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Title 9Chapter ISubchapter EPart 113 → Subject Group


Title 9: Animals and Animal Products
PART 113—STANDARD REQUIREMENTS


Killed Virus Vaccines

§113.200   General requirements for killed virus vaccines.

When prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the filed Outline of Production, a killed virus vaccine shall meet the applicable requirements in this section.

(a) Killing agent. The vaccine virus shall be killed (inactivated) by an appropriate agent. The procedure involved may be referred to as inactivation. Suitable tests to assure complete inactivation shall be written into the filed Outline of Production.

(b) Cell culture requirements. If cell cultures are used in the preparation of the vaccine, primary cells shall meet the requirements in §113.51 and cell lines shall meet the requirements in §113.52.

(c) Purity tests—(1) Bacteria and fungi. Final container samples of completed product from each serial shall be tested as prescribed in §113.26.

(2) Avian origin vaccine. Bulk pooled material or final container samples from each serial shall also be tested for:

(i) Salmonella contamination as prescribed in §113.30; and

(ii) Lymphoid leukosis virus contamination as prescribed in §113.31; and

(iii) Hemagglutinating viruses as prescribed in §113.34.

(3) Mycoplasma. If the licensee cannot demonstrate that the agent used to kill the vaccine virus would also kill mycoplasma, each serial of the vaccine shall be tested for mycoplasma as prescribed in §113.28, prior to adding the killing agent. Material found to contain mycoplasma is unsatisfactory for use.

(4) Extraneous viruses. Each lot of Master Seed Virus used to prepare killed virus vaccine recommended for animals other than poultry shall meet the requirements for extraneous viruses as prescribed in §113.55.

(d) Safety tests. Final container samples of completed product from each serial shall be tested for safety in guinea pigs as prescribed in §113.38 and for safety in mice as prescribed in §113.33: Provided, That, vaccines recommended for use only in poultry are exempt from this requirement.

(e) Viricidal activity test. Only serials tested for viricidal activity in accordance with the test provided in §113.35 and found satisfactory by such test shall be packaged as diluent for desiccated fractions in combination packages.

(f) Formaldehyde content. If formaldehyde is used as the killing agent, the residual free formaldehyde content must not exceed 0.74 grams per liter (g/L) as determined using the ferric chloride test.2 Firms currently using tests for residual free formaldehyde content other than the ferric chloride test have until July 14, 2004 to update their Outline of Production to be in compliance with this requirement.

2The procedures for performing the ferric chloride test for residual free formaldehyde may be obtained from USDA, APHIS, Center for Veterinary Biologics-Laboratory, 1800 Dayton Road, P.O. Box 844, Ames, IA 50010.

[39 FR 27428, July 29, 1974, as amended at 40 FR 23989, June 4, 1975; 43 FR 49528, Oct. 24, 1978. Redesignated at 55 FR 35562, Aug. 31, 1990; 68 FR 35283, June 13, 2003; 79 FR 31021, May 30, 2014]

§§113.201-113.203   [Reserved]

§113.204   Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or tissues obtained from mink that have developed mink enteritis following inoculation with virulent mink enteritis virus. Each serial shall meet the applicable requirements prescribed in §113.200 and special requirements prescribed in this section. Any serial found unsatisfactory by a prescribed test shall not be released.

(a) Safety test. Vaccinates used in the potency test in paragraph (b) of this section shall be observed each day prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial is unsatisfactory. If unfavorable reactions not attributable to the vaccine occur, the test shall be declared a No Test and may be repeated: Provided, That, if the test is not repeated, the serial is unsatisfactory.

(b) Potency test. Bulk or final container samples of completed product shall be tested for potency using 10 mink enteritis susceptible mink (five vaccinates and five controls) as follows:

(1) Vaccination. Each of the five vaccinates shall be injected with one dose of vaccine as recommended on the label and observed each day for 14 days.

(2) Challenge. At least 2 weeks after the last inoculation, the five vaccinates and the five controls shall be challenged with virulent mink enteritis virus and observed each day for 12 days. Fecal material shall be collected on one day between days 4-8 (inclusive) postchallenge from each test animal that remains free of enteric signs and tested for the presence of mink enteritis virus by cell culture with fluorescent antibody examination.

(3) Interpretation. A serial is satisfactory if at least 80 percent of the vaccinates remain free of enteric signs and do not shed virus in the feces, while at least 80 percent of the controls develop clinical signs of mink enteritis or shed virus in the feces. If at least 80 percent of the vaccinates remain free of enteric signs and do not shed virus in the feces, while less than 80 percent of the controls develop clinical signs of mink enteritis or shed virus in the feces, the test is considered a No Test and may be repeated: Provided, That, if at least 80 percent of the vaccinates do not remain well and free of detectable virus in the feces, the serial is unsatisfactory.

[39 FR 27428, July 29, 1974. Redesignated at 55 FR 35562, Aug. 31, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 66786, Dec. 26, 1991; 60 FR 14361, Mar. 17, 1995]

§113.205   Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

Newcastle Disease Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained from embryonated chicken eggs or cell cultures. With the exception of §113.200(c)(2)(iii), each serial shall meet the applicable general requirements prescribed in §113.200 and special requirements prescribed in this section. A serial found unsatisfactory by a prescribed test shall not be released.

(a) Safety test. The prechallenge part of the potency test in paragraph (b) of this section shall constitute a safety test. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the product occur in any of the vaccinates, the serial is unsatisfactory. If unfavorable reactions which are not attributable to the product occur, the test shall be declared a No Test and may be repeated: Provided, That, if the test is not repeated, the serial shall be declared unsatisfactory.

(b) Potency test. A vaccination-challenge test shall be conducted using susceptible chickens 2 to 6 weeks of age at time of vaccination, properly identified and obtained from the same source and hatch.

(1) Ten or more chickens shall be vaccinated as recommended on the label and kept isolated under observation for at least 14 days.

(2) After at least 14 days post-vaccination, the vaccinates and at least 10 unvaccinated chickens that have been kept isolated as controls shall be challenged with a virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus supplied by or approved by Veterinary Services and the vaccinates observed each day for 14 days.

(3) If at least 90 percent of the controls do not show typical signs of Newcastle disease or die, the test is a No Test and may be repeated. If at least 90 percent of the vaccinates do not remain normal, the serial is unsatisfactory.

[39 FR 27428, July 29, 1974. Redesignated at 55 FR 35562, Aug. 31, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 66786, Dec. 26, 1991]

§113.206   Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing epidermal tumors (warts) obtained from a bovine. Each serial shall meet the requirements prescribed in this section and any serial found unsatisfactory by a prescribed test shall not be released.

(a) Purity. Final container samples of completed product shall meet the requirements for purity as prescribed in §113.200 (c)(1) and (3).

(b) Safety. Bulk or final container samples of completed product shall meet the requirements for safety as prescribed in §§113.33(b) and 113.38.

(c) Formaldehyde content. Bulk or final container samples of completed product shall meet the requirements for formaldehyde content as prescribed in §113.200(f).

(d) Potency and efficacy. The efficacy of wart vaccine has been demonstrated to the satisfaction of Veterinary Services as being a valuable biological product. The inherent nature of the product precludes the possible development of serial to serial potency tests and none is required: Provided, That,

(1) The vaccine shall be a tissue extract representing at least 10 percent weight to volume suspension of wart tissue; and

(2) The vaccine shall be limited to use in the prevention of warts in cattle. Labeling recommendations shall be in accordance with §112.7(h).

[40 FR 14084, Mar. 28, 1975, as amended at 40 FR 23989, June 4, 1975; 40 FR 30803, July 23, 1975. Redesignated at 55 FR 35562, Aug. 31, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 66786, Dec. 26, 1991; 81 FR 59436, Aug. 30, 2016]

§113.207   Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus.

Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Each serial or subserial shall meet the requirements prescribed in this section and the general requirements prescribed in §113.200, except those in §113.200(d). Any serial or subserial found unsatisfactory by a prescribed test shall not be released.

(a) Safety test. Bulk samples of completed product from each serial shall be tested for encephalomyelitis virus inactivation.

(1) Each of at least ten 6 to 12 hour old chickens shall be injected subcutaneously with 0.5 ml of the product and the chickens observed each day for 10 days.

(2) If unfavorable reactions attributable to the product occur in the chickens during the observation period, the serial is unsatisfactory. If unfavorable reactions not attributable to the product occur, the test is a No Test and may be repeated: Provided, That, if the test is not repeated, the serial is unsatisfactory.

(b) Potency test. Bulk or final container samples of completed product from each serial shall be tested for potency in accordance with the two-stage test provided in this paragraph. For each fraction contained in the product—Eastern type, Western type, or Venezuelan type—the serological interpretations required in this test shall be made independently. A serial or subserial found unsatisfactory for any of the fractions shall not be released.

(1) For this test, a guinea pig dose shall be one-half the amount recommended on the label for a horse and shall be administered as recommended for a horse. Each of 10 healthy guinea pigs (vaccinates) shall be injected with two guinea pig doses with an interval of 14 to 21 days between doses. Two additional guinea pigs from the same source shall be held as controls.

(2) Fourteen to 21 days after the second injection, serum samples from each vaccinate and each control shall be tested by a plaque reduction, serum neutralization test using Vero 76 cells.

(3) If the control serum samples show a titer of 1:4 or greater for any fraction, the test is a No Test for that fraction and may be repeated: Provided, That, if four or more of the vaccinate serum samples show a titer of less than 1:40 for the Eastern type fraction, less than 1:40 for the Western type fraction, or less than 1:4 for the Venezuelan type fraction, the serial or subserial is unsatisfactory without further testing.

(4) If two or three of the vaccinate serum samples show a titer of less than 1:40 for the Eastern type fraction, less than 1:40 for the Western type fraction, or less than 1:4 for the Venezuelan type fraction, the second stage of the test may be used for the relevant fraction(s): Provided, That, if a fraction is found acceptable by the first stage of the test, the second stage need not be conducted for that fraction.

(5) If the second stage is used and four or more of the vaccinate serum samples show a titer of less than 1:40 for the Eastern type fraction or the Western type fraction, or less than 1:4 for the Venezuelan type fraction, the serial or subserial is unsatisfactory.

(6) The results shall be evaluated according to the following table:

Cumulative Totals

StageVaccinatesFailures for acceptanceFailures for rejection
1101 or less4 or more.
2203 or less      Do.

[39 FR 44714, Dec. 27, 1974, as amended at 40 FR 14084, Mar. 28, 1975; 42 FR 45284, Sept. 9, 1977. Redesignated at 55 FR 35562, Aug. 31, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 66786, Dec. 26, 1991; 61 FR 67930, Dec. 26, 1996]

§113.208   Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained from embryonated chicken eggs. Each serial shall meet the general requirements prescribed in §113.200 and the requirements prescribed in this section. Any serial found unsatisfactory by a prescribed test shall not be released.

(a) Safety tests. (1) The prechallenge part of the potency test prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section shall constitute a safety test. If any of the vaccinates develop clinical signs of disease or die due to causes attributable to the product, the serial is unsatisfactory.

(2) An inactivation test for viable avian encephalomyelitis (AE) virus shall be conducted on each serial. The test shall be conducted using susceptible chicken embryos: Provided, That, if a non-embryo adapted virus is used for vaccine production, the test shall be conducted in susceptible chickens.

(i) Chicken Embryo Test. Each of 15 or more AE susceptible 5 or 6 day old embryos shall be injected in the yolk sac with 0.2 ml of the vaccine. For a valid test, at least 80 percent of the embryos shall survive for 48 hours post-inoculation (PI). Eleven to 13 days PI, all embryos surviving the 48 hour PI period shall be examined for gross lesions of AE; all these embryos shall be normal or the serial is unsatisfactory. Concurrently, five additional embryos from the same source shall be injected with live AE virus of the production strain to serve as positive controls. At least 4 of the 5 embryos shall show evidence of AE virus infection during the 11 to 13 day PI period or the test shall be considered a No Test and repeated: Provided, That, if the test is not repeated, the serial shall be declared unsatisfactory.

(ii) Chicken test. Each of 10 or more AE susceptible 7 day old chickens shall be injected intracerebrally with 0.1 ml vaccine each. The chickens shall be observed each day for 28 days. If any chickens show clinical signs of AE, the serial is unsatisfactory. Concurrently, 5 additional chickens from the same source shall be injected intracerebrally with live AE virus of the production strain to serve as positive controls. At least 4 of the 5 controls shall show evidence of AE virus infection during the observation period or the test shall be a No Test and may be repeated: Provided, That, if the test is not repeated, the serial shall be unsatisfactory.

(b) Potency test. Bulk or final container samples of completed product from each serial or one subserial shall be tested. Ten or more AE-susceptible chickens (vaccinates), 4 weeks or older, properly identified and obtained from the same source and hatch, shall be injected as recommended on the label. At least 10 additional AE-susceptible chickens, properly identified and obtained from the same source and hatch shall be kept in isolation as controls.

(1) At least 28 days post-injection, the vaccinates and the controls shall be challenged intramuscularly with a virulent AE virus and the chickens observed each day for 21 days.

(2) If at least 80 percent of the controls do not show clinical signs of or die from AE infection, the test is a No Test and may be repeated.

(3) If at least 80 percent of the vaccinates do not remain normal, the serial is unsatisfactory.

[39 FR 12958, Dec. 27, 1974, as amended at 40 FR 41088, Sept. 5, 1975. Redesignated at 55 FR 35562, Aug. 31, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 66786, Dec. 26, 1991]

§113.209   Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

Rabies Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell cultures or nerve tissues obtained from animals that have developed rabies infection following injection with rabies virus. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from the Master Seed Virus.

(a) The Master Seed Virus shall meet the applicable requirements prescribed in §113.200 and the requirements prescribed in this section.

(1) Each lot of Master Seed Virus propagated in tissue or cells of avian origin shall also be tested for extraneous pathogens by procedures prescribed in §113.37.

(2) Each lot of Master Seed Virus propagated in primary cell cultures of mouse or hamster origin or brain tissues of mouse origin shall be tested for lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus by the procedure prescribed in §113.42. If LCM virus is detected, the Master Seed Virus is unsatisfactory.

(b) The immunogenicity of vaccine prepared with virus at the highest passage from the Master Seed shall be established in each species for which the vaccine is recommended. Tests shall be conducted in accordance with a protocol filed with Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service before initiation of the tests. The vaccine shall be prepared using methods prescribed in the Outline of Production. If Rabies Vaccine is to be in combination with other fractions, the product to be tested shall include all fractions to be tested.

(1) The preinactivation virus titer must be established as soon as possible after harvest by at least five separate virus titrations. A mean relative potency value of the vaccine to be used in the host animal potency test must be established by at least five replicate potency tests conducted in accordance with the standard NIH test for potency in chapter 37 of “Laboratory Techniques in Rabies,” Fourth Edition (1996), edited by F.X. Meslin, M.M. Kaplan, and H. Koprowski, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland (ISBN 92 4 154479 1). The provisions of chapter 37 of “Laboratory Techniques in Rabies,” Fourth Edition (1996), are the minimum standards for achieving compliance with this section and are incorporated by reference. These provisions state that the challenge virus standard to be used as the challenge in the NIH test and the reference vaccine for the test are available from the national control authority. In the United States, that authority is the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's Center for Veterinary Biologics Laboratory, located at 1920 Dayton Avenue, P.O. Box 844, Ames, IA 50010; phone (515) 337-6100; fax (515) 337-6120. This incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the World Health Organization Publications Center USA, 49 Sheridan Avenue, Albany, NY 12210. Copies may be inspected at the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Center for Veterinary Biologics, Policy, Evaluation, and Licensing, 1920 Dayton Avenue, P.O. Box 844, Ames, IA 50010, or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal__register/code__of__federal__regulations/ibr__locations.html.

(2) The dose of vaccine to be used in the immunogenicity test shall be no more than the amount which, on the basis of The NIH Test For Potency, has been diluted to the proposed minimum acceptable potency value.1

(3) Test animals shall be uniform and have no neutralizing antibodies to rabies as determined by serum-neutralization (SN) tests.

(i) Twenty-five or more animals shall be used as vaccinates. Each shall be administered a dose of vaccine at the proposed minimum potency level and by the method specified in the Outline of Production.

(ii) Ten or more additional animals shall be held as controls.

(iii) On or about 30, 90, 180, 270, and 365 days postvaccination, all test animals shall be bled and individual serum samples tested for neutralizing antibodies to rabies virus.

(iv) All surviving test animals shall be challenged intramuscularly with virulent rabies virus furnished or approved by Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 1 year after vaccinations, except as provided in (b)(4) of this section. The challenged animals shall be observed each day for 90 days as prescribed in §113.5(b). The brain of each test animal that dies following challenges shall be examined for rabies by the fluorescent antibody test or other method acceptable to Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

(v) Requirements for acceptance in challenge tests shall be death due to rabies in at least 80 percent of the controls while at least 22 of 25 or 26 of 30 or a statistically equivalent number of the vaccinates remain well for a period of 90 days.

(4) An alternative to challenging all surviving test animals in accordance with paragraph (b)(3)(iv) of this section may be used when the test animals are of species other than carnivores. Vaccinates shall be challenged at 1 year postvaccination. These shall include five vaccinates with the lowest SN titers at the 270th-day bleeding, five vaccinates with the lowest SN titers at the 365th-day bleeding, and all vaccinates with SN titers below 1:10 by the mouse SN test or below 1:16 by the rapid-fluorescent-focus-inhibition test at any bleeding. At least five SN-negative controls of each species shall be challenged at the same time as the vaccinates. All SN titers shall be titrated to an endpoint. All of the challenged vaccinates must remain well for a period of 90 days, and at least 80 percent of the controls must die of rabies for a satisfactory test without further challenge. If one or more of the vaccinates die from rabies, all the remaining vaccines, regardless of titer, along with the five controls shall be challenged. The cumulative results from the two challenges shall be evaluated for acceptance as specified in paragraph (b)(3)(v) of this section.

(5) An Outline of Production change shall be made before authority for use a new lot of Master Seed Virus shall be granted by Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

(c) If more than 1 year duration of immunity is to be claimed, a duration of immunity test for the additional time shall be conducted and interpreted as prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section for the 1 year test. The test animals shall be monitored serologically at least every 180 days. The time of challenge may be adjusted accordingly.

(d) Test requirements for release: Each serial and each subserial shall meet the general requirements prescribed in §113.200 and special requirements in this paragraph.

(1) Purity test. Primary cell cultures of hamster origin or brain tissues of mouse origin used in vaccine production shall be tested for LCM virus as prescribed in §113.42. Hamster origin cells shall be disrupted and undiluted cell fluids from each lot shall be tested. Where mouse brains are used in production, at least five mice which have not been injected with rabies virus shall be sacrificed and a 10 percent suspension of brain material shall be prepared and tested.

(2) Safety tests. Bulk samples from each serial shall be tested for virus inactivation and safety as follows:

(i) At the end of the inactivation period, each of 20 12 to 16 gram mice shall be injected intracerebrally with 0.03 ml and two rabbits shall be injected into each cerebral hemisphere with 0.25 ml and observed each day for 21 days. The brains of animals dying between the fourth and 21st day post-injection shall be checked for rabies virus. Material from each brain recovered shall be injected into each of five mice and the mice observed each day for 14 days. The fluorescent antibody test or serum neutralization test shall be used to confirm the presence or absence or live rabies virus. If live rabies virus is confirmed, the serial is unsatisfactory unless reprocessed in accordance with §114.18.

(ii) A test for safety in three young seronegative animals of the most susceptible species for which the vaccine is recommended shall be conducted. Each shall in injected intramuscularly with one recommended dose of vaccine. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the product occur during a 28 day observation period, the serial is unsatisfactory.

(3) Potency test. Bulk or final container samples of completed product from each serial must be tested for potency by tests conducted in accordance with the standard NIH test for potency in Chapter 37 of “Laboratory Techniques in Rabies,” Fourth Edition (1996), which is incorporated by reference at paragraph (b)(1) of this section. The relative potency of each serial must be at least equal to that used in an approved host animal immunogenicity test.

[39 FR 44715, Dec. 27, 1974, as amended at 42 FR 6794, Feb. 4, 1977; 43 FR 49528, Oct. 24, 1978; 50 FR 20090, May 14, 1985. Redesignated at 55 FR 35562, Aug. 31, 1990; 56 FR 66784, 66786, Dec. 26, 1991; 61 FR 31823, June 21, 1996; 64 FR 45420, Aug. 20, 1999; 69 FR 18803, Apr. 9, 2004; 75 FR 20773, Apr. 21, 2010]

§113.210   Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed which has been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from the Master Seed.

(a) The Master Seed shall meet the applicable general requirements prescribed in §113.200.

(b) The Master Seed shall be tested for chlamydial agents as prescribed in §113.43.

(c) The immunogenicity of vaccine prepared from the Master Seed in accordance with the Outline of Production shall be established by a method acceptable to Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Vaccine used for this test shall be at the highest passage from the Master Seed and prepared at the minimum preinactivation titer specified in the Outline of Production.

(d) Test requirements for release. Each serial and subserial shall meet the applicable general requirements prescribed in §113.200 and the special requirements provided in this paragraph. Any serial or subserial found unsatisfactory by a prescribed test shall not be released.

(1) Safety. Vaccinates used in the potency test in paragraph (d)(2) of this section shall be observed each day during the prechallenge period. If unfavorable reactions occur, including oral lesions, which are attributable to the vaccine, the serial is unsatisfactory. If unfavorable reactions occur which are not attributable to the vaccine, the test is inconclusive and may be repeated. If the test is not repeated, the serial is unsatisfactory.

(2) Potency. Bulk or final container samples of completed product shall be treated for potency as follows:

(i) Eight feline calicivirus susceptible cats (five vaccinates and three controls) shall be used as test animals. Throat and nasal swabs shall be collected from each cat and individually tested on susceptible cell cultures for the presence of feline calicivirus. Blood samples shall be drawn and individual serum samples tested for neutralizing antibody. The cats shall be considered suitable for use if all swabs are negative for virus isolation and all serums are negative for calicivirus antibody at the 1:2 final dilution in a 50 percent plaque reduction test or other test of equal sensitivity.

(ii) The five cats used as vaccinates shall be administered one dose of vaccine by the method recommended on the label. If two doses are recommended, the second dose shall be given after the interval recommended on the label.

(iii) Fourteen or more days after the final dose of vaccine, the vaccinates and controls shall each be challenged intranasally with virulent feline calicivirus furnished or approved by Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and observed each day for 14 days postchallenge. The rectal temperature of each animal shall be taken and the presence or absence of clinical signs, particularly lesions on the oral mucosa, noted and recorded each day.

(iv) If three of three controls do not show clinical signs of feline calicivirus infection other than fever, the test is inconclusive and may be repeated.

(v) If a significant difference in clinical signs cannot be demonstrated between vaccinates and controls using a scoring system approved by Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and prescribed in the Outline of Production, the serial is unsatisfactory.

[50 FR 433, Jan. 4, 1985. Redesignated at 55 FR 35562, Aug. 31, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 66784, 66786, Dec. 26, 1991]

§113.211   [Reserved]

§113.212   Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed which has been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from the Master Seed.

(a) The Master Seed shall meet the applicable requirements prescribed in §113.200.

(b) Each lot of Master Seed shall be tested for pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test prescribed in §113.37, except that, if the test is a No Test because of a vaccine virus override, the chicken inoculation test prescribed in §113.36 may be conducted and the virus judged accordingly.

(c) The immunogenicity of vaccine prepared in accordance with the Outline of Production shall be established by a method acceptable to Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Vaccine used for this test shall be at the highest passage from the Master Seed and prepared at the minimum preinactivation titer specified in the Outline of Production. The test shall establish that the vaccine, when used as recommended on the label, is capable of inducing an immune response in dams of sufficient magnitude to provide significant protection to offspring.

(d) Test requirements for release. Each serial and subserial shall meet the applicable general requirements prescribed in §113.200 and the special requirements in this paragraph. Any serial or subserial found unsatisfactory by a prescribed test shall not be released.

(1) Safety. Vaccinates used in the potency test in paragraph (d)(2) of this section shall be observed each day during the prechallenge period. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial is unsatisfactory. If unfavorable reactions which are not attributable to the vaccine occur, the test is a No Test and may be repeated. If the test is not repeated, the serial is unsatisfactory.

(2) Potency. Bulk or final container samples of completed product from each serial shall be tested for potency using the two-stage potency test provided in this paragraph.

(i) Vaccinates. Inject each of 21 susceptible chickens 14 to 28 days of age, properly identified and obtained from the same source and hatch, with one dose of vaccine by the route recommended on the label and observe for at least 21 days.

(ii) Controls. Retain at least 10 additional chickens from the same source and hatch as unvaccinated controls.

(iii) Challenge. Twenty-one to 28 days postvaccination, challenge 20 vaccinates and 10 controls by eyedrop with a virulent infectious bursal disease virus furnished or approved by Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

(iv) Postchallenge period. Four days postchallenge, necropsy all chickens and examine each for gross lesions of bursal disease. For purposes of this test, gross lesions shall include peribursal edema and/or edema and/or macroscopic hemorrhage in the bursal tissue. Vaccinated chickens showing gross lesions shall be counted as failures. If at least 80 percent of the controls do not have gross lesions of bursal disease in a stage of the test, that stage is considered inconclusive and may be repeated. In a valid test, the results shall be evaluated according to the following table:

StageNumber of vaccinatesCumulative number of vaccinatesCumulative total number of failures for—
Satisfactory serialUnsatisfactory serial
120203 or less6 or more.
220408 or less9 or more.

(v) If four or five vaccinates show lesions of bursal disease in the first stage, the second stage may be conducted in a manner identical to the first stage. If the second stage is not conducted, the serial is unsatisfactory.

(vi) If the second stage is used, each serial shall be evaluated according to the second part of the table on the basis of cumulative results.

[50 FR 434, Jan. 4, 1985. Redesignated at 55 FR 35562, Aug. 31, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 66784, 66786, Dec. 26, 1991; 79 FR 55969, Sept. 18, 2014]

§§113.213-113.214   [Reserved]

§113.215   Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed virus which has been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seed cultures for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from the Master Seed.

(a) The Master Seed shall meet the applicable general requirements prescribed in §113.200 and the requirements of this section.

(b) The immunogenicity of vaccine prepared from the Master Seed in accordance with the Outline of Production shall be established by a method acceptable to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Vaccine used for this test shall be at the highest passage from the Master Seed and at the minimum preinactivation titer provided in the Outline of Production.

(c) Test requirements for release. Each serial and subserial shall meet the applicable general requirements prescribed in §113.200 and the special requirements provided in this paragraph. Any serial or subserial found unsatisfactory by a prescribed test shall not be released.

(1) Safety. Vaccinates used in the potency test in paragraph (c)(2) of this section shall be observed each day during the prechallenge period. If unfavorable reactions occur, including respiratory signs, which are attributable to the vaccine, the serial is unsatisfactory. If unfavorable reactions occur which are not attributable to the vaccine, the test is a No Test and may be repeated one time. If results of the second test are not satisfactory, or if the test is not repeated, the serial is unsatisfactory.

(2) Potency. Bulk or final container samples of completed product shall be tested for potency using the method described in this paragraph.

(i) Eight bovine virus diarrhea susceptible calves (five vaccinates and three controls) shall be used as test animals. Individual serum samples shall be collected, inactivated, and individually tested for neutralizing antibody.

(ii) A constant virus decreasing serum neutralization test in cell culture using 50-300 TCID50 of virus shall be used. Calves shall be considered susceptible if there is no neutralization at 1:2 final serum dilution. Other tests of equal sensitivity approved by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service may be used.

(iii) The five calves used as vaccinates shall be administered one dose of vaccine as recommended on the label. If two doses are recommended, the second dose shall be given according to the interval recommended on the label.

(iv) Fourteen days or more after the last vaccination, blood samples shall be drawn and the individual serum samples inactivated and tested for bovine virus diarrhea virus neutralizing antibody by the same method used to determine susceptibility.

(v) Test interpretation. If the controls have not remained seronegative at 1:2, the test is a No Test (NT) and may be repeated. If at least four of the five vaccinates in a valid test have not developed 50 percent endpoint titers of 1:8 or greater, the serial is unsatisfactory, except as provided in paragraph (c)(2)(vi) of this section.

(vi) Virus Challenge Test. If the results of a valid serum neutralization test are unsatisfactory, the vaccinates and controls may be challenged with virulent bovine virus diarrhea virus furnished or approved by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. The animals shall be observed for 14 days post-challenge. If two of the three control calves do not show a temperature rise to 104.5 °F and develop respiratory or clinical signs of bovine virus diarrhea, the test is a No Test and may be repeated one time. If two or more vaccinates show a temperature of 104.0 °F for 2 or more days and develop respiratory or clinical or other signs, the serial is unsatisfactory.

(vii) The prevaccination and postvaccination sera from a satisfactory potency test shall be submitted to the National Veterinary Services Laboratories for confirmatory testing.

[55 FR 35562, Aug. 31, 1990]

§113.216   Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed virus which has been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seed cultures for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from the Master Seed.

(a) The Master Seed shall meet the applicable general requirements prescribed in §113.200 and the requirements of this section.

(b) The immunogenicity of vaccine prepared in accordance with the Outline of Production shall be established by a method acceptable to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Vaccine used for this test shall be at the highest passage from the Master Seed and at the minimum preinactivation titer provided in the Outline of Production.

(c) Test requirements for release. Each serial and subserial shall meet the requirements prescribed in §113.200 and the special requirements provided in this paragraph. Any serial or subserial found unsatisfactory by a prescribed test shall not be released.

(1) Safety. Vaccinates used in the potency test in paragraph (c)(2) of this section shall be observed each day during the prechallenge period. If unfavorable reactions occur, which are attributable to the vaccine, the serial is unsatisfactory. If unfavorable reactions occur which are not attributable to the vaccine, the test is a No Test and may be repeated one time. If the results of the second test are not satisfactory, or if the test is not repeated, the serial is unsatisfactory.

(2) Potency. Bulk or final container samples of completed product shall be tested for potency using the method described in this paragraph.

(i) Eight infectious bovine rhinotracheitis susceptible calves (five vaccinates, three controls) shall be used as test animals. Individual serum samples shall be collected, inactivated, and individually tested for neutralizing antibody.

(ii) A constant virus decreasing serum neutralization test in cell culture using 50-300 TCID50 of virus shall be used. Calves shall be considered susceptible if there is no neutralization at 1:2 final serum dilution. Other tests of equal sensitivity acceptable to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service may be used.

(iii) The five calves used as vaccinates shall be administered one dose of vaccine as recommended on the label. If two doses are recommended, the second dose shall be given according to the interval recommended on the label.

(iv) Fourteen or more days after the last vaccination, blood samples shall be drawn and the individual serum samples inactivated and tested for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus neutralizing antibody by the same method used to determine susceptibility.

(v) Test interpretation. If the three controls have not remained seronegative at 1:2, the test is a No Test (NT) and may be repeated. If at least four of the five vaccinates in a valid test have not developed 50 percent endpoint titers of 1:8, the serial is unsatisfactory, except as provided in paragraph (c)(2)(vi) of this section.

(vi) Virus Challenge Test. If the results of a valid serum neutralization test are unsatisfactory, the vaccinates and controls may be challenged with virulent infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus furnished or approved by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. The animals shall be observed each day for 14 days post-challenge. If two of the three control calves do not show a temperature rise to 104.5 °F and develop respiratory or other clinical signs of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, the test is a No Test (NT) and may be repeated one time. If more than one of the vaccinates shows a temperature of 104.0 °F for 2 or more days or if more than one of the vaccinates develops respiratory or clinical or other signs, the serial is unsatisfactory.

(vii) The prevaccination and postvaccination sera from a satisfactory potency test shall be submitted to the National Veterinary Services Laboratories for testing by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

[55 FR 35562, Aug. 31, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 66786, Dec. 26, 1991]

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