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e-CFR data is current as of July 9, 2020

Title 10Chapter IPart 71 → Subpart F


Title 10: Energy
PART 71—PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL


Subpart F—Package, Special Form, and LSA-III Tests2


Contents
§71.70   Incorporations by reference.
§71.71   Normal conditions of transport.
§71.73   Hypothetical accident conditions.
§71.74   Accident conditions for air transport of plutonium.
§71.75   Qualification of special form radioactive material.
§71.77   Qualification of LSA-III Material.

2The package standards related to the tests in this subpart are contained in subpart E of this part.

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§71.70   Incorporations by reference.

(a) The materials listed in this section are incorporated by reference in the corresponding sections noted and made a part of the regulations in part 71. These incorporations by reference were approved by the Director of the Federal Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These materials are incorporated as they exist on the date of the approval. A notice of any changes made to the material incorporated by reference will be published in the Federal Register, and the material must be available to the public. The materials can be examined, by appointment, at the NRC's Technical Library, which is located at Two White Flint North, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852; telephone: 301-415-7000; email: [email protected] The materials are also available from the sources listed below. All approved material is available for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 1-202-741-6030 or go to http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/cfr/ibr-locations.html.

(b) International Organization for Standardization, ISO Central Secretariat, Chemin de Blandonnet 8 CP 401, 1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland; email: [email protected]; phone: + 41 22 749 01 11; Web site: http://www.iso.org.

(1) ISO 9978:1992(E), “Radiation protection—Sealed radioactive sources—Leakage test methods,” First Edition (February 15, 1992), incorporation by reference approved for §71.75(a), is available for purchase from the American National Standards Institute, 25 West 43rd Street, 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036, 212-642-4900, http://www.ansi.org, or [email protected]

(2) ISO 2919:1999(E), “Radiation protection—Sealed radioactive sources—General requirements and classification,” Second Edition (February 15, 1999), incorporation by reference approved for §71.75(d), is available on http://www.amazon.com.

[80 FR 34013, June 12, 2015, as amended at 80 FR 48684, Aug. 14, 2015]

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§71.71   Normal conditions of transport.

(a) Evaluation. Evaluation of each package design under normal conditions of transport must include a determination of the effect on that design of the conditions and tests specified in this section. Separate specimens may be used for the free drop test, the compression test, and the penetration test, if each specimen is subjected to the water spray test before being subjected to any of the other tests.

(b) Initial conditions. With respect to the initial conditions for the tests in this section, the demonstration of compliance with the requirements of this part must be based on the ambient temperature preceding and following the tests remaining constant at that value between −29 °C (−20 °F) and + 38 °C ( + 100 °F) which is most unfavorable for the feature under consideration. The initial internal pressure within the containment system must be considered to be the maximum normal operating pressure, unless a lower internal pressure consistent with the ambient temperature considered to precede and follow the tests is more unfavorable.

(c) Conditions and tests—(1) Heat. An ambient temperature of 38 °C (100 °F) in still air, and insolation according to the following table:

Insolation Data

Form and location of surface Total insolation for a 12-hour period
(g cal/cm2)
Flat surfaces transported horizontally:
BaseNone
Other surfaces800
Flat surfaces not transported horizontally200
Curved surfaces400

(2) Cold. An ambient temperature of −40 °C (−40 °F) in still air and shade.

(3) Reduced external pressure. An external pressure of 25 kPa (3.5 lbf/in2) absolute.

(4) Increased external pressure. An external pressure of 140 kPa (20 lbf/in2) absolute.

(5) Vibration. Vibration normally incident to transport.

(6) Water spray. A water spray that simulates exposure to rainfall of approximately 5 cm/h (2 in/h) for at least 1 hour.

(7) Free drop. Between 1.5 and 2.5 hours after the conclusion of the water spray test, a free drop through the distance specified below onto a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, striking the surface in a position for which maximum damage is expected.

Criteria for Free Drop Test (Weight/Distance)

Package weight Free drop distance
Kilograms (Pounds) Meters (Feet)
Less than 5,000(Less than 11,000)1.2(4)
5,000 to 10,000(11,000 to 22,000)0.9(3)
10,000 to 15,000(22,000 to 33,100)0.6(2)
More than 15,000(More than 33,100)0.3(1)

(8) Corner drop. A free drop onto each corner of the package in succession, or in the case of a cylindrical package onto each quarter of each rim, from a height of 0.3 m (1 ft) onto a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface. This test applies only to fiberboard, wood, or fissile material rectangular packages not exceeding 50 kg (110 lbs) and fiberboard, wood, or fissile material cylindrical packages not exceeding 100 kg (220 lbs).

(9) Compression. For packages weighing up to 5000 kg (11,000 lbs), the package must be subjected, for a period of 24 hours, to a compressive load applied uniformly to the top and bottom of the package in the position in which the package would normally be transported. The compressive load must be the greater of the following:

(i) The equivalent of 5 times the weight of the package; or

(ii) The equivalent of 13 kPa (2 lbf/in2) multiplied by the vertically projected area of the package.

(10) Penetration. Impact of the hemispherical end of a vertical steel cylinder of 3.2 cm (1.25 in) diameter and 6 kg (13 lbs) mass, dropped from a height of 1 m (40 in) onto the exposed surface of the package that is expected to be most vulnerable to puncture. The long axis of the cylinder must be perpendicular to the package surface.

[60 FR 50264, Sept. 28, 1995, as amended at 81 FR 86910, Dec. 2, 2016]

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§71.73   Hypothetical accident conditions.

(a) Test procedures. Evaluation for hypothetical accident conditions is to be based on sequential application of the tests specified in this section, in the order indicated, to determine their cumulative effect on a package or array of packages. An undamaged specimen may be used for the water immersion tests specified in paragraph (c)(6) of this section.

(b) Test conditions. With respect to the initial conditions for the tests, except for the water immersion tests, to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of this part during testing, the ambient air temperature before and after the tests must remain constant at that value between −29 °C (−20 °F) and + 38 °C ( + 100 °F) which is most unfavorable for the feature under consideration. The initial internal pressure within the containment system must be the maximum normal operating pressure, unless a lower internal pressure, consistent with the ambient temperature assumed to precede and follow the tests, is more unfavorable.

(c) Tests. Tests for hypothetical accident conditions must be conducted as follows:

(1) Free drop. A free drop of the specimen through a distance of 9 m (30 ft) onto a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, striking the surface in a position for which maximum damage is expected.

(2) Crush. Subjection of the specimen to a dynamic crush test by positioning the specimen on a flat, essentially unyielding horizontal surface so as to suffer maximum damage by the drop of a 500-kg (1100-lb) mass from 9 m (30 ft) onto the specimen. The mass must consist of a solid mild steel plate 1 m (40 in) by 1 m (40 in) and must fall in a horizontal attitude. The crush test is required only when the specimen has a mass not greater than 500 kg (1100 lb), an overall density not greater than 1000 kg/m3 (62.4 lb/ft3) based on external dimension, and radioactive contents greater than 1000 A2 not as special form radioactive material. For packages containing fissile material, the radioactive contents greater than 1000 A2 criterion does not apply.

(3) Puncture. A free drop of the specimen through a distance of 1 m (40 in) in a position for which maximum damage is expected, onto the upper end of a solid, vertical, cylindrical, mild steel bar mounted on an essentially unyielding, horizontal surface. The bar must be 15 cm (6 in) in diameter, with the top horizontal and its edge rounded to a radius of not more than 6 mm (0.25 in), and of a length as to cause maximum damage to the package, but not less than 20 cm (8 in) long. The long axis of the bar must be vertical.

(4) Thermal. Exposure of the specimen fully engulfed, except for a simple support system, in a hydrocarbon fuel/air fire of sufficient extent, and in sufficiently quiescent ambient conditions, to provide an average emissivity coefficient of at least 0.9, with an average flame temperature of at least 800 °C (1475 °F) for a period of 30 minutes, or any other thermal test that provides the equivalent total heat input to the package and which provides a time averaged environmental temperature of 800 °C. The fuel source must extend horizontally at least 1 m (40 in), but may not extend more than 3 m (10 ft), beyond any external surface of the specimen, and the specimen must be positioned 1 m (40 in) above the surface of the fuel source. For purposes of calculation, the surface absorptivity coefficient must be either that value which the package may be expected to possess if exposed to the fire specified or 0.8, whichever is greater; and the convective coefficient must be that value which may be demonstrated to exist if the package were exposed to the fire specified. Artificial cooling may not be applied after cessation of external heat input, and any combustion of materials of construction, must be allowed to proceed until it terminates naturally.

(5) Immersion—fissile material. For fissile material subject to §71.55, in those cases where water inleakage has not been assumed for criticality analysis, immersion under a head of water of at least 0.9 m (3 ft) in the attitude for which maximum leakage is expected.

(6) Immersion—all packages. A separate, undamaged specimen must be subjected to water pressure equivalent to immersion under a head of water of at least 15 m (50 ft). For test purposes, an external pressure of water of 150 kPa (21.7 lbf/in2) gauge is considered to meet these conditions.

[60 FR 50264, Sept. 28, 1995, as amended at 69 FR 3795, Jan. 26, 2004]

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§71.74   Accident conditions for air transport of plutonium.

(a) Test conditions—Sequence of tests. A package must be physically tested to the following conditions in the order indicated to determine their cumulative effect.

(1) Impact at a velocity of not less than 129 m/sec (422 ft/sec) at a right angle onto a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, in the orientation (e.g., side, end, corner) expected to result in maximum damage at the conclusion of the test sequence.

(2) A static compressive load of 31,800 kg (70,000 lbs) applied in the orientation expected to result in maximum damage at the conclusion of the test sequence. The force on the package must be developed between a flat steel surface and a 5 cm (2 in) wide, straight, solid, steel bar. The length of the bar must be at least as long as the diameter of the package, and the longitudinal axis of the bar must be parallel to the plane of the flat surface. The load must be applied to the bar in a manner that prevents any members or devices used to support the bar from contacting the package.

(3) Packages weighing less than 227 kg (500 lbs) must be placed on a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, and subjected to a weight of 227 kg (500 lbs) falling from a height of 3 m (10 ft) and striking in the position expected to result in maximum damage at the conclusion of the test sequence. The end of the weight contacting the package must be a solid probe made of mild steel. The probe must be the shape of the frustum of a right circular cone, 30 cm (12 in) long, 20 cm (8 in) in diameter at the base, and 2.5 cm (1 in) in diameter at the end. The longitudinal axis of the probe must be perpendicular to the horizontal surface. For packages weighing 227 kg (500 lbs) or more, the base of the probe must be placed on a flat, essentially unyielding horizontal surface, and the package dropped from a height of 3 m (10 ft) onto the probe, striking in the position expected to result in maximum damage at the conclusion of the test sequence.

(4) The package must be firmly restrained and supported such that its longitudinal axis is inclined approximately 45° to the horizontal. The area of the package that made first contact with the impact surface in paragraph (a)(1) of this section must be in the lowermost position. The package must be struck at approximately the center of its vertical projection by the end of a structural steel angle section falling from a height of at least 46 m (150 ft). The angle section must be at least 1.8 m (6 ft) in length with equal legs at least 13 cm (5 in) long and 1.3 cm (0.5 in) thick. The angle section must be guided in such a way as to fall end-on, without tumbling. The package must be rotated approximately 90° about its longitudinal axis and struck by the steel angle section falling as before.

(5) The package must be exposed to luminous flames from a pool fire of JP-4 or JP-5 aviation fuel for a period of at least 60 minutes. The luminous flames must extend an average of at least 0.9 m (3 ft) and no more than 3 m (10 ft) beyond the package in all horizontal directions. The position and orientation of the package in relation to the fuel must be that which is expected to result in maximum damage at the conclusion of the test sequence. An alternate method of thermal testing may be substituted for this fire test, provided that the alternate test is not of shorter duration and would not result in a lower heating rate to the package. At the conclusion of the thermal test, the package must be allowed to cool naturally or must be cooled by water sprinkling, whichever is expected to result in maximum damage at the conclusion of the test sequence.

(6) Immersion under at least 0.9 m (3 ft) of water.

(b) Individual free-fall impact test. (1) An undamaged package must be physically subjected to an impact at a velocity not less than the calculated terminal free-fall velocity, at mean sea level, at a right angle onto a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, in the orientation (e.g., side, end, corner) expected to result in maximum damage.

(2) This test is not required if the calculated terminal free-fall velocity of the package is less than 129 m/sec (422 ft/sec), or if a velocity not less than either 129 m/sec (422 ft/sec) or the calculated terminal free-fall velocity of the package is used in the sequential test of paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(c) Individual deep submersion test. An undamaged package must be physically submerged and physically subjected to an external water pressure of at least 4 MPa (600 lbs/in2).

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§71.75   Qualification of special form radioactive material.

(a) Special form radioactive materials must meet the test requirements of paragraph (b) of this section. Each solid radioactive material or capsule specimen to be tested must be manufactured or fabricated so that it is representative of the actual solid material or capsule that will be transported, with the proposed radioactive content duplicated as closely as practicable. Any differences between the material to be transported and the test material, such as the use of non-radioactive contents, must be taken into account in determining whether the test requirements have been met. In addition:

(1) A different specimen may be used for each of the tests;

(2) The specimen may not break or shatter when subjected to the impact, percussion, or bending tests;

(3) The specimen may not melt or disperse when subjected to the heat test;

(4) After each test, leaktightness or indispersibility of the specimen must be determined by a method no less sensitive than the leaching assessment procedure prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section. For a capsule resistant to corrosion by water, and which has an internal void volume greater than 0.1 milliliter, an alternative to the leaching assessment is a demonstration of leaktightness of × 10−4 torr-liter/s (1.3 × × 10−4 atm-cm3/s) based on air at 25 °C (77 °F) and one atmosphere differential pressure for solid radioactive content, or × 10−6 torr-liter/s (1.3 × × 10−6 atm−cm3/s) for liquid or gaseous radioactive content; and

(5) A specimen that comprises or simulates radioactive material contained in a sealed capsule need not be subjected to the leaktightness procedure specified in this section, provided it is alternatively subjected to any of the tests prescribed in ISO 9978:1992(E), “Radiation protection—Sealed radioactive sources—Leakage test methods” (incorporated by reference, see §71.70).

(b) Test methods—(1) Impact Test. The specimen must fall onto the target from a height of 9 m (30 ft) or greater in the orientation expected to result in maximum damage. The target must be a flat, horizontal surface of such mass and rigidity that any increase in its resistance to displacement or deformation, on impact by the specimen, would not significantly increase the damage to the specimen.

(2) Percussion Test. (i) The specimen must be placed on a sheet of lead that is supported by a smooth solid surface, and struck by the flat face of a steel billet so as to produce an impact equivalent to that resulting from a free drop of 1.4 kg (3 lbs) through 1 m (40 in);

(ii) The flat face of the billet must be 25 millimeters (mm) (1 inch) in diameter with the edge rounded off to a radius of 3 mm ±0.3 mm (0.12 in ±0.012 in);

(iii) The lead must be hardness number 3.5 to 4.5 on the Vickers scale and not more than 25 mm (1 inch) thick, and must cover an area greater than that covered by the specimen;

(iv) A fresh surface of lead must be used for each impact; and

(v) The billet must strike the specimen so as to cause maximum damage.

(3) Bending test. (i) This test applies only to long, slender sources with a length of 10 cm (4 inches) or greater and a length to width ratio of 10 or greater;

(ii) The specimen must be rigidly clamped in a horizontal position so that one half of its length protrudes from the face of the clamp;

(iii) The orientation of the specimen must be such that the specimen will suffer maximum damage when its free end is struck by the flat face of a steel billet;

(iv) The billet must strike the specimen so as to produce an impact equivalent to that resulting from a free vertical drop of 1.4 kg (3 lbs) through 1 m (40 in); and

(v) The flat face of the billet must be 25 mm (1 inch) in diameter with the edges rounded off to a radius of 3 mm ±0.3 mm (.12 in ±0.012 in).

(4) Heat test. The specimen must be heated in air to a temperature of not less than 800 °C (1475 °F), held at that temperature for a period of 10 minutes, and then allowed to cool.

(c) Leaching assessment methods. (1) For indispersible solid material—

(i) The specimen must be immersed for 7 days in water at ambient temperature. The water must have a pH of 6-8 and a maximum conductivity of 10 micromho per centimeter at 20° (68 °F);

(ii) The water with specimen must then be heated to a temperature of 50 °C ±5 °C (122 °F ±9 °F) and maintained at this temperature for 4 hours.

(iii) The activity of the water must then be determined;

(iv) The specimen must then be stored for at least 7 days in still air of relative humidity not less than 90 percent at 30 °C (86 °F);

(v) The specimen must then be immersed in water under the same conditions as in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section, and the water with specimen must be heated to 50 °C ±5 °C (122 °F ±9 °F) and maintained at that temperature for 4 hours;

(vi) The activity of the water must then be determined. The sum of the activities determined here and in paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section must not exceed 2 kilobecquerels (kBq) (0.05 microcurie (µCi)).

(2) For encapsulated material—

(i) The specimen must be immersed in water at ambient temperature. The water must have a pH of 6-8 and a maximum conductivity of 10 micromho per centimeter;

(ii) The water and specimen must be heated to a temperature of 50 °C ±5 °C (122 °F ±9 °F) and maintained at this temperature for 4 hours;

(iii) The activity of the water must then be determined;

(iv) The specimen must then be stored for at least 7 days in still air at a temperature of 30 °C (86 °F) or greater;

(v) The process in paragraph (c)(2)(i), (ii), and (iii) of this section must be repeated; and

(vi) The activity of the water must then be determined. The sum of the activities determined here and in paragraph (c)(2)(iii) of this section must not exceed 2 kilobecquerels (kBq) (0.05 microcurie (µCi)).

(d) A specimen that comprises or simulates radioactive material contained in a sealed capsule need not be subjected to—

(1) The impact test and the percussion test of this section, provided that the specimen is:

(i) Less than 200 grams and alternatively subjected to the Class 4 impact test prescribed in ISO 2919:1999(E), “Radiation protection—Sealed radioactive sources—General requirements and classification” (incorporated by reference, see §71.70); or

(ii) Less than 500 grams and alternatively subjected to the Class 5 impact test prescribed in ISO 2919:1999(E), “Radioactive protection—Sealed radioactive sources—General requirements and classification” (incorporated by reference, see §71.70); and

(2) The heat test of this section, provided the specimen is alternatively subjected to the Class 6 temperature test specified in ISO 2919:1999(E), “Radioactive protection—Sealed radioactive sources—General requirements and classification” (incorporated by reference, see §71.70).

[60 FR 50264, Sept. 28, 1995, as amended at 80 FR 34013, June 12, 2015]

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§71.77   Qualification of LSA-III Material.

(a) LSA-III material must meet the test requirements of paragraph (b) of this section. Any differences between the specimen to be tested and the material to be transported must be taken into account in determining whether the test requirements have been met.

(b) Leaching test. (1) The specimen, representing no less than the entire contents of the package, must be immersed for 7 days in water at ambient temperature;

(2) The volume of water to be used in the test must be sufficient to ensure that at the end of the test period the free volume of the unabsorbed and unreacted water remaining will be at least 10% of the volume of the specimen itself;

(3) The water must have an initial pH of 6-8 and a maximum conductivity 10 micromho/cm at 20 °C (68 °F); and

(4) The total activity of the free volume of water must be measured following the 7 day immersion test and must not exceed 0.1 A2.

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