports commerce by small businesses. Sudden events that cause substantial economic injury may be disasters even if they do not cause physical damage to a victim's property. Past examples include ocean conditions causing significant displacement (major ocean currents) or closure (toxic algae blooms) of customary fishing waters, as well as contamination of food or other products for human consumption from unforeseeable and unintended events beyond the control of the victims.

[61 FR 3304, Jan. 31, 1996, as amended at 71 FR 75409, Dec. 15, 2007; 75 FR 60597, Oct. 1, 2010; 81 FR 67903, Oct. 3, 2016]

§123.3   How are disaster declarations made?

(a) There are five ways in which disaster declarations are issued which make SBA disaster loans possible:

(1) The President declares a Major Disaster and authorizes Federal Assistance, including individual assistance (Assistance to Individuals and Households Program).

(2) If the President declares a Major Disaster limited to public assistance only, a private nonprofit facility which provides non-critical services under guidelines of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) must first apply to SBA for disaster loan assistance for such non-critical services before it could seek grant assistance from FEMA.

(3) SBA makes a physical disaster declaration, based on the occurrence of at least a minimum amount of physical damage to buildings, machinery, equipment, inventory, homes and other property. Such damage usually must meet the following tests:

(i) In any county or other smaller political subdivision of a State or U.S. possession, at least 25 homes or 25 businesses, or a combination of at least 25 homes, businesses, or other eligible institutions, each sustain uninsured losses of 40 percent or more of the estimated fair replacement value or pre-disaster fair market value of the damaged property, whichever is lower; or

(ii) In any such political subdivision, at least three businesses each sustain uninsured losses of 40 percent or more of the estimated fair replacement value or pre-disaster fair market value of the damaged property, whichever is lower, and, as a direct result of such physical damage, 25 percent or more of the work force in their community would be unemployed for at least 90 days; and

(iii) The Governor of the State in which the disaster occurred submits a written request to SBA for a physical disaster declaration by SBA (OMB Approval No. 3245-0121). This request should be delivered to the Disaster Assistance Field Operations Center serving the jurisdiction within 60 days of the date of the disaster. The addresses, phone numbers, and jurisdictions served by the field operations centers are published in the Federal Register.

(4) SBA makes an economic injury disaster declaration in response to a determination of a natural disaster by the Secretary of Agriculture.

(5) SBA makes an economic injury declaration in reliance on a state certification that at least five small business concerns in a disaster area have suffered substantial economic injury as a result of the disaster and are in need of financial assistance not otherwise available on reasonable terms. The state certification must be signed by the Governor, must specify the county or counties or other political subdivision in which the disaster occurred, and must be delivered (with supporting documentation) to the Disaster Assistance Field Operations Center serving the jurisdiction within 120 days of the disaster occurrence. When a Governor certifies with respect to a drought or to below average water levels, the supporting documentation must include findings which show that conditions during the incident period meet or exceed the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM) standard of “severe” (Intensity level D-2 to D-4). The USDM may be found at http://drought.unl.edu/dm/monitor. With respect to below average water levels, the supplementary information accompanying the certification must include findings which establish long-term average water levels based on recorded historical data, show that current water levels are below long-term average levels, and demonstrate that economic injury has occurred as a direct result of the low water levels. Not later than 30 days after SBA receives a certification by a Governor, it shall respond in writing with its decision and its reasons.

(b) SBA publishes notice of any disaster declaration in the Federal Register. The published notice will identify the kinds of assistance available, the date and nature of the disaster, and the deadline and location for filing loan applications. Additionally, SBA will use the local media to inform potential loan applicants where to obtain loan applications and otherwise to assist victims in applying for disaster loans. SBA will accept applications after the announced deadline only when SBA determines that the late filing resulted from substantial causes beyond the control of the applicant.

[61 FR 3304, Jan. 31, 1996, as amended at 64 FR 13667, Mar. 22, 1999; 67 FR 64518, Oct. 21, 2002; 71 FR 63676, Oct. 31, 2006; 71 FR 75409, Dec. 15, 2006; 73 FR 54675, Sept. 23, 2008; 81 FR 67903, Oct. 3, 2016]

§123.4   What is a disaster area and why is it important?

Each disaster declaration defines the geographical areas affected by the disaster. Only those victims located in the declared disaster area are eligible to apply for SBA disaster loans. When the President declares a major disaster, the Federal Emergency Management Agency defines the disaster area. In major disasters, economic injury disaster loans and IDAP loans may be made for victims in contiguous counties or other political subdivisions, provided, however that with respect to major disasters which authorize public assistance only, SBA shall not make economic injury disaster or IDAP loans in counties contiguous to the disaster area. Disaster declarations issued by the Administrator of SBA include contiguous counties for both physical, economic injury and, in some cases, IDAP assistance. Contiguous counties or other political subdivisions are those land areas which abut the land area of the declared disaster area without geographic separation other than by a minor body of water, not to exceed one mile between the land areas of such counties.

[61 FR 3304, Jan. 31, 1996, as amended at 67 FR 64519, Oct. 21, 2002; 75 FR 60597, Oct. 1, 2010]

§123.5   What kinds of loans are available?

(a) Disaster loans authorized under Section 7(b). SBA offers four kinds of disaster loans as authorized by Section 7(b) of the Small Business Act: Physical disaster home loans, physical disaster business loans, economic injury disaster business loans, and Military Reservist EIDL loans. SBA makes these loans directly or in participation with a financial institution. If a disaster loan authorized under Section 7(b) is made in participation with a financial institution, SBA's share in that loan may not exceed 90 percent.

(b) IDAP loans. SBA also offers IDAP loans as authorized by Section 42 of the Small Business Act. SBA makes these interim guaranteed disaster loans to small businesses only in participation with a financial institution. SBA's share in an IDAP loan is equal to 85 percent.

[75 FR 60597, Oct. 1, 2010]

§123.6   What does SBA look for when considering a disaster loan applicant?

There must be reasonable assurance that you can repay your loan based on SBA's analysis of your credit or your personal or business cash flow, and you must also have satisfactory character. SBA will not make a loan to you if repayment depends upon the sale of collateral through foreclosure or any other disposition of assets owned by you. SBA is prohibited by statute from making a loan to you if you are engaged in the production or distribution of any product or service that has been determined to be obscene by a court.

[61 FR 3304, Jan. 31, 1996, as amended at 79 FR 22862, Apr. 25, 2014]

§123.7   Are there restrictions on how disaster loans can be used?

You must use disaster loans to restore or replace your primary home (including a mobile home used as a primary residence) and your personal or business property as nearly as possible to their condition before the disaster occurred, and within certain limits, to protect damaged or destroyed real property from possible future similar disasters.

§123.8   Does SBA charge any fees for obtaining a disaster loan?

SBA does not charge points, closing, or servicing fees on any disaster loan authorized under Section 7(b). You will be responsible for payment of any closing costs owed to third parties on these loans, such as recording fees and title insurance premiums. If your loan is made under Section 7(b) in participation with a financial institution, SBA will charge a guarantee fee to the financial institution, which then may recover the guarantee fee from you. SBA does not charge a guarantee fee for an IDAP loan made under Section 42.

[75 FR 60598, Oct. 1, 2010]

§123.9   What happens if I don't use loan proceeds for the intended purpose?

(a) For disaster loans authorized under Section 7(b), when SBA approves each application, it issues a loan authorization which specifies the amount of the loan, repayment terms, any collateral requirements, and the permitted use of loan proceeds. If you wrongfully misapply the proceeds of a disaster loan authorized under Section 7(b), you will be liable to SBA for one and one-half times the proceeds disbursed to you as of the date SBA learns of your wrongful misapplication. Wrongful misapplication means the willful use of any loan proceeds without SBA approval contrary to the loan authorization. If you fail to use loan proceeds for authorized purposes for 60 days or more after receiving a loan disbursement check, such non-use also is considered a wrongful misapplication of the proceeds.

(b) If SBA learns that you may have misapplied your loan proceeds from a disaster loan authorized under Section 7(b), SBA will notify you at your last known address, by certified mail, return receipt requested. You will be given at least 30 days to submit to SBA evidence that you have not misapplied the loan proceeds or that you have corrected any such misapplication. Any failure to respond in time will be considered an admission that you misapplied the proceeds. If SBA finds a wrongful misapplication, it will cancel any undisbursed loan proceeds, call the loan, and begin collection measures to collect your outstanding loan balance and the civil penalty.

(c) If you misapply loan proceeds of any disaster loan under this Part, including an IDAP loan, you may face criminal prosecution or civil or administrative action.

[61 FR 3304, Jan. 31, 1996, as amended at 75 FR 60598, Oct. 1, 2010]

§123.10   What happens if I cannot use my insurance proceeds to make repairs?

If you must pay insurance proceeds to the holder of a recorded lien or encumbrance against your damaged property instead of using them to make repairs, you may apply to SBA for the full amount needed to make such repairs. If you voluntarily pay insurance proceeds to a recorded lienholder, your loan eligibility is reduced by the amount of the voluntary payment.

§123.11   Does SBA require collateral for any of its disaster loans?

(a) When collateral is not required:

(1) Economic injury disaster loans. Generally, SBA will not require that you pledge collateral to secure an economic injury disaster loan of $25,000 or less.

(2) Physical disaster home and physical disaster business loans. Generally, SBA will not require that you pledge collateral to secure a physical disaster home or physical disaster business loan of $25,000 or less. This authority expires on November 25, 2018, unless extended by statute.

(3) IDAP loans. Collateral requirements for IDAP loans are set forth in Subpart H of this part.

(4) Military Reservist EIDL. For the purposes of the Military Reservist EIDL only, as described in section 123.513, SBA will not generally require that you pledge collateral to secure a loan of $50,000 or less.

(b) For loans larger than the amounts outlined in paragraph (a) of this section, you will be required to provide available collateral such as a lien on the damaged or replacement property, a security interest in personal/business property, or both.

(c) Sometimes a borrower, including affiliates as defined in part 121 of this title, will have more than one loan after a single disaster. In deciding whether collateral is required, SBA will add up all physical disaster loans to see if they exceed the applicable unsecured threshold outlined in paragraph (a)(2) of this section and all economic injury disaster loans to see if they exceed $25,000.

(d) SBA will not decline a loan if you lack a particular amount of collateral as long as it is reasonably sure that you can repay your loan. If you refuse to pledge available collateral when requested by SBA, however, SBA may decline or cancel your loan.

[61 FR 3304, Jan. 31, 1996, as amended at 73 FR 54675, Sept. 23, 2008; 75 FR 14332, Mar. 25, 2010; 75 FR 60598, Oct. 1, 2010; 79 FR 22862, Apr. 25, 2014; 81 FR 67903, Oct. 3, 2016]

§123.12   Are books and records required?

You must retain complete records of all transactions financed with your SBA loan proceeds, including copies of all contracts and receipts, for a period of 3 years after you receive your final disbursement of loan proceeds. If you have a physical disaster business or economic injury loan, you must also maintain current and accurate books of account, including financial and operating statements, insurance policies, and tax returns. You must retain applicable books and records for 3 years after your loan matures including any extensions, or from the date when your loan is paid in full, whichever occurs first. You must make available to SBA or other authorized government personnel upon request all such books and records for inspection, audit, and reproduction during normal business hours and you must also permit SBA and any participating financial institution to inspect and appraise your assets. (OMB Approval No. 3245-0110.)

§123.13   What happens if my loan application is denied?

(a) If SBA denies your loan application, SBA will notify you in writing and set forth the specific reasons for the denial. Any applicant whose request for a loan is declined for reasons other than size (not being a small business) has the right to present information to overcome the reason or reasons for the decline and to request reconsideration in writing.

(b) Any decline due to size can only be appealed as set forth in part 121 of this chapter.

(c) Any request for reconsideration must be received by SBA's Disaster Assistance Processing and Disbursement Center (DAPDC) within six months of the date of the decline notice. After six months, a new loan application is required.

(d) A request for reconsideration must contain all significant new information that you rely on to overcome SBA's denial of your original loan application. Your request for reconsideration of a business loan application must also be accompanied by current business financial statements.

(e) If SBA declines your application a second time, you have the right to appeal in writing to the Director, Disaster Assistance Processing and Disbursement Center. All appeals must be received by the processing center within 30 days of the decline action. Your request must state that you are appealing, and must give specific reasons why the decline action should be reversed.

(f) The decision of the Director, DAPDC, is final unless:

(1) The Director, DAPDC, does not have the authority to approve the requested loan;

(2) The Director, DAPDC, refers the matter to the AA/DA; or

(3) The AA/DA, upon a showing of special circumstances, requests that the Director, DAPDC, forward the matter to him or her for final consideration. Special circumstances may include, but are not limited to, policy considerations or alleged improper acts by SBA personnel or others in processing the application.

(g) This section does not apply to IDAP loans.

[61 FR 3304, Jan. 31, 1996, as amended at 71 FR 63676, Oct. 31, 2006; 75 FR 60598, Oct. 1, 2010; 81 FR 67903, Oct. 3, 2016]

§123.14   How does the Federal Debt Collection Procedures Act of 1990 apply?

(a) Under the Federal Debt Collection Procedures Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 3201(e)), a debtor who owns property which is subject to an outstanding judgment lien for a debt owed to the United States generally is not eligible to receive a disaster loan. The SBA Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance, or designee, may waive this restriction as to disaster loans (except IDAP loans) upon a demonstration of good cause. Good cause means a written representation by you under oath which convinces SBA that:

(1) The declared disaster was a major contributing factor to the delinquency which led to the judgment lien, regardless of when the original debt was incurred; or

(2) The disaster directly prevented you from fulfilling the terms of an agreement with SBA or any other Federal Government entity to satisfy its pre-disaster judgment lien; in this situation, the judgment creditor must certify to SBA that you were complying with the agreement to satisfy the judgment lien when the disaster occurred; or

(3) Other circumstances exist which would justify a waiver.

(b) The waiver determination by the Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance, or designee, is a final, non-appealable decision. The granting of a waiver does not include loan approval; a waiver recipient must then follow normal loan application procedures.

[61 FR 3304, Jan. 31, 1996, as amended at 75 FR 60598, Oct. 1, 2010]

§123.15   What if I change my mind?

If SBA required you to pledge collateral for your loan, you may change your mind and rescind your loan pursuant to the Consumer Credit Protection Act, 15 U.S.C. 1601, and Regulation Z of the Federal Reserve Board, 12 CFR part 226. Your note and any collateral documents signed by you will be canceled upon your return of all loan proceeds and your payment of any interest accrued. This provision does not apply to IDAP loans.

[61 FR 3304, Jan. 31, 1996, as amended at 75 FR 60598, Oct. 1, 2010]

§123.16   How are loans administered and serviced?

(a) If you obtained your disaster loan from a participating lender, that lender is responsible for closing and servicing your loan. If you obtained your loan directly from SBA, your loan will be closed and serviced by SBA. The SBA rules on servicing are found in Subpart H of this part and part 120 of this chapter.

(b) If you are unable to pay your SBA loan installments in a timely manner for reasons substantially beyond your control, you may request that SBA suspend your loan payments, extend your maturity, or both.

[61 FR 3304, Jan. 31, 1996, as amended at 75 FR 60598, Oct. 1, 2010]

§123.17   Do other Federal requirements apply?

As a condition of disbursement, you must be in compliance with certain requirements relating to flood insurance, lead-based paint, earthquake hazards, coastal barrier islands, and child support obligations, as set forth in §§120.170 through 120.175 of this chapter.

§123.18   Can I request an increase in the amount of a physical disaster loan?

(a) Generally, SBA will consider your request for an increase in your loan if you can show that the eligible cost of repair or replacement of damages increased because of events occurring after the loan approval that were beyond your control. An eligible cost is one which is related to the disaster for which SBA issued the original loan. For example, if you discover hidden damage within a reasonable time after SBA approved your original disaster loan and before repair, renovation, or reconstruction is complete, you may request an increase. Or, if applicable building code requirements were changed since SBA approved your original loan, you may request an increase in your loan amount.

(b) For all disasters occurring on or after November 25, 2015, you may also request an increase in your loan if you suffered substantial economic damage or substantial risks to health or safety as a result of malfeasance in connection with the repair or replacement of real property or business machinery and equipment for which SBA made a disaster loan. See §123.105 for limits on home loan amounts and §123.202 for limits on business loan amounts. Malfeasance may include, but is not limited to, nonperformance of all or any portion of the work for which a contractor was paid, work that does not meet acceptable standards, or use of substandard materials.

[63 FR 15072, Mar. 30, 1998, as amended at 81 FR 67903, Oct. 3, 2016]

§123.19   May I request an increase in the amount of an economic injury loan?

SBA will consider your request for an increase in the loan amount if you can show that the increase is essential for your business to continue and is based on events occurring after SBA approved your original loan which were beyond your control. For example, delays may have occurred beyond your control which prevent you from resuming your normal business activity in a reasonable time frame. Your request for an increase in the loan amount must be related to the disaster for which the SBA economic injury disaster loan was originally made.

[63 FR 15072, Mar. 30, 1998]

§123.20   How long do I have to request an increase in the amount of a physical disaster loan or an economic injury loan?

(a) You should request a loan increase as soon as possible after you discover the need for the increase, but not later than two years after SBA approved your physical disaster or economic injury loan. After two years, the SBA Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance (AA/DA) may waive this limitation after finding extraordinary and unforeseeable circumstances.

(b) For physical disaster loan increases requested under §123.18(b) as a result of malfeasance, the request must be received not later than two years after the date of final disbursement.

[63 FR 15073, Mar. 30, 1998, as amended at 81 FR 67903, Oct. 3, 2016]

§123.21   What is a mitigation measure?

Link to an amendment published at 85 FR 12864, Mar. 5, 2020.

A mitigation measure is something done for the purpose of protecting property and occupants against disaster related damage. You may implement mitigation measures after a disaster occurs (post-disaster) to protect against recurring disaster related damage, or before a disaster occurs (pre-disaster) to protect against future disaster related damage. Examples of mitigation measures include building retaining walls, sea walls, grading and contouring land, elevating flood prone structures, relocating utilities, constructing a safe room or similar storm shelter (if such safe room or similar storm shelter is constructed in accordance with applicable standards issued by the Federal Emergency Management Agency), or retrofitting structures to protect against high winds, earthquakes, flood, wildfires, or other physical disasters. Section 123.107 specifically addresses post-disaster mitigation for home disaster loans, and §123.204 specifically addresses post-disaster mitigation for businesses. Sections 123.400 through 123.412 specifically address pre-disaster mitigation.

[67 FR 62337, Oct. 7, 2002, as amended at 81 FR 67903, Oct. 3, 2016]

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