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Title 9Chapter ISubchapter EPart 113 → Subject Group


Title 9: Animals and Animal Products
PART 113—STANDARD REQUIREMENTS


Diagnostics and Reagents

§§113.400-113.405   [Reserved]

§113.406   Tuberculin, Intradermic.

Tuberculin, Intradermic, is a filtrate produced from cultures of Pn, C, and Dt strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (supplied by Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) which has been inactivated and is non-toxic. Each serial shall be tested for purity, safety, potency, and special chemical tests in accordance with the conditions prescribed for each test. A serial found unsatisfactory by any prescribed test shall not be released.

(a) Purity test. Each serial shall be tested for purity as provided in this paragraph.

(1) Final container samples of completed product shall be tested for viable bacteria and fungi as prescribed in §113.26.

(2) A 20 ml sample shall be centrifuged and the sediment examined microscopically for the presence of acidfast (Ziehl-Nielsen stain) or other microorganisms (Gram stain). A serial which contains microorganisms is unsatisfactory for release.

(b) Safety test. Final container samples of completed product from each serial shall be tested for safety. Two mature guinea pigs shall be injected subcutaneously with 1 ml and observed for 10 days. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the product occur during the observation period, the serial is unsatisfactory. If unfavorable reactions occur which are not attributable to the product, the test shall be declared a No Test and repeated: Provided, That if the test is not repeated, the serial shall be declared unsatisfactory.

(c) Potency test. Bulk or final container samples of completed product from each serial shall be subjected to a comparison test using a Reference Tuberculin supplied by Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Test animals shall be 10 sensitized white female guinea pigs from one source which weigh 500-700 grams at the beginning of the test and which have not been used in a previous test. The comparison test shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures prescribed in paragraphs (c)(1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), and (8) of this section.

(1) The guinea pigs shall be sensitized with a sterile heat-killed suspension of equal amounts of strains Pn, C, and Dt of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The heat-killed sensitizing agent shall be injected in a volume of 0.5 ml per guinea pig. The guinea pigs shall be considered sensitized for testing not less than 30 days nor more than 120 days post-injection.

(2) The guinea pigs shall be prepared for sensitivity testing at least 4 hours prior to the injection of tuberculin. The entire abdominal and flank areas shall be clipped, a depilatory agent applied for 5-10 minutes, the area rinsed with warm water, and dried.

(3) Dilutions of 1:100, 1:200, and 1:400 shall be prepared with the Reference Tuberculin and the unknown tuberculin. Three test sites on each side of and equidistant from the abdominal midline shall be chosen on each guinea pig. Using a tuberculin syringe and needle, 0.05 ml of each dilution shall be injected intradermally at one of the test sites which has been randomly selected for the dilution.

(4) The sensitivity of the tuberculins shall be determined 24 hours after injected by measuring the area of erythema. Measurements in millimeters shall be made anterior of the greatest diameter and perpendicular to the first measurement. The square millimeter shall be calculated by multiplying the two measurements.

(5) The total area of response for each tuberculin tested shall be determined by adding the areas of erythema for each dilution of each of the test animals in a group. The sums of the areas of erythema for all three dilutions of each tuberculin shall be added to give the total area of tuberculin response.

(6) The total tuberculin response area of the serial being tested shall be expressed as a percentage of the total tuberculin response area of the Reference Tuberculin. (The total response area of the serial divided by the total response area of the Reference Tuberculin times 100.)

(7) If the total tuberculin response area of the serial being tested does not fall between 75 percent and 125 percent of the total tuberculin response area of the Reference Tuberculin, the serial is unsatisfactory.

(8) Two unsensitized guinea pigs are given 0.05 ml intradermal injections of 1:4 and 1:10 dilutions of both the serial being tested and the Reference Tuberculin as a control for nonspecific positive reactions. If positive reactions are observed with the Reference Tuberculin, the test is considered a “No Test” and repeated. If positive reactions are observed with the serial being tested only, the serial is unsatisfactory.

(d) Special chemical tests and requirements. Final container samples of completed product from each serial shall be tested as follows:

(1) Hydrogen ion concentration. The hydrogen ion concentration shall be determined with a pH meter which has been standardized with a pH 7.0 buffer just prior to use. The pH of the product shall be 7.0 ±0.3.

(2) Total nitrogen determination. The nitrogen content shall be determined by the Kjeldahl method on duplicate 15 ml samples consisting of 5 ml from each of three vials. The total nitrogen content of the product shall be 0.18 percent ±0.06 percent.

(3) Trichloroacetic acid precipitable nitrogen. The determination of precipitable nitrogen by a final concentration of 4 percent trichloroacetic acid shall be made by the Kjeldahl method on duplicate 15 ml samples, consisting of 5 ml from each of three vials. The trichloroacetic acid precipitable nitrogen content shall be 0.047 percent ±0.01 percent.

(4) Phenol determination. The phenol content shall be determined by direct titration with a standardized bromide-bromate solution. (A correction factor of 0.04 should be subtracted from the final value in the determination of phenol in tuberculin.) The phenol content shall be 0.54 percent ±0.04 percent.

(5) Clarity. The product shall be optically clear and free from any extraneous particles.

[39 FR 16857, May 10, 1974. Redesignated at 39 FR 25463, July 11, 1974. Redesignated at 55 FR 35561, Aug. 31, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 66784, Dec. 26, 1991]

§113.407   Pullorum antigen.

Pullorum Antigen shall be produced from a culture of representative strains of Salmonella pullorum which are of known antigenic composition, high agglutinability, but are not sensitive to negative and nonspecific serum. Each serial shall be tested for purity, density, preservative content, sensitivity, homogeneity, and hydrogen ion concentration. A serial found unsatisfactory by any prescribed test shall not be released.

(a) Purity test. Final container samples of completed product shall be tested for viable bacteria and fungi as prescribed in §113.26. In addition, each serial shall be free from extraneous organisms as determined by Gram staining and microscopic examination.

(b) Nephelometric determination of bacterial density. The bacterial density shall be 80 ±15 times McFarland No. 1 standard for stained antigen K's and 50 ±10 times McFarland No. 1 standard for tube antigen.

(c) Preservative requirements. (1) The formalin content of Pullorum Stained Antigen K shall be 1.0 ±0.2 percent as determined by a colorimetric method.

(2) The phenol content for Pullorum Tube Antigen shall be 0.55 ±0.05 percent as determined by direct titration with a standardized bromide-bromate solution.

(d) Sensitivity requirements. (1) Each serial of antigen shall be compared with a reference antigen of known sensitivity using positive and negative chicken serum. The manufacturers' recommendations for use on the accompanying label or package insert shall be followed. The recommended time limit specified for each antigen shall be carefully observed in the test.

(2) A total of at least 12 serums shall be used. This shall include at least three definitely positive, at least three weakly positive, and at least six negative serums. At least three positive chicken serums diluted with negative chicken serum shall be used to further assay comparative sensitivity between test and reference plate antigens. All test antigens shall agree closely with the reference antigen. Tests in which variation of readings between the reference and test antigen would result in a different National Poultry Improvement Plan classification shall be regarded as unsatisfactory. No unsatisfactory tests among the six or more negative serums and not more than one unsatisfactory test among the six or more positive serums shall be permitted. All tests performed shall be included for evaluation of the sensitivity assay. In the event of an unsatisfactory test using positive serums, at least three additional definitely positive and three additional weakly positive serums shall be tested. If not more than one unsatisfactory test is obtained with the additional serums, the antigen shall be acceptable.

(e) Homogeneity requirement. Antigens shall show no evidence of autoagglutination or unusual appearance such as the presence of flakes, specks, or a preponderance of filament forms. Microscopic examination shall be made in this determination.

(f) Hydrogen ion concentration. The hydrogen ion concentration shall be determined with a pH meter which has been standardized with a pH 4.0 buffer just prior to use. The pH of Pullorum Stained Antigen K shall be 4.6 ±0.4. No pH level is specified for Pullorum Tube Antigen but after dilution as recommended for use, it shall have a pH of 8.2 to 8.5.

[39 FR 16857, May 10, 1974. Redesignated at 39 FR 25463, July 11, 1974, and amended at 40 FR 760, Jan. 3, 1975. Redesignated at 55 FR 35561, Aug. 31, 1990]

§113.408   Avian mycoplasma antigen.

Mycoplasma antigens shall be prepared from organisms, grown in broth cultures, that are inactivated and standardized. Plate antigens shall be stained with a dye acceptable to Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). Final container samples of completed product from each serial shall be tested for density, preservative content, homogeneity, hydrogen ion concentration, purity, sensitivity, and specificity in accordance with the conditions prescribed for each test. A serial found unsatisfactory by any prescribed test shall not be released.

(a) Density requirements. A 2.5 ml sample of completed antigen shall be diluted with 2.5 ml of buffer solution formulated in the same manner as the vehicle of the antigen being tested in a modified Hopkins tube and then sedimented at 1,000 × g in a refrigerated centrifuge at 20 °C for 90 minutes. If the packed cell volume of the completed antigen is not 1.2 percent (±0.4 percent), the serial is unsatisfactory.

(b) Preservative requirements. Preservatives shall be as specified in the Outline of Production filed with APHIS in accordance with 9 CFR 114.8. If phenol is used, a direct titration with a standardized bromide-bromate solution shall be made. If the final concentration of phenol is not 0.25 percent (±0.05 percent), the serial is unsatisfactory.

(c) Homogeneity requirements. (1) Plate antigen shall be checked on a plate for homogeneity and autoagglutination. If plate antigen is not homogeneous and free of large visible particles (strands or clumps) or if it autoagglutinates, the serial is unsatisfactory.

(2) Stereo-microscopic examination shall be used when necessary to evaluate a granular appearing antigen.

(d) Hydrogen ion concentration. The hydrogen ion concentration shall be determined with a pH meter which has been standardized with a pH buffer just prior to use. The pH of Mycoplasma Gallisepticum Antigen shall be 6.0±0.2. The pH of Mycoplasma Synoviae Antigen and Mycoplasma Meleagridis Antigen shall be 7.0±0.2.

(e) Purity requirements. The antigen shall be tested for viable bacteria and fungi as prescribed in §113.26.

(f) Sensitivity requirements. The reactivity of each antigen shall be tested by comparing the agglutination reactions of each serial of antigen with the agglutination reactions of a standard reference antigen which is supplied by or acceptable to APHIS. A set consisting of five known positive and five known negative serums shall be used. The negative serums shall be tested against the antigens undiluted and the positive serums shall be tested against the antigens diluted 1:4 in buffer solution formulated in the same manner as the vehicle of the antigen being tested. If negative serums do not have negative reactions in this test, the serial is unsatisfactory. If the test antigen and the reference antigen do not have the same agglutination reactions with at least four of the five positive serums used, the serial is unsatisfactory.

(1) The sensitivity of Mycoplasma Gallisepticum Antigen shall be tested using a set of chicken and a set of turkey serums (the positive serums shall have varying degrees of reactivity from weakly positive to strongly positive).

(2) The sensitivity of Mycoplasma Synoviae Antigen shall be tested using chicken serums.

(3) The sensitivity of Mycoplasma Meleagridis Antigen shall be tested using turkey serums.

(g) Specificity requirements. Mycoplasma Synoviae Antigen shall be examined for cross-agglutination with five Mycoplasma gallisepticum antiserums (chicken origin); Mycoplasma Meleagridis Antigen shall be examined for cross-agglutination with five Mycoplasma gallisepticum antiserums (turkey origin) and five Mycoplasma synoviae antiserums (turkey origin). Tests shall be conducted with undiluted antigen. If cross-agglutination occurs, the serial is unsatisfactory.

[48 FR 33474, July 22, 1983. Redesignated at 55 FR 35561, Aug. 31, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 66784, Dec. 26, 1991]

§113.409   Tuberculin—PPD Bovis, Intradermic.

Tuberculin—PPD Bovis, Intradermic is a purified protein derivative produced from cultures of Mycobacterium bovis Strain AN-5 (supplied by Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service), which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial shall be tested for purity, safety, potency, and special chemical characteristics in accordance with the conditions prescribed for each test. A serial found unsatisfactory by any prescribed test shall not be released.

(a) Purity test. Each serial shall be tested for viable bacteria and fungi as prescribed in §113.26.

(b) Safety test. Final container samples of completed product from each serial shall be tested for safety as prescribed in §113.38.

(c) Potency test. Bulk or final container samples of completed product from each serial shall be subjected to a comparison specificity test using a Reference PPD Tuberculin supplied by Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

(1) Test animals. White female guinea pigs from one source, which weigh 500 to 700 grams at the beginning of the test, and which have not been used in a previous test, shall be used in the specificity test. Twenty-three guinea pigs (10 sensitized with M. bovis, 10 sensitized with M. avium and three unsensitized) shall be required for each serial being tested, and 20 guinea pigs (10 sensitized with M. bovis and 10 sensitized with M. avium) shall be required for the Reference PPD Tuberculin. Allowance should be made for deaths during the sensitization period.

(2) Sensitization of guinea pigs. (i) Sensitize one group of guinea pigs to M. bovis. Inject each animal intramuscularly with 0.5 ml of a sterile heat-killed suspension of M. bovis Strain AN-5 supplied by Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

(ii) Sensitize one group of guinea pigs to M. avium. Inject each animal intramuscularly with 0.5 ml of a sterile heat-killed suspension of M. avium Strain D-4 supplied by Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

(iii) Maintain an unsensitized group as control animals.

(3) Thirty-five days post-injection, the guinea pigs shall be used for tuberculin testing.

(4) The sensitized animals and controls shall be prepared at least 4 hours prior to injection of PPD tuberculin by clipping the hair from the entire abdominal and flank areas, applying a depilatory agent for 5 to 10 minutes, then rinsing with warm water and drying.

(i) Select four sites on each guinea pig for injection of PPD tuberculin. Two sites shall be on each side of the midline and spaced a sufficient distance from each other to avoid overlapping of skin reactions.

(ii) Prepare four dilutions of the Reference PPD Tuberculin and each serial of PPD tuberculin being tested so as to contain 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, and 4.8 micrograms of protein per 0.1 ml dose. Each of the four dilutions of the same tuberculin shall be randomly assigned a site on a guinea pig.

(iii) Inject one dose of each dilution at the assigned site using a tuberculin syringe.

(5) Measurement of skin reactions. Measure the area of erythema produced at each site on each guinea pig 24 hours following injection of PPD tuberculin. Measurements in millimeters shall be made anterior to posterior across the greatest diameter and perpendicular to the first measurement. Calculate the area of erythema in square millimeters at each site by multiplying the two measurements.

(6) Calculation of average response per guinea pig. Obtain the total area of erythema for each guinea pig by adding the areas of the four test sites. Add these composite areas of erythema from all guinea pigs with the same sensitization and the same PPD tuberculin injection, then divide by the number of animals in the group. The number obtained is the average response per guinea pig to the PPD tuberculin for the given type of sensitization.

(7) Determination of specificity index. The specificity index of a PPD tuberculin is determined by subtracting the average response obtained on M. avium sensitized guinea pigs from the average response obtained on M. bovis sensitized guinea pigs.

(8) Validity of bioassay. The bioassay test results obtained on serials tested concurrently in a single test series are valid if the specificity index of the reference PPD tuberculin is at least 400 square millimeters. If the results are not valid, the bioassay test series must be repeated with a different set of sensitized guinea pigs.

(9) Reactions in unsensitized guinea pigs. If a positive reaction (erythema) is observed in one or more of the 3 unsensitized guinea pigs, the serial is unsatisfactory.

(10) Interpretation of specificity index. When a bioassay is valid and reactions are not observed in unsensitized guinea pigs, the following interpretation of the specificity index will be used for classifying each serial of PPD tuberculin:

Specificity indexClassification
440 mm2 or greaterSatisfactory.
Between 360 mm2 and 440 mm2Inconclusive.
Less than 360 mm2Unsatisfactory.

(11) Second stage test. If a serial is classified as inconclusive, it can be declared unsatisfactory or undergo a second stage test. The second stage shall be conducted in a manner identical to the first stage, except that unsensitized guinea pig controls are not necessary. The results are evaluated by combining the results obtained on all guinea pigs tested in stages one and two. Calculate the average response on the 20 M. bovis sensitized animals and on the 20 M. avium sensitized animals and determine the specificity index. An inconclusive serial is satisfactory after the second stage test, if its specificity index is 400 square millimeters or more, and unsatisfactory if its specificity index is less than 400 square millimeters.

(d) Special chemical tests and requirements. Final container samples of completed product from each serial shall be tested as follows:

(1) Protein concentration. The final product shall contain a protein concentration of 1.0 ±0.1 mg/ml. The Microkjeldahl Test for Nitrogen shall be used.

(2) Phenol content. Phenol content of the final product shall be 0.50 percent plus or minus 0.04 percent. A direct titration with a standardized bromide-bromate solution shall be conducted.

[41 FR 8471, Feb. 27, 1976, as amended at 41 FR 21760, May 28, 1976; 41 FR 32883, Aug. 6, 1976. Redesignated at 55 FR 35561, Aug. 31, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 66784, Dec. 26, 1991]

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