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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of February 13, 2020

Title 10Chapter IPart 61 → Subpart A


Title 10: Energy
PART 61—LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE


Subpart A—General Provisions


Contents
§61.1   Purpose and scope.
§61.2   Definitions.
§61.3   License required.
§61.4   Communications.
§61.5   Interpretations.
§61.6   Exemptions.
§61.7   Concepts.
§61.8   Information collection requirements: OMB approval.
§61.9   Employee protection.
§61.9a   Completeness and accuracy of information.
§61.9b   Deliberate misconduct.

§61.1   Purpose and scope.

(a) The regulations in this part establish, for land disposal of radioactive waste, the procedures, criteria, and terms and conditions upon which the Commission issues licenses for the disposal of radioactive wastes containing byproduct, source and special nuclear material received from other persons. Disposal of waste by an individual licensee is set forth in part 20 of this chapter. Applicability of the requirements in this part to Commission licenses for waste disposal facilities in effect on the effective date of this rule will be determined on a case-by-case basis and implemented through terms and conditions of the license or by orders issued by the Commission.

(b) Except as provided in part 150 of this chapter, which addresses assumption of certain regulatory authority by Agreement States, and §61.6 “Exemptions,” the regulations in this part apply to all persons in the United States. The regulations in this part do not apply to—

(1) Disposal of high-level waste as provided for in part 60 or 63 of this chapter;

(2) Disposal of uranium or thorium tailings or wastes (byproduct material as defined in §40.4 (a-1) as provided for in part 40 of this chapter in quantities greater than 10,000 kilograms and containing more than 5 millicuries of radium-226; or

(3) Disposal of licensed material as provided for in part 20 of this chapter.

(c) This part also gives notice to all persons who knowingly provide to any licensee, applicant, contractor, or subcontractor, components, equipment, materials, or other goods or services, that relate to a licensee's or applicant's activities subject to this part, that they may be individually subject to NRC enforcement action for violation of §61.9b.

[47 FR 57463, Dec. 27, 1982, as amended at 56 FR 40690, Aug. 15, 1991; 63 FR 1898, Jan. 13, 1998; 66 FR 55791, Nov. 2, 2001]

§61.2   Definitions.

As used in this part:

Active maintenance means any significant remedial activity needed during the period of institutional control to maintain a reasonable assurance that the performance objectives in §§61.41 and 61.42 are met. Such active maintenance includes ongoing activities such as the pumping and treatment of water from a disposal unit or one-time measures such as replacement of a disposal unit cover. Active maintenance does not include custodial activities such as repair of fencing, repair or replacement of monitoring equipment, revegetation, minor additions to soil cover, minor repair of disposal unit covers, and general disposal site upkeep such as mowing grass.

Buffer zone is a portion of the disposal site that is controlled by the licensee and that lies under the disposal units and between the disposal units and the boundary of the site.

Chelating agent means amine polycarboxylic acids (e.g., EDTA, DTPA), hydroxy-carboxylic acids, and polycarboxylic acids (e.g., citric acid, carbolic acid, and glucinic acid).

Commencement of construction means any clearing of land, excavation, or other substantial action that would adversely affect the environment of a land disposal facility. The term does not mean disposal site exploration, necessary roads for disposal site exploration, borings to determine foundation conditions, or other preconstruction monitoring or testing to establish background information related to the suitability of the disposal site or the protection of environmental values.

Commission means the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or its duly authorized representatives.

Custodial Agency means an agency of the government designated to act on behalf of the government owner of the disposal site.

Director means the Director, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

Disposal means the isolation of radioactive wastes from the biosphere inhabited by man and containing his food chains by emplacement in a land disposal facility.

Disposal site means that portion of a land disposal facility which is used for disposal of waste. It consists of disposal units and a buffer zone.

Disposal unit means a discrete portion of the disposal site into which waste is placed for disposal. For near-surface disposal the unit is usually a trench.

Engineered barrier means a man-made structure or device that is intended to improve the land disposal facility's ability to meet the performance objectives in subpart C.

Explosive material means any chemical compound, mixture, or device, which produces a substantial instantaneous release of gas and heat spontaneously or by contact with sparks or flame.

Government agency means any executive department, commission, independent establishment, or corporation, wholly or partly owned by the United States of America which is an instrumentality of the United States; or any board, bureau, division, service, office, officer, authority, administration, or other establishment in the executive branch of the government.

Hazardous waste means those wastes designated as hazardous by Environmental Protection Agency regulations in 40 CFR part 261.

Hydrogeologic unit means any soil or rock unit or zone which by virtue of its porosity or permeability, or lack thereof, has a distinct influence on the storage or movement of groundwater.

Inadvertent intruder means a person who might occupy the disposal site after closure and engage in normal activities, such as agriculture, dwelling construction, or other pursuits in which the person might be unknowingly exposed to radiation from the waste.

Indian Tribe means an Indian Tribe as defined in the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 5301).

Intruder barrier means a sufficient depth of cover over the waste that inhibits contact with waste and helps to ensure that radiation exposures to an inadvertent intruder will meet the performance objectives set forth in this part, or engineered structures that provide equivalent protection to the inadvertent intruder.

Land disposal facility means the land, building, and structures, and equipment which are intended to be used for the disposal of radioactive wastes. For purposes of this chapter, a “geologic repository” as defined in part 60 or 63 is not considered a land disposal facility.

License means a license issued under the regulations in part 61 of this chapter. Licensee means the holder of such a license.

Monitoring means observing and making measurements to provide data to evaluate the performance and characteristics of the disposal site.

Near-surface disposal facility means a land disposal facility in which radioactive waste is disposed of in or within the upper 30 meters of the earth's surface.

Person means (1) any individual, corporation, partnership, firm, association, trust, estate, public or private institution, group, government agency other than the Commission or the Department of Energy (except that the Department of Energy is considered a person within the meaning of the regulations in this part to the extent that its facilities and activities are subject to the licensing and related regulatory authority of the Commission pursuant to law), any State or any political subdivision of or any political entity within a State, any foreign government or nation or any political subdivision of any such government or nation, or other entity; and (2) any legal successor, representative, agent, or agency of the foregoing.

Pyrophoric liquid means any liquid that ignites spontaneously in dry or moist air at or below 130 °F (54.5 °C). A pyrophoric solid is any solid material, other than one classed as an explosive, which under normal conditions is liable to cause fires through friction, retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or which can be ignited readily and when ignited burns so vigorously and persistently as to create a serious transportation, handling, or disposal hazard. Included are spontaneously combustible and water-reactive materials.

Site closure and stablization means those actions that are taken upon completion of operations that prepare the disposal site for custodial care and that assure that the disposal site will remain stable and will not need ongoing active maintenance.

State means any State, Territory, or possession of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia.

Stability means structural stabillity.

Surveillance means observation of the disposal site for purposes of visual detection of need for maintenance, custodial care, evidence of intrusion, and compliance with other license and regulatory requirements.

Tribal Governing Body means a Tribal organization as defined in the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 5301).

Waste means those low-level radioactive wastes containing source, special nuclear, or byproduct material that are acceptable for disposal in a land disposal facility. For the purposes of this definition, low-level radioactive waste means radioactive waste not classified as high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or byproduct material as defined in paragraphs (2), (3), and (4) of the definition of Byproduct material set forth in §20.1003 of this chapter.

[47 FR 57463, Dec. 27, 1982, as amended at 54 FR 22583, May 25, 1989; 58 FR 33891, June 22, 1993; 66 FR 55792, Nov. 2, 2001; 72 FR 55933, Oct. 1, 2007; 73 FR 5725, Jan. 31, 2008; 79 FR 75740, Dec. 19, 2014; 82 FR 52825, Nov. 15, 2017]

§61.3   License required.

(a) No person may receive, possess, and dispose of radioactive waste containing source, special nuclear, or byproduct material at a land disposal facility unless authorized by a license issued by the Commission pursuant to this part, or unless exemption has been granted by the Commission under §61.6 of this part.

(b) Each person shall file an application with the Commission and obtain a license as provided in this part before commencing construction of a land disposal facility. Failure to comply with this requirement may be grounds for denial of a license.

§61.4   Communications.

Except where otherwise specified, all communications and reports concerning the regulations in this part and applications filed under them should be sent by mail addressed: ATTN: Document Control Desk; Director, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001; by hand delivery to the NRC's Offices at 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland; or, where practicable, by electronic submission, for example, via Electronic Information Exchange, or CD-ROM. Electronic submissions must be made in a manner that enables the NRC to receive, read, authenticate, distribute, and archive the submission, and process and retrieve it a single page at a time. Detailed guidance on making electronic submissions can be obtained by visiting the NRC's Web site at http://www.nrc.gov/site-help/e-submittals.html; by e-mail to MSHD.Resource@nrc.gov; or by writing the Office of the Chief Information Officer, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001. The guidance discusses, among other topics, the formats the NRC can accept, the use of electronic signatures, and the treatment of nonpublic information.

[73 FR 5725, Jan. 31, 2008, as amended at 74 FR 62683, Dec. 1, 2009; 79 FR 75740, Dec. 19, 2014; 80 FR 74980, Dec. 1, 2015]

§61.5   Interpretations.

Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by any officer or employee of the Commission other than a written interpretation by the General Counsel will be considered binding upon the Commission.

§61.6   Exemptions.

The Commission may, upon application by any interested person, or upon its own initiative, grant any exemption from the requirements of the regulations in this part as it determines is authorized by law, will not endanger life or property or the common defense and security, and is otherwise in the public interest.

§61.7   Concepts.

(a) The disposal facility. (1) Part 61 is intended to apply to land disposal of radioactive waste and not to other methods such as sea or extraterrestrial disposal. Part 61 contains procedural requirements and performance objectives applicable to any method of land disposal. It contains specific technical requirements for near-surface disposal of radioactive waste, a subset of land disposal, which involves disposal in the uppermost portion of the earth, approximately 30 meters. Near-surface disposal includes disposal in engineered facilities which may be built totally or partially above-grade provided that such facilities have protective earthen covers. Near-surface disposal does not include disposal facilities which are partially or fully above-grade with no protective earthen cover, which are referred to as “above-ground disposal.” Burial deeper than 30 meters may also be satisfactory. Technical requirements for alternative methods may be added in the future.

(2) Near-surface disposal of radioactive waste takes place at a near-surface disposal facility, which includes all of the land and buildings necessary to carry out the disposal. The disposal site is that portion of the facility which is used for disposal of waste and consists of disposal units and a buffer zone. A disposal unit is a discrete portion of the disposal site into which waste is placed for disposal. For near-surface disposal, the disposal unit is usually a trench. A buffer zone is a portion of the disposal site that is controlled by the licensee and that lies under the site and between the boundary of the disposal site and any disposal unit. It provides controlled space to establish monitoring locations which are intended to provide an early warning of radionuclide movement, and to take mitigative measures if needed. In choosing a disposal site, site characteristics should be considered in terms of the indefinite future and evaluated for at least a 500-year timeframe.

(b) Waste classification and near-surface disposal. (1) Disposal of radioactive waste in near-surface disposal facilities has the following safety objectives: protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity, protection of individuals from inadvertent intrusion, and protection of individuals during operations. A fourth objective is to ensure stability of the site after closure.

(2) A cornerstone of the system is stability—stability of the waste and the disposal site so that once emplaced and covered, the access of water to the waste can be minimized. Migration of radionuclides is thus minimized, long-term active maintenance can be avoided, and potential exposures to intruders reduced. While stability is a desirable characteristic for all waste much radioactive waste does not contain sufficient amounts of radionuclides to be of great concern from these standpoints; this waste, however, tends to be unstable, such as ordinary trash type wastes. If mixed with the higher activity waste, their deterioration could lead to failure of the system and permit water to penetrate the disposal unit and cause problems with the higher activity waste. Therefore, in order to avoid placing requirements for a stable waste form on relatively innocuous waste, these wastes have been classed as Class A waste. The Class A waste will be disposed of in separate disposal units at the disposal site. However, Class A waste that is stable may be mixed with other classes of waste. Those higher activity wastes that should be stable for proper disposal are classed as Class B and C waste. To the extent that it is practicable, Class B and C waste forms or containers should be designed to be stable, i.e., maintain gross physical properties and identity, over 300 years. For certain radionuclides prone to migration, a maximum disposal site inventory based on the characteristics of the disposal site may be established to limit potential exposure.

(3) It is possible but unlikely that persons might occupy the site in the future and engage in normal pursuits without knowing that they were receiving radiation exposure. These persons are referred to as inadvertent intruders. Protection of such intruders can involve two principal controls: institutional control over the site after operations by the site owner to ensure that no such occupation or improper use of the site occurs; or, designating which waste could present an unacceptable risk to an intruder, and disposing of this waste in a manner that provides some form of intruder barrier that is intended to prevent contact with the waste. This regulation incorporates both types of protective controls.

(4) Institutional control of access to the site is required for up to 100 years. This permits the disposal of Class A and Class B waste without special provisions for intrusion protection, since these classes of waste contain types and quantities of radioisotopes that will decay during the 100-year period and will present an acceptable hazard to an intruder. The government landowner administering the active institutional control program has flexibility in controlling site access which may include allowing productive uses of the land provided the integrity and long-term performance of the site are not affected.

(5) Waste that will not decay to levels which present an acceptable hazard to an intruder within 100 years is designated as Class C waste. This waste is disposed of at a greater depth than the other classes of waste so that subsequent surface activities by an intruder will not disturb the waste. Where site conditions prevent deeper disposal, intruder barriers such as concrete covers may be used. The effective life of these intruder barriers should be 500 years. A maximum concentration of radionuclides is specified for all wastes so that at the end of the 500 year period, remaining radioactivity will be at a level that does not pose an unacceptable hazard to an intruder or public health and safety. Waste with concentrations above these limits is generally unacceptable for near-surface disposal. There may be some instances where waste with concentrations greater than permitted for Class C would be acceptable for near-surface disposal with special processing or design. These will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Class C waste must also be stable.

(c) The licensing process. (1) During the preoperational phase, the potential applicant goes through a process of disposal site selection by selecting a region of interest, examining a number of possible disposal sites within the area of interest and narrowing the choice to the proposed site. Through a detailed investigation of the disposal site characteristics the potential applicant obtains data on which to base an analysis of the disposal site's suitability. Along with these data and analyses, the applicant submits other more general information to the Commission in the form of an application for a license for land disposal. The Commission's review of the application is in accordance with administrative procedures established by rule and may involve participation by affected State governments or Indian Tribes. While the proposed disposal site must be owned by a State or the Federal government before the Commission will issue a license, it may be privately owned during the preoperational phase if suitable arrangements have been made with a State or the Federal government to take ownership in fee of the land before the license is issued.

(2) During the operational phase, the licensee carries out disposal activities in accordance with the requirements of this regulation and any conditions on the license. Periodically, the authority to conduct the above ground operations and dispose of waste will be subject to a license renewal, at which time the operating history will be reviewed and a decision made to permit or deny continued operation. When disposal operations are to cease, the licensee applies for an amendment to his license to permit site closure. After final review of the licensee's site closure and stabilization plan, the Commission may approve the final activities necessary to prepare the disposal site so that ongoing active maintenance of the site is not required during the period of institutional control.

(3) During the period when the final site closure and stabilization activities are being carried out, the licensee is in a disposal site closure phase. Following that, for a period of 5 years, the licensee must remain at the disposal site for a period of post-closure observation and maintenance to assure that the disposal site is stable and ready for institutional control. The Commission may approve shorter or require longer periods if conditions warrant. At the end of this period, the licensee applies for a license transfer to the disposal site owner.

(4) After a finding of satisfactory disposal site closure, the Commission will transfer the license to the State or Federal government that owns the disposal site. If the Department of Energy is the Federal agency administering the land on bahalf of the Federal government the license will be terminated because the Commission lacks regulatory authority over the Department for this activity. Under the conditions of the transferred license, the owner will carry out a program of monitoring to assure continued satisfactory disposal site performance, physical surveillance to restrict access to the site and carry out minor custodial activities. During this period, productive uses of the land might be permitted if those uses do not affect the stability of the site and its ability to meet the performance objectives. At the end of the prescribed period of institutional control, the license will be terminated by the Commission.

[47 FR 57463, Dec. 27, 1982, as amended at 58 FR 33891, June 22, 1993]

§61.8   Information collection requirements: OMB approval.

(a) The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has submitted the information collection requirements contained in this part to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for approval as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.). The NRC may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not required to respond to, a collection of information unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number. OMB has approved the information collection requirements contained in this part under control number 3150-0135.

(b) The approved information collection requirements contained in this Part appear in §§61.3, 61.6, 61.9, 61.10, 61.11, 61.12, 61.13, 61.14, 61.15, 61.16, 61.20, 61.22, 61.24, 61.26, 61.27, 61.28, 61.30, 61.31, 61.32, 61.53, 61.55, 61.57, 61.58, 61.61, 61.62, 61.63, 61.72, and 61.80.

(c) In §61.32, Form N-71 and associated forms are approved under control number 3150-0056, and DOC/NRC Forms AP-1, AP-A, and associated forms are approved under control numbers 0694-0135.

[58 FR 33891, June 22, 1993, as amended at 62 FR 52188, Oct. 6, 1997; 73 FR 78606, Dec. 23, 2008]

§61.9   Employee protection.

(a) Discrimination by a Commission licensee, an applicant for a Commission license, or a contractor or subcontractor of a Commission licensee or applicant against an employee for engaging in certain protected activities is prohibited. Discrimination includes discharge and other actions that relate to compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment. The protected activities are established in section 211 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, and in general are related to the administration or enforcement of a requirement imposed under the Atomic Energy Act or the Energy Reorganization Act.

(1) The protected activities include but are not limited to:

(i) Providing the Commission or his or her employer information about alleged violations of either of the statutes named in paragraph (a) introductory text of the section or possible violations of requirements imposed under either of those statutes;

(ii) Refusing to engage in any practice made unlawful under either of the statutes named in paragraph (a) introductory text or under these requirements if the employee has identified the alleged illegality to the employer;

(iii) Requesting the Commission to institute action against his or her employer for the administration or enforcement of these requirements;

(iv) Testifying in any Commission proceeding, or before Congress, or at any Federal or State proceeding regarding any provision (or proposed provision) of either of the statutes named in paragraph (a) introductory text.

(v) Assisting or participating in, or is about to assist or participate in, these activities.

(2) These activities are protected even if no formal proceeding is actually initiated as a result of the employee assistance or participation.

(3) This section has no application to any employee alleging discrimination prohibited by this section who, acting without direction from his or her employer (or the employer's agent), deliberately causes a violation of any requirement of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, or the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended.

(b) Any employee who believes that he or she has been discharged or otherwise discriminated against by any person for engaging in protected activities specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may seek a remedy for the discharge or discrimination through an administrative proceeding in the Department of Labor. The administrative proceeding must be initiated within 180 days after an alleged violation occurs. The employee may do this by filing a complaint alleging the violation with the Department of Labor, Employment Standards Administration, Wage and Hour Division. The Department of Labor may order reinstatement, back pay, and compensatory damages.

(c) A violation of paragraph (a), (e), or (f) of this section by a Commission licensee, an applicant for a Commission license, or a contractor or subcontractor of a Commission licensee or applicant may be grounds for—

(1) Denial, revocation, or suspension of the license.

(2) Imposition of a civil penalty on the licensee, applicant, or a contractor or subcontractor of the licensee or applicant.

(3) Other enforcement action.

(d) Actions taken by an employer, or others, which adversely affect an employee may be predicated upon nondiscriminatory grounds. The prohibition applies when the adverse action occurs because the employee has engaged in protected activities. An employee's engagement in protected activities does not automatically render him or her immune from discharge or discipline for legitimate reasons or from adverse action dictated by nonprohibited considerations.

(e)(1) Each licensee and each applicant for a license shall prominently post the revision of NRC Form 3, “Notice to Employees,” referenced in 10 CFR 19.11(c). This form must be posted at locations sufficient to permit employees protected by this section to observe a copy on the way to or from their place of work. Premises must be posted not later than 30 days after an application is docketed and remain posted while the application is pending before the Commission, during the term of the license, and for 30 days following license termination.

(2) Copies of NRC Form 3 can be obtained by writing to the Regional Administrator of the appropriate U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regional Office listed in appendix D to part 20 of this chapter, via email to Forms.Resource@nrc.gov, or by visiting the NRC's online library at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/forms/.

(f) No agreement affecting the compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment, including an agreement to settle a complaint filed by an employee with the Department of Labor pursuant to section 211 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, may contain any provision which would prohibit, restrict, or otherwise discourage an employee from participating in protected activity as defined in paragraph (a)(1) of this section including, but not limited to, providing information to the NRC or to his or her employer on potential violations or other matters within NRC's regulatory responsibilities.

[58 FR 52412, Oct. 8, 1993, as amended at 60 FR 24552, May 9, 1995; 61 FR 6765, Feb. 22, 1996; 68 FR 58814, Oct. 10, 2003; 72 FR 63974, Nov. 14, 2007; 73 FR 30459, May 28, 2008; 79 FR 66605, Nov. 10, 2014]

§61.9a   Completeness and accuracy of information.

(a) Information provided to the Commission by an applicant for a license or by a licensee or information required by statute or by the Commission's regulations, orders, or license conditions to be maintained by the applicant or the licensee shall be complete and accurate in all material respects.

(b) Each applicant or licensee shall notify the Commission of information identified by the applicant or licensee as having for the regulated activity a significant implication for public health and safety or common defense and security. An applicant or licensee violates this paragraph only if the applicant or licensee fails to notify the Commission of information that the applicant or licensee has identified as having a significant implication for public health and safety or common defense and security. Notification shall be provided to the Administrator of the appropriate Regional Office within two working days of identifying the information. This requirement is not applicable to information which is already required to be provided to the Commission by other reporting or updating requirements.

[52 FR 49372, Dec. 31, 1987]

§61.9b   Deliberate misconduct.

(a) Any licensee, applicant for a license, employee of a licensee or applicant; or any contractor (including a supplier or consultant), subcontractor, employee of a contractor or subcontractor of any licensee or applicant for a license, who knowingly provides to any licensee, applicant, contractor, or subcontractor, any components, equipment, materials, or other goods or services that relate to a licensee's or applicant's activities in this part, may not:

(1) Engage in deliberate misconduct that causes or would have caused, if not detected, a licensee or applicant to be in violation of any rule, regulation, or order; or any term, condition, or limitation of any license issued by the Commission; or

(2) Deliberately submit to the NRC, a licensee, an applicant, or a licensee's or applicant's contractor or subcontractor, information that the person submitting the information knows to be incomplete or inaccurate in some respect material to the NRC.

(b) A person who violates paragraph (a)(1) or (a)(2) of this section may be subject to enforcement action in accordance with the procedures in 10 CFR part 2, subpart B.

(c) For the purposes of paragraph (a)(1) of this section, deliberate misconduct by a person means an intentional act or omission that the person knows:

(1) Would cause a licensee or applicant to be in violation of any rule, regulation, or order; or any term, condition, or limitation, of any license issued by the Commission; or

(2) Constitutes a violation of a requirement, procedure, instruction, contract, purchase order, or policy of a licensee, applicant, contractor, or subcontractor.

[63 FR 1898, Jan. 13, 1998]

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