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## Electronic Code of Federal Regulations
Title 10: Energy
## Subpart T—CompressorsContents §431.341 Purpose and scope. §431.342 Definitions concerning compressors. §431.343 Materials incorporated by reference. §431.344 Test procedure for measuring and determining energy efficiency of compressors. §431.345 Energy conservation standards and effective dates. §§431.346-431.346 [Reserved] Appendix A to Subpart T of Part 431—Uniform Test Method for Certain Air Compressors Source: 81 FR 79998, Nov. 15, 2016, unless otherwise noted. ## §431.341 Purpose and scope.This subpart contains and energy conservation requirements for compressors, pursuant to Part A-1 of Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6311-6317. ## §431.342 Definitions concerning compressors.The following definitions are applicable to this subpart, including appendix A. In cases where there is a conflict, the language of the definitions adopted in this section take precedence over any descriptions or definitions found in any other source, including in ISO Standard 1217:2009(E), “Displacement compressors—Acceptance tests,” as amended through Amendment 1:2016(E), “Calculation of isentropic efficiency and relationship with specific energy” (incorporated by reference, see §431.343). In cases where definitions reference design intent, DOE will consider all relevant information, including marketing materials, labels and certifications, and equipment design, to determine design intent. Actual volume flow rate means the volume flow rate of air, compressed and delivered at the standard discharge point, referred to conditions of total temperature, total pressure and composition prevailing at the standard inlet point, and as determined in accordance with the test procedures prescribed in §431.344. Air compressor means a compressor designed to compress air that has an inlet open to the atmosphere or other source of air, and is made up of a compression element (bare compressor), driver(s), mechanical equipment to drive the compressor element, and any ancillary equipment. Air-cooled compressor means a compressor that utilizes air to cool both the compressed air and, if present, any auxiliary substance used to facilitate compression, and that is not a liquid-cooled compressor. Ancillary equipment means any equipment distributed in commerce with an air compressor but that is not a bare compressor, driver, or mechanical equipment. Ancillary equipment is considered to be part of a given air compressor, regardless of whether the ancillary equipment is physically attached to the bare compressor, driver, or mechanical equipment at the time when the air compressor is distributed in commerce. Auxiliary substance means any substance deliberately introduced into a compression process to aid in compression of a gas by any of the following: Lubricating, sealing mechanical clearances, or absorbing heat. Bare compressor means the compression element and auxiliary devices (e.g., inlet and outlet valves, seals, lubrication system, and gas flow paths) required for performing the gas compression process, but does not include any of the following: (1) The driver; (2) Speed-adjusting gear(s); (3) Gas processing apparatuses and piping; and (4) Compressor equipment packaging and mounting facilities and enclosures. Basic model means all units of a class of compressors manufactured by one manufacturer, having the same primary energy source, the same compressor motor nominal horsepower, and essentially identical electrical, physical, and functional (or pneumatic) characteristics that affect energy consumption and energy efficiency. Brushless electric motor means a machine that converts electrical power into rotational mechanical power without use of sliding electrical contacts. Compressor means a machine or apparatus that converts different types of energy into the potential energy of gas pressure for displacement and compression of gaseous media to any higher pressure values above atmospheric pressure and has a pressure ratio at full-load operating pressure greater than 1.3. Compressor motor nominal horsepower means the motor horsepower of the electric motor, as determined in accordance with the applicable procedures in subparts B and X of this part, with which the rated air compressor is distributed in commerce. Driver means the machine providing mechanical input to drive a bare compressor directly or through the use of mechanical equipment. Fixed-speed compressor means an air compressor that is not capable of adjusting the speed of the driver continuously over the driver operating speed range in response to incremental changes in the required compressor flow rate. Full-load actual volume flow rate means the actual volume flow rate of the compressor at the full-load operating pressure. Liquid-cooled compressor means a compressor that utilizes liquid coolant provided by an external system to cool both the compressed air and, if present, any auxiliary substance used to facilitate compression. Lubricant-free compressor means a compressor that does not introduce any auxiliary substance into the compression chamber at any time during operation. Lubricated compressor means a compressor that introduces an auxiliary substance into the compression chamber during compression. Maximum full-flow operating pressure means the maximum discharge pressure at which the compressor is capable of operating, as determined in accordance with the test procedure prescribed in §431.344. Mechanical equipment means any component of an air compressor that transfers energy from the driver to the bare compressor. Package isentropic efficiency means the ratio of power required for an ideal isentropic compression process to the actual packaged compressor power input used at a given load point, as determined in accordance with the test procedures prescribed in §431.344. Package specific power means the compressor power input at a given load point, divided by the actual volume flow rate at the same load point, as determined in accordance with the test procedures prescribed in §431.344. Positive displacement compressor means a compressor in which the admission and diminution of successive volumes of the gaseous medium are performed periodically by forced expansion and diminution of a closed space(s) in a working chamber(s) by means of displacement of a moving member(s) or by displacement and forced discharge of the gaseous medium into the high-pressure area. Pressure ratio at full-load operating pressure means the ratio of discharge pressure to inlet pressure, determined at full-load operating pressure in accordance with the test procedures prescribed in §431.344. Reciprocating compressor means a positive displacement compressor in which gas admission and diminution of its successive volumes are performed cyclically by straight-line alternating movements of a moving member(s) in a compression chamber(s). Rotary compressor means a positive displacement compressor in which gas admission and diminution of its successive volumes or its forced discharge are performed cyclically by rotation of one or several rotors in a compressor casing. Rotor means a compression element that rotates continually in a single direction about a single shaft or axis. Variable-speed compressor means an air compressor that is capable of adjusting the speed of the driver continuously over the driver operating speed range in response to incremental changes in the required compressor actual volume flow rate. Water-injected lubricated compressor means a lubricated compressor that uses injected water as an auxiliary substance. [82 FR 1101, Jan. 4, 2017, as amended at 85 FR 1591, Jan. 10, 2020] ## §431.343 Materials incorporated by reference.(a) General. DOE incorporates by reference the following standards into part 431. The material listed has been approved for incorporation by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 6 U.S.C. 522(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to a standard by the standard-setting organization will not affect the DOE test procedures unless and until amended by DOE. Material is incorporated as it exists on the date of the approval and a notice of any change in the material will be published in the Federal Register. All approved material is available from the sources below. It is available for inspection at U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, Sixth Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza SW., Washington, DC 20024, (202) 586-6636, or go to http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance__standards/. Also, this material is available for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal__register/code__of__federal__regulations/ibr__locations.html. (b) ISO. International Organization for Standardization, Chemin de Blandonnet 8, CP 401, 1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland +41 22 749 01 11, www.iso.org. (1) ISO Standard 1217:2009(E), (“ISO 1217:2009(E)”), “Displacement compressors—Acceptance tests,” July 1, 2009, IBR approved for appendix A to this subpart: (i) Section 2. Normative references; (ii) Section 3. Terms and definitions; (iii) Section 4. Symbols; (iv) Section 5. Measuring equipment, methods and accuracy (excluding 5.1, 5.5, 5.7, and 5.8); (v) Section 6. Test procedures, introductory text to Section 6.2, Test arrangements, and paragraphs 6.2(g) and 6.2(h) including Table 1—Maximum deviations from specified values and fluctuations from average readings; (vi) Annex C (normative), Simplified acceptance test for electrically driven packaged displacement compressors (excluding C.1.2, C.2.1, C.3, C.4.2.2, C.4.3.1, and C.4.5). (2) ISO 1217:2009/Amd.1:2016(E), Displacement compressors—Acceptance tests (Fourth edition); Amendment 1: “Calculation of isentropic efficiency and relationship with specific energy,” April 15, 2016, IBR approved for appendix A to this subpart: (i) Section 3.5.1: isentropic power; (ii) Section 3.6.1: isentropic efficiency; (iii) Annex H (informative), Isentropic efficiency and its relation to specific energy requirement, sections H.2, Symbols and subscripts, and H.3, Derivation of isentropic power. [82 FR 1102, Jan. 4, 2017] ## §431.344 Test procedure for measuring and determining energy efficiency of compressors.(a) Scope. This section is a test procedure that is applicable to a compressor that meets the following criteria: (1) Is an air compressor; (2) Is a rotary compressor; (3) Is not a liquid ring compressor; (4) Is driven by a brushless electric motor; (5) Is a lubricated compressor; (6) Has a full-load operating pressure greater than or equal to 75 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) and less than or equal to 200 psig; (7) Is not designed and tested to the requirements of the American Petroleum Institute Standard 619, “Rotary-Type Positive-Displacement Compressors for Petroleum, Petrochemical, and Natural Gas Industries;” (8) Has full-load actual volume flow rate greater than or equal to 35 cubic feet per minute (cfm), or is distributed in commerce with a compressor motor nominal horsepower greater than or equal to 10 horsepower (hp); and (9) Has a full-load actual volume flow rate less than or equal to 1,250 cfm, or is distributed in commerce with a compressor motor nominal horsepower less than or equal to 200 hp. (b) Testing and calculations. Determine the applicable full-load package isentropic efficiency (ηisen,FL), part-load package isentropic efficiency (ηisen,PL), package specific power, maximum full-flow operating pressure, full-load operating pressure, full-load actual volume flow rate, and pressure ratio at full-load operating pressure using the test procedure set forth in appendix A of this subpart. [82 FR 1102, Jan. 4, 2017] ## §431.345 Energy conservation standards and effective dates.(a) Each compressor that is manufactured starting on January 10, 2025 and that: (1) Is an air compressor, (2) Is a rotary compressor, (3) Is not a liquid ring compressor, (4) Is driven by a brushless electric motor, (5) Is a lubricated compressor, (6) Has a full-load operating pressure greater than or equal to 75 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) and less than or equal to 200 psig, (7) Is not designed and tested to the requirements of The American Petroleum Institute standard 619, “Rotary-Type Positive-Displacement Compressors for Petroleum, Petrochemical, and Natural Gas Industries,” (8) Has full-load actual volume flow rate greater than or equal to 35 cubic feet per minute (cfm), or is distributed in commerce with a compressor motor nominal horsepower greater than or equal to 10 horsepower (hp), (9) Has a full-load actual volume flow rate less than or equal to 1,250 cfm, or is distributed in commerce with a compressor motor nominal horsepower less than or equal to 200 hp, (10) Is driven by a three-phase electric motor, (11) Is manufactured alone or as a component of another piece of equipment; and (12) Is in one of the equipment classes listed in the Table 1, must have a full-load package isentropic efficiency or part-load package isentropic efficiency that is not less than the appropriate “Minimum Package Isentropic Efficiency” value listed in Table 1 of this section. Table 1—Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Compressors
(b) Instructions for the use of Table 1 of this section: (1) To determine the standard level a compressor must meet, the correct equipment class must be identified. The descriptions are in the first column (“Equipment Class”); definitions for these descriptions are found in §431.342. (2) The second column (“Minimum Package Isentropic Efficiency”) contains the applicable energy conservation standard level, provided in terms of package isentropic efficiency. (3) For “Fixed-speed compressor” equipment classes, the relevant Package Isentropic Efficiency is Full-load Package Isentropic Efficiency. For “Variable-speed compressor” equipment classes, the relevant Package Isentropic Efficiency is Part-load Package Isentropic Efficiency. Both Full- and Part-load Package Isentropic Efficiency are determined in accordance with the test procedure in §431.344. (4) The second column (“Minimum Package Isentropic Efficiency”) references the third column (“ηRegr”), also a function of full-load actual volume flow rate, and the fourth column (“d”). The equations are provided separately to maintain consistency with the language of the preamble and analysis. (5) The second and third columns contain the term V1, which denotes compressor full-load actual volume flow rate, given in terms of cubic feet per minute (“cfm”) and determined in accordance with the test procedure in §431.344. [85 FR 1591, Jan. 10, 2020] ## §§431.346-431.346 [Reserved]## Appendix A to Subpart T of Part 431—Uniform Test Method for Certain Air CompressorsNote: Starting on July 3, 2017, any representations made with respect to the energy use or efficiency of compressors subject to testing pursuant to 10 CFR 431.344 must be made in accordance with the results of testing pursuant to this appendix. ## I. Measurements, Test Conditions, and Equipment Configuration## A. Measurement EquipmentA.1. For the purposes of measuring air compressor performance, the equipment necessary to measure volume flow rate, inlet and discharge pressure, temperature, condensate, and packaged compressor power input must comply with the equipment and accuracy requirements specified in ISO 1217:2009(E) sections 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.6, 5.9, and Annex C, sections C.2.3 and C.2.4 (incorporated by reference, see §431.343). A.2. Electrical measurement equipment must be capable of measuring true root mean square (RMS) current, true RMS voltage, and real power up to the 40th harmonic of fundamental supply source frequency. A.3. Any instruments used to measure a particular parameter specified in paragraph (A.1.) must have a combined accuracy of ±2.0 percent of the measured value at the fundamental supply source frequency, where combined accuracy is the square root of the sum of the squares of individual instrument accuracies. A.4. Any instruments used to directly measure the density of air must have an accuracy of ±1.0 percent of the measured value. A.5. Any pressure measurement equipment used in a calculation of another variable (e.g., actual volume flow rate) must also meet all accuracy and measurement requirements of section 5.2 of ISO 1217:2009(E) (incorporated by reference, see §431.343). A.6. Any temperature measurement equipment used in a calculation of another variable (e.g., actual volume flow rate) must also meet all accuracy and measurement requirements of section 5.3 of ISO 1217:2009(E) (incorporated by reference, see §431.343). A.7. Where ISO 1217:2009(E) refers to “corrected volume flow rate,” the term is deemed synonymous with the term “actual volume flow rate,” as defined in section 3.4.1 of ISO 1217:2009(E) (incorporated by reference, see §431.343). ## B. Test Conditions and Configuration of Unit Under TestB.1. For both fixed-speed and variable-speed compressors, conduct testing in accordance with the test conditions, unit configuration, and specifications of ISO 1217:2009(E), Section 6.2 paragraphs (g) and (h) and Annex C, sections C.1.1, C.2.2, C.2.3, C.2.4, C.4.1, C.4.2.1, C.4.2.3, and C.4.3.2 (incorporated by reference, see §431.343). B.2. The power supply must: (1) Maintain the voltage greater than or equal to 95 percent and less than or equal to 110 percent of the rated value of the motor, (2) Maintain the frequency within ±5 percent of the rated value of the motor, (3) Maintain the voltage unbalance of the power supply within ±3 percent of the rated values of the motor, and (4) Maintain total harmonic distortion below 12 percent throughout the test. B.3. Ambient Conditions. The ambient air temperature must be greater than or equal to 68 °F and less than or equal to 90 °F for the duration of testing. There are no ambient condition requirements for inlet pressure or relative humidity. B.4. All equipment indicated in Table 1 of this appendix must be present and installed for all tests specified in this appendix. If the compressor is distributed in commerce without an item from Table 1 of this appendix, the manufacturer must provide an appropriate item to be installed for the test. Additional ancillary equipment may be installed for the test, if distributed in commerce with the compressor, but this additional ancillary equipment is not required. If any of the equipment listed in Table 2 of this appendix is distributed in commerce with units of the compressor basic model, it must be present and installed for all tests specified in this appendix. Table 1—Equipment Required During Test
Table 2—Equipment Required During Test, if Distributed in Commerce With the Basic Model
B.5. The inlet of the compressor under test must be open to the atmosphere and take in ambient air for all tests specified in this appendix. B.6. The compressor under test must be set up according to all manufacturer instructions for normal operation (e.g., verify lubricant level, connect all loose electrical connections, close off bottom of unit to floor, cover forklift holes). B.7. The piping connected to the discharge orifice of the compressor must be of a diameter at least equal to that of the compressor discharge orifice to which it is connected. The piping must be straight with a length of at least 6 inches. B.8. Transducers used to record compressor discharge pressure must be located on the discharge piping between 2 inches and 6 inches, inclusive, from the discharge orifice of the compressor. The pressure tap for transducers must be located at the highest point of the pipe's cross section. ## II. Determination of Package Isentropic Efficiency, Package Specific Power, and Pressure Ratio at Full-Load Operating Pressure## A. Data Collection and AnalysisA.1. Stabilization. Record data at each load point under steady-state conditions. Steady-state conditions are achieved when a set of two consecutive readings taken at least 10 seconds apart and no more than 60 seconds apart are within the maximum permissible fluctuation from the average (of the two consecutive readings), as specified in Table 1 of ISO 1217:2009(E) (incorporated by reference, see §431.343) for— (1) Discharge pressure; (2) Temperature at the nozzle or orifice plate, measured per section 5.3 of ISO 1217:2009(E) (incorporated by reference, see §431.343); and (3) Differential pressure over the nozzle or orifice plate, measured per section 5.2 of ISO 1217:2009(E) (incorporated by reference, see §431.343). A.2. Data Sampling and Frequency. At each load point, record a minimum set of 16 unique readings, collected over a minimum time of 15 minutes. Each consecutive reading must be no more than 60 seconds apart, and not less than 10 seconds apart. All readings at each load point must be within the maximum permissible fluctuation from average specified in Table 1 of ISO 1217:2009(E) (incorporated by reference, see §431.343) for— (1) Discharge pressure; (2) Temperature at the nozzle or orifice plate, measured per section 5.3 of ISO 1217:2009(E) (incorporated by reference, see §431.343); and (3) Differential pressure over the nozzle or orifice plate, measured per section 5.2 of ISO 1217:2009(E) (incorporated by reference, see §431.343). If one or more readings do not meet the requirements, then all previous readings must be disregarded and a new set of at least 16 new unique readings must be collected over a minimum time of 15 minutes. Average the readings to determine the value of each parameter to be used in subsequent calculations. A.3. Calculations and Rounding. Perform all calculations using raw measured values. Round the final result for package isentropic efficiency to the thousandth (i.e., 0.001), for package specific power in kilowatts per 100 cubic feet per minute to the nearest hundredth (i.e., 0.01), for pressure ratio at full-load operating pressure to the nearest tenth (i.e., 0.1), for full-load actual volume flow rate in cubic feet per minute to the nearest tenth (i.e., 0.1), and for full-load operating pressure in pounds per square inch gauge (psig) to the nearest integer (i.e., 1). All terms and quantities refer to values determined in accordance with the procedures set forth in this appendix for the tested unit. ## B. Full-Load Operating Pressure and Full-Load Actual Volume Flow RateDetermine the full-load operating pressure and full-load actual volume flow rate (referenced throughout this appendix) in accordance with the procedures prescribed in section III of this appendix. ## C. Full-Load Package Isentropic Efficiency for Fixed- and Variable-Speed Air CompressorsUse this test method to test fixed-speed air compressors and variable-speed air compressors. C.1. Test unit at full-load operating pressure and full-load volume flow rate according to the requirements established in sections I, II.A, and II.B of this appendix. Measure volume flow rate and calculate actual volume flow rate in accordance with section C.4.2.1 of Annex C of ISO 1217:2009(E) (incorporated by reference, see §431.343) with no corrections made for shaft speed. Measure discharge gauge pressure and packaged compressor power input. Measured discharge gauge pressure and calculated actual volume flow rate must be within the deviation limits for discharge pressure and volume flow rate specified in Tables C.1 and C.2 of Annex C of ISO 1217:2009(E) (incorporated by reference, see §431.343), where full-load operating pressure and full-load actual volume flow rate (as determined in section III of this appendix) are the targeted values. C.2. Calculate the package isentropic efficiency at full-load operating pressure and full-load actual volume flow rate (full-load package isentropic efficiency, ηisen,FL) using the equation for isentropic efficiency in section 3.6.1 of ISO 1217:2009(E) as modified by ISO 1217:2009/Amd.1:2016(E) (incorporated by reference, see §431.343). For Pisen, use the isentropic power required for compression at full-load operating pressure and full-load actual volume flow rate, as determined in section II.C.2.1 of this appendix. For Preal, use the real packaged compressor power input at full-load operating pressure and full-load actual volume flow rate, as determined in section II.C.2.2 of this appendix. C.2.1. Calculate the isentropic power required for compression at full-load operating pressure and full-load actual volume flow rate using equation (H.6) of Annex H of ISO 1217:2009/Amd.1:2016(E) (incorporated by reference, see §431.343). For qV1, use the actual volume flow rate (cubic meters per second) calculated in section II.C.1 of this appendix. For p1, use 100 kPa. For p2, use the sum of (a) 100 kPa, and (b) the measured discharge gauge pressure (Pa) from section II.C.1 of this appendix. For K, use the isentropic exponent (ratio of specific heats) of air, which, for the purposes of this test procedure, is 1.400. C.2.2. Calculate real packaged compressor power input at full-load operating pressure and full-load actual volume flow rate using the following equation: Preal,100% = K5 · PPR,100% Where: K5 = correction factor for inlet pressure, as determined in section C.4.3.2 of Annex C to ISO 1217:2009(E) (incorporated by reference, see §431.343). For calculations of this variable use a value of 100 kPa for contractual inlet pressure; and PPR,100% = packaged compressor power input reading at full-load operating pressure and full-load actual volume flow rate measured in section II.C.1 of this appendix (W). ## D. Part-Load Package Isentropic Efficiency for Variable-Speed Air CompressorsUse this test method to test variable-speed air compressors. D.1. Test unit at two load points: (1) Full-load operating pressure and 70 percent of full-load actual volume flow rate and (2) full-load operating pressure and 40 percent of full-load actual volume flow rate, according to the requirements established in sections I, II.A, and II.B of this appendix. To reach each specified load point, adjust the speed of the driver and the backpressure of the system. For each load point, measure volume flow rate and calculate actual volume flow rate in accordance with section C.4.2.1 of Annex C of ISO 1217:2009(E) (incorporated by reference, see §431.343), with no corrections made for shaft speed. For each load point, measure discharge gauge pressure and packaged compressor power input. Measured discharge gauge pressure and calculated actual volume flow rate must be within the deviation limits for discharge pressure and volume flow rate specified in Tables C.1 and C.2 of Annex C of ISO 1217:2009(E), where the targeted values are as specified in the beginning of this section. D.2. For variable-speed compressors, calculate the part-load package isentropic efficiency using the following equation: ηisen,PL = ω40% × ηisen,40% + ω70% × ηisen,70% + ω100% × ηisen,100% Where: ηisen,PL = part-load package isentropic efficiency for a variable-speed compressor; ηisen,100% = package isentropic efficiency at full-load operating pressure and 100 percent of full-load actual volume flow rate, as determined in section II.C.2 of this appendix; ηisen,70% = package isentropic efficiency at full-load operating pressure and 70 percent of full-load actual volume flow rate, as determined in section II.D.3 of this appendix; ηisen,40% = package isentropic efficiency at full-load operating pressure and 40 percent of full-load actual volume flow rate, as determined in section II.D.4 of this appendix; ω40% = weighting at 40 percent of full-load actual volume flow rate and is 0.25; ω70% = weighting at 70 percent of full-load actual volume flow rate and is 0.50; and ω100% = weighting at 100 percent of full-load actual volume flow rate and is 0.25. D.3. Calculate package isentropic efficiency at full-load operating pressure and 70 percent of full-load actual volume flow rate using the equation for isentropic efficiency in section 3.6.1 of ISO 1217:2009(E) as modified by ISO 1217:2009/Amd.1:2016(E) (incorporated by reference, see §431.343). For Pisen, use the isentropic power required for compression at full-load operating pressure and 70 percent of full-load actual volume flow rate, as determined in section II.D.3.1 of this appendix. For Preal, use the real packaged compressor power input at full-load operating pressure and 70 percent of full-load actual volume flow rate, as determined in section II.D.3.2 of this appendix. D.3.1. Calculate the isentropic power required for compression at full-load operating pressure and 70 percent of full-load actual volume flow rate using equation (H.6) of Annex H of ISO 1217:2009/Amd.1:2016(E) (incorporated by reference, see §431.343). For qV1, use actual volume flow rate (cubic meters per second) at full-load operating pressure and 70 percent of full-load actual volume flow rate, as calculated in section II.D.1 of this appendix. For p1, use 100 kPa. For p2, use the sum of (a) 100 kPa, and (b) discharge gauge pressure (Pa) at full-load operating pressure and 70 percent of full-load actual volume flow rate, as calculated in section II.D.1 of this appendix. For K, use the isentropic exponent (ratio of specific heats) of air, which, for the purposes of this test procedure, is 1.400. D.3.2. Calculate real packaged compressor power input at full-load operating pressure and 70 percent of full-load actual volume flow rate using the following equation: Preal,70% = K5 · PPR,70% Where: K5 = correction factor for inlet pressure, as determined in section C.4.3.2 of Annex C to ISO 1217:2009(E) (incorporated by reference, see §431.343). For calculations of this variable use a value of 100 kPa for contractual inlet pressure; and PPR,70% = packaged compressor power input reading at full-load operating pressure and 70 percent of full-load actual volume flow rate, as measured in section II.D.1 of this appendix (W). D.4. Calculate package isentropic efficiency at full-load operating pressure and 40 percent of full-load actual volume flow rate using the equation for isentropic efficiency in section 3.6.1 of ISO 1217:2009(E) as modified by ISO 1217:2009/Amd.1:2016(E) (incorporated by reference, see §431.343). For Pisen, use the isentropic power required for compression at full-load operating pressure and 40 percent of full-load actual volume flow rate, as determined in section II.D.4.1 of this appendix. For Preal, use the real packaged compressor power input at full-load operating pressure and 40 percent of full-load actual volume flow rate, as determined in section II.D.4.2 of this appendix. D.4.1. Calculate the isentropic power required for compression at full-load operating pressure and 40 percent of full-load actual volume flow rate using equation (H.6) of Annex H of ISO 1217:2009/Amd.1:2016(E) (incorporated by reference, see §431.343). For qV1, use actual volume flow rate (cubic meters per second) at full-load operating pressure and 40 percent of full-load actual volume flow rate, as calculated in section II.D.1 of this appendix. For p1, use 100 kPa. For p2, use the sum of (a) 100 kPa, and (b) discharge gauge pressure (Pa) at full-load operating pressure and 40 percent of full-load actual volume flow rate, as calculated in section II.D.1 of this appendix. For K, use the isentropic exponent (ratio of specific heats) of air, which, for the purposes of this test procedure, is 1.400. D.4.2. Calculate real packaged compressor power input at full-load operating pressure and 40 percent of full-load actual volume flow rate using the following equation: Preal,40% = K5 · PPR,40% Where: K5 = correction factor for inlet pressure, as determined in section C.4.3.2 of Annex C to ISO 1217:2009(E) (incorporated by reference, see §431.343). For calculations of this variable use a value of 100 kPa for contractual inlet pressure; and PPR,40% = packaged compressor power input reading at full-load operating pressure and 40 percent of full-load actual volume flow rate, as measured in section II.D.1 of this appendix (W). ## E. Determination of Package Specific PowerFor both fixed and variable-speed air compressors, determine the package specific power, at any load point, using the equation for specific energy consumption in section C.4.4 of Annex C of ISO 1217:2009(E) (incorporated by reference, see §431.343) and other values measured pursuant to this appendix, with no correction for shaft speed. Calculate PPcorr in section C.4.4 of Annex C of ISO 1217:2009(E) (incorporated by reference, see §431.343) using the following equation: PPcorr = K5 · PPR Where: PPR = packaged compressor power input reading (W), as determined in section C.2.4 of Annex C to ISO 1217:2009(E) (incorporated by reference, see §431.343). ## F. Determination of Pressure Ratio at Full-Load Operating PressurePressure ratio at full-load operating pressure, as defined in §431.342, is calculated using the following equation:
Where: PR = pressure ratio at full-load operating pressure; p1 = 100 kPa; and pFL = full-load operating pressure, determined in section III.C.4 of this appendix (Pa gauge). ## III. Method to Determine Maximum Full-Flow Operating Pressure, Full-Load Operating Pressure, and Full-Load Actual Volume Flow Rate## A. Principal StrategyThe principal strategy of this method is to incrementally increase discharge pressure by 2 psig relative to a starting point, and identify the maximum full-flow operating pressure at which the compressor is capable of operating. The maximum discharge pressure achieved is the maximum full-flow operating pressure. The full-load operating pressure and full-load actual volume flow rate are determined based on the maximum full-flow operating pressure. ## B. Pre-test Instructions## B.1. SafetyFor the method presented in section III.C.1 of this appendix, only test discharge pressure within the safe operating range of the compressor, as specified by the manufacturer in the installation and operation manual shipped with the unit. Make no changes to safety limits or equipment. Do not violate any manufacturer-provided motor operational guidelines for normal use, including any restriction on instantaneous and continuous input power draw and output shaft power (e.g., electrical rating and service factor limits). ## B.2. Adjustment of Discharge PressureB.2.1. If the air compressor is not equipped, as distributed in commerce by the manufacturer, with any mechanism to adjust the maximum discharge pressure output limit, proceed to section III.B.3 of this appendix. B.2.2. If the air compressor is equipped, as distributed in commerce by the manufacturer, with any mechanism to adjust the maximum discharge pressure output limit, then adjust this mechanism to the maximum pressure allowed, according to the manufacturer's operating instructions for these mechanisms. Mechanisms to adjust discharge pressure may include, but are not limited to, onboard digital or analog controls, and user-adjustable inlet valves. ## B.3. Driver speedIf the unit under test is a variable-speed compressor, maintain maximum driver speed throughout the test. If the unit under test is a fixed-speed compressor with a multi-speed driver, maintain driver speed at the maximum speed throughout the test. ## B.4. Measurements and Tolerances## B.4.1. RecordingRecord data by electronic means such that the requirements of section B.4.5 of section III of this appendix are met. ## B.4.2. Discharge PressureMeasure discharge pressure in accordance with section 5.2 of ISO 1217:2009(E) (incorporated by reference, see §431.343). Express compressor discharge pressure in psig in reference to ambient conditions, and record it to the nearest integer. Specify targeted discharge pressure points in integer values only. The maximum allowable measured deviation from the targeted discharge pressure at each tested point is ±1 psig. ## B.4.3. Actual Volume Flow RateMeasure actual volume flow rate in accordance with section C.4.2.1 of Annex C of ISO 1217:2009(E) (incorporated by reference, see §431.343) (where it is called “corrected volume flow rate”) with no corrections made for shaft speed. Express compressor actual volume flow rate in cubic feet per minute at inlet conditions (cfm). ## B.4.4. StabilizationRecord data at each tested load point under steady-state conditions, as determined in section II.A.1 of this appendix. ## B.4.5. Data Sampling and FrequencyAt each load point, record a set of at least of two readings, collected at a minimum of 10 seconds apart. All readings at each load point must be within the maximum permissible fluctuation from the average (of the two consecutive readings), as specified in II.A.2 of this appendix. Average the measurements to determine the value of each parameter to be used in subsequent calculations. ## B.5. Adjusting System BackpressureSet up the unit under test so that backpressure on the unit can be adjusted (e.g., by valves) incrementally, causing the measured discharge pressure to change, until the compressor is in an unloaded condition. ## B.6. Unloaded ConditionA unit is considered to be in an unloaded condition if capacity controls on the unit automatically reduce the actual volume flow rate from the compressor (e.g., shutting the motor off, or unloading by adjusting valves). ## C. Test InstructionsC.1. Adjust the backpressure of the system so the measured discharge pressure is 90 percent of the expected maximum full-flow operating pressure, rounded to the nearest integer, in psig. If the expected maximum full-flow operating pressure is not known, then adjust the backpressure of the system so that the measured discharge pressure is 65 psig. Allow the unit to remain at this setting for 15 minutes to allow the unit to thermally stabilize. Then measure and record discharge pressure and actual volume flow rate at the starting pressure. C.2. Adjust the backpressure of the system to increase the discharge pressure by 2 psig from the previous value, allow the unit to remain at this setting for a minimum of 2 minutes, and proceed to section III.C.3 of this appendix. C.3. If the unit is now in an unloaded condition, end the test and proceed to section III.C.4 of this appendix. If the unit is not in an unloaded condition, measure discharge pressure and actual volume flow rate, and repeat section III.C.2 of this appendix. C.4. Of the discharge pressures recorded under stabilized conditions in sections III.C.1 through III.C.3 of this appendix, identify the largest. This is the maximum full-flow operating pressure. Determine the full-load operating pressure as a self-declared value greater than or equal to the lesser of (A) 90 percent of the maximum full-flow operating pressure, or (B) 10 psig less than the maximum full-flow operating pressure. C.5. The full-load actual volume flow rate is the actual volume flow rate measured at the full-load operating pressure. If the self-declared full-load operating pressure falls on a previously tested value of discharge pressure, then use the previously measured actual volume flow rate as the full-load actual volume flow rate. If the self-declared full-load operating pressure does not fall on a previously tested value of discharge pressure, then adjust the backpressure of the system to the self-declared full-load operating pressure and allow the unit to remain at this setting for a minimum of 2 minutes. The measured actual volume flow rate at this setting is the full-load actual volume flow rate. [82 FR 1102, Jan. 4, 2017] |