e-CFR banner

Home
gpo.gov
govinfo.gov

e-CFR Navigation Aids

Browse

Simple Search

Advanced Search

 — Boolean

 — Proximity

 

Search History

Search Tips

Corrections

Latest Updates

User Info

FAQs

Agency List

Incorporation By Reference

eCFR logo

Related Resources

 

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of February 20, 2020

Title 7Subtitle BChapter ISubchapter KPart 201 → Subject Group


Title 7: Agriculture
PART 201—FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS


germination tests in the administration of the act

§201.53   Source of seeds for germination.

(a) When both purity and germination tests are required, seeds for germination shall be taken from the separation of the kind, variety, or type considered pure seed and shall be counted without discrimination as to size or appearance.

(b) When only a germination test is required and the pure seed is estimated or determined to be at least 98 percent, the pure seed for the germination test may be taken indiscriminately from a representative portion of the bulk.

(c) When only a germination test is required and the pure seed is found to be less than 98 percent, the seed for the test shall be obtained by separating the sample into two components as follows: (1) Pure seed and (2) other crop seed, weed seed, and inert matter. In making this separation at least 14 of the quantity required for a regular purity analysis shall be used. The whole sample must be well mixed and divided in such a manner as to get a completely representative subsample.

[10 FR 9952, Aug. 11, 1945, as amended at 20 FR 7931, Oct. 21, 1955]

§201.54   Number of seeds for germination.

At least 400 seeds shall be tested for germination; except that in mixtures, 200 seeds of each of those kinds present to the extent of 15 percent or less may be used in lieu of 400, in which case an additional 2 percent is to be added to the regular germination tolerances. The seeds shall be tested in replicate tests of 100 seeds or less.

[59 FR 64500, Dec. 14, 1994]

§201.55   Retests.

Retests shall be made as follows:

(a) When the range of 100-seed replicates of a given test exceeds the maximum tolerated range in the table appearing in this section.

Table of Maximum Tolerated Ranges Between 100-Seed Replicates for Use in Connection With §201.55(A)

Average percent germinationsMaximum allowed
between replicates
      4
replicates
2
replicates
9925
9836
97476
96586
95697
947108
938108
929119
9110119
9011129
89121210
88131310
87141311
86151411
85161411
84171411
83181512
82191512
81201512
80211613
79221613
78231613
77241713
76251713
75261714
74271714
73281714
72291814
71301814
70311814
69321814
68331815
67341815
66351915
65361915
64371915
63381915
62381915
61401915
60411915
59421915
58431915
57441915
56451915
55462015
54472016
53482016
52482016
51502016

(b) When at the time of the prescribed final count there are indications, such as presence of firm ungerminated seeds, that a satisfactory germination has not been obtained;

(c) When there is evidence that the results may not be reliable due to improper test conditions, errors in seedling evaluation, the presence of fungi or bacteria, or inaccuracies in counting or recording results;

(d) When a sample shows seedling injury or abnormality as a result of chemical treatment, of exposure to chemicals, or of toxicity from any source. (Retest shall be made in soil or a mixture of soil and sand);

(e) When no two satisfactory tests are within tolerance.

Note to §201.55: To find the maximum tolerated range, compute the average percentage of all 100 seed replicates of a given test, rounding off the result to the nearest whole number. The germination is found in the first two columns of the table. When the differences between highest and lowest replicates do not exceed the corresponding values found in the “4 replicates” column, no additional testing is required. However, if the differences exceed the values in the “4 replicates” column, retesting is necessary.

[25 FR 8771, Sept. 13, 1960, as amended at 65 FR 1707, Jan. 11, 2000]

§201.55a   Moisture and aeration of substratum.

(a) The substratum must be moist enough to supply the needed moisture to the seeds at all times. Excessive moisture which will restrict aeration of the seeds should be avoided. Except as provided for those kinds of seeds requiring high moisture levels of the germination media, the substrata should never be so wet that a film of water is formed around the seeds. For most kinds of seeds blotters or other paper substrata should not be so wet that by pressing, a film of water forms around the finger.

(b) The following formula may be used as a guide in the preparation of sand for germination tests:

[118.3 cc. (1 gill) sand/Its weight in grams] × 20.2−8.0 = The number of cc. of water to add to each 100 grams of air-dry sand.

(c) The amount of water provided by this formula is satisfactory for seeds the size of clovers and will have to be modified slightly, depending on the kind of seed being tested and the kind of sand used. For example, slightly more moisture should be added when the larger seeds are to be tested.

(d) In preparing soil tests water should be added to the soil until it can be formed into a ball when squeezed in the palm of the hand but will break freely when pressed between two fingers. After the soil has been moistened it should be rubbed through a sieve and put in the seed containers without packing.

(e) The addition of water subsequent to placing the seed in test will depend on the evaporation from the substrata in the germination chambers. Since the rate of evaporation will depend upon the relative humidity of the air, it is desirable to keep water in the germination chambers or to provide other means of supplying a relative humidity of approximately 95 percent. Germination tests should be observed at frequent intervals to insure an adequate moisture supply of the substrata at all times.

[20 FR 7931, Oct. 21, 1955]

§201.56   Interpretation.

(a) A seed shall be considered to have germinated when it has developed those essential structures which, for the kind of seed under consideration, are indicative of its ability to produce a normal plant under favorable conditions. In general, the following are considered to be essential structures necessary for the continued development of the seedling (although some structures may not be visible in all kinds at the time of seedling evaluation). Seedlings possessing these essential structures are referred to as normal seedlings: Root system (consisting of primary, secondary, seminal, or adventitious roots); hypocotyl; epicotyl; cotyledon(s); terminal bud; primary leaves; and coleoptile and mesocotyl (in the grass family). Abnormal seedlings consist of those with defects to these structures, as described in the abnormal seedling descriptions, and are judged to be incapable of continued growth. The seedling descriptions assume that test conditions were adequate to allow proper assessment of the essential seedling structures.

(b) Sand and/or soil tests may be used as a guide in determining the classification of questionable seedlings and the evaluation of germination tests made on approved artificial media. This is intended to provide a method of checking the reliability of tests made on artificial substrata when there may be doubt as to the proper evaluation of such tests.

(c) Seedlings infected with fungi or bacteria should be regarded as normal if all essential structures are present. A seedling that has been seriously damaged by bacteria or fungi from any source other than the specific seed should be regarded as normal if it is determined that all essential structures were present before the injury or damage occurred. Germination counts should be made on samples where contamination and decay are present at approximately 2-day intervals between the usual first count and the final count. During the progress of the germination test, seeds which are obviously dead and moldy and which may be a source of contamination of healthy seeds should be removed at each count and the number of such dead seeds should be recorded. When symptoms of certain diseases develop which can be readily recognized and identified, their presence should be noted.

(d) Seed units containing more than one seed or embryo, such as New Zealand spinach seed, Beta seed, double fruits of the carrot family (Umbelliferae), multiple seeds of burnet, and seed units of grasses consisting of multiple florets, shall be tested as a single seed and shall be regarded as having germinated if they produce one or more normal seedlings.

(e) Standard guides for seedling interpretation shall include the following descriptions for specific kinds and groups. The “General Description” for each group of crop kinds describes a seedling without defects. While such a seedling is clearly normal, seedlings with some defects may also be classified as normal, provided the defects do not impair the functioning of the structure. The “Abnormal seedling description” is to be followed when judging the severity of defects.

[20 FR 7931, Oct. 21, 1955, as amended at 25 FR 8771, Sept. 13, 1960; 59 FR 64500, Dec. 14, 1994]

§201.56-1   Goosefoot family, Chenopodiaceae, and Carpetweed family, Aizoaceae.

Kinds of seed: Beet, Swiss chard, fourwing saltbush, spinach, New Zealand spinach, and forage kochia.

(a) General description.

(1) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot.

(2) Food reserves: Leaf-like cotyledons and perisperm.

(3) Shoot system: The hypocotyl elongates carrying the cotyledons above the soil surface. The epicotyl usually does not show any development within the test period.

(4) Root system: A primary root; secondary roots may develop within the test period.

(5) Seedling: Frequent counts should be made on multigerm beet since the growing seedlings will separate from the cluster making it difficult to identify the source. Any cluster which produces at least one normal seedling is classified as normal; only one normal seedling per cluster is to be counted (see §201.56(d)). Toxic substances from the clusters of beet and Swiss chard may cause discoloring of the hypocotyl and/or root. Seedlings which are slightly discolored are to be classified as normal; however, if there is excessive discoloration, retest by the method in §201.58(b)(3).

(b) Abnormal seedling description.

(1) Cotyledons:

(i) Less than half of the original cotyledon tissue remaining attached.

(ii) Less than half of the original cotyledon tissue free of necrosis or decay.

(2) Epicotyl:

(i) Missing. (May be assumed to be present if cotyledons are intact.)

(ii) [Reserved]

(3) Hypocotyl:

(i) Deep open cracks extending into the conducting tissue.

(ii) Malformed, such as markedly shortened, curled, or thickened.

(iii) Watery.

(4) Root:

(i) None.

(ii) Weak, stubby, or missing primary root with weak secondary or adventitious roots.

(iii) For discolored roots of beet and Swiss chard, see §201.58(b)(3).

(5) Seedling:

(i) One or more essential structures impaired as a result of decay from primary infection. (For discolored seedlings of beet and Swiss chard, see §201.58(b)(3).)

(ii) Albino.

[59 FR 64500, Dec. 14, 1994]

§201.56-2   Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae).

Kinds of seed: Artichoke, cardoon, chicory, dandelion, endive, great burdock, lettuce, safflower, salsify, Louisiana sagewort, and sunflower.

(a) Lettuce.

(1) General description.

(i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot.

(ii) Food reserves: Cotyledons which expand and become thin, leaf-like, and photosynthetic. The cotyledons of some varieties develop elongated petioles.

(iii) Shoot system: The hypocotyl elongates and carries the cotyledons above the soil surface. The epicotyl usually does not show any development within the test period.

(iv) Root system: A long primary root.

(v) Seedling: The interpretations of lettuce seedlings are made only at the end of the test period.

(2) Abnormal seedling description.

(i) Cotyledons:

(A) Less than half of the original cotyledon tissue remaining attached.

(B) Less than half of the original cotyledon tissue free of necrosis or decay. (Remove attached seed coat for evaluation of cotyledons. Physiological necrosis is manifested by discolored areas on the cotyledons and should not be confused with natural pigmentation of some lettuce varieties.)

(ii) Epicotyl:

(A) Missing. (May be assumed to be present if cotyledons are intact.)

(B) Any degree of necrosis or decay.

(iii) Hypocotyl:

(A) Deep open cracks extending into the conducting tissue.

(B) Severely twisted or grainy.

(C) Watery.

(iv) Root:

(A) Stubby or missing primary root. (Secondary roots will not compensate for a defective primary root.)

(B) Primary root tip blunt, swollen, or discolored. (Toxic materials in the substratum may cause short, blunt roots; see §201.58(a)(9).)

(C) Primary root with splits or lesions.

(v) Seedling:

(A) Swollen cotyledons associated with extremely short or vestigial hypocotyl and root.

(B) One or more essential structures impaired as a result of decay from primary infection.

(C) Albino.

(b) Other kinds in the sunflower family: Artichoke, cardoon, chicory, dandelion, endive, great burdock, safflower, salsify, Louisiana sagewort, and sunflower.

(1) General description.

(i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot.

(ii) Food reserves: Cotyledons which expand and become thin, leaf-like, and photosynthetic.

(iii) Shoot system: The hypocotyl elongates and carries the cotyledons above the soil surface. The epicotyl usually does not show any development within the test period.

(iv) Root system: A long primary root with secondary roots usually developing within the test period.

(2) Abnormal seedling description.

(i) Cotyledons:

(A) Less than half of the original cotyledon tissue remaining attached.

(B) Less than half of the original cotyledon tissue free of necrosis or decay. (Remove any attached seed coats at the end of the test period for evaluation of cotyledons.)

(ii) Epicotyl:

(A) Missing. (May be assumed to be present if cotyledons are intact.)

(B) [Reserved]

(iii) Hypocotyl:

(A) Deep open cracks extending into the conducting tissue.

(B) Malformed, such as markedly shortened, curled, or thickened.

(C) Watery.

(iv) Root:

(A) None.

(B) Weak, stubby, or missing primary root with weak secondary or adventitious roots. (Seedlings with roots bound within tough seed coats should be left in the test until the final count to allow for development.)

(v) Seedling:

(A) One or more essential structures impaired as a result of decay from primary infection.

(B) Albino.

[59 FR 64500, Dec. 14, 1994]

§201.56-3   Mustard family, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae).

Kinds of seed: Broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, cauliflower, collards, garden cress, upland cress, water cress, kale, Chinese kale, Siberian kale, kohlrabi, mustard, pakchoi, radish, rape, rutabaga, and turnip.

(a) General description.

(1) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot.

(2) Food reserves: Cotyledons which expand and become thin, leaf-like and photosynthetic. In Brassica, Sinapis, and Raphanus, the cotyledons are bi-lobed and folded, with the outer cotyledon being larger than the inner.

(3) Shoot system: The hypocotyl elongates and carries the cotyledons above the soil surface; the epicotyl usually does not show any development within the test period.

(4) Root system: A long primary root.

(b) Abnormal seedling description.

(1) Cotyledons:

(i) Decayed at point of attachment.

(ii) Less than half of the original cotyledon tissue remaining attached.

(iii) Less than half of the original cotyledon tissue free of necrosis or decay.

(2) Epicotyl:

(i) Missing. (May be assumed to be present if the cotyledons are intact.)

(ii) [Reserved]

(3) Hypocotyl:

(i) Deep open cracks extending into the conducting tissue.

(ii) Malformed, such as markedly shortened, curled, or thickened.

(iii) Watery.

(4) Root:

(i) Weak, stubby, or missing primary root. (Secondary roots will not compensate for a defective root.)

(ii) [Reserved]

(5) Seedling:

(i) One or more essential structures impaired as result of decay from primary infection.

(ii) Albino.

[59 FR 64501, Dec. 14, 1994]

§201.56-4   Cucurbit family, (Cucurbitaceae).

Kinds of seed: Citron, cucumber, West India gherkin, melon, pumpkin, squash, and watermelon.

(a) General description.

(1) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot.

(2) Food reserves: Cotyledons which are large and fleshy; they expand, become photosynthetic, and usually persist beyond the seedling stage.

(3) Shoot system: The hypocotyl elongates and the cotyledons are pulled free of the seed coat, which often adheres to a peg-like appendage at the base of the hypocotyl. The epicotyl usually does not show any development within the test period.

(4) Root system: A long primary root with numerous secondary roots.

(b) Abnormal seedling description.

(1) Cotyledons:

(i) Less than half of the original cotyledon tissue remaining attached.

(ii) Less than half of the original cotyledon tissue free of necrosis or decay. (Remove any attached seed coats at the end of the test period for evaluation of cotyledons.)

(2) Epicotyl:

(i) Missing. (May be assumed to be present if the cotyledons are intact.)

(ii) [Reserved]

(3) Hypocotyl:

(i) Deep open cracks extending into the conducting tissue.

(ii) Malformed, such as markedly shortened, curled, or thickened.

(4) Root:

(i) None.

(ii) Weak, stubby, or missing primary root, with less than two strong secondary or adventitious roots.

(5) Seedling:

(i) One or more essential structures impaired as a result of decay from primary infection.

(ii) Albino.

[59 FR 64501, Dec. 14, 1994]

§201.56-5   Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae).

Kinds of seed: Bentgrasses, bluegrasses, bluestems, bromes, cereals, fescues, millets, orchardgrass, redtop, ryegrasses, sorghums, timothy, turf timothy, wheatgrasses, and all other grasses listed in §201.2(h).

(a) Cereals: Agrotricum, barley, oat, rye, mountain rye, wheat, wheat × agrotricum, and triticale.

(1) General description.

(i) Germination habit: Hypogeal monocot.

(ii) Food reserves: Endosperm. The scutellum is a modified cotyledon which is in direct contact with the endosperm. During germination the scutellum remains inside the seed to absorb nutrients from the endosperm and transfer them to the growing seedling.

(iii) Shoot system: The shoot consists of the coleoptile, leaves enclosed in the coleoptile, and the mesocotyl. The coleoptile elongates and pushes through the soil surface; the mesocotyl may elongate depending on the variety and light intensity, but may not be discernible. Splitting of the coleoptile occurs naturally as a result of growth and emergence of the leaves.

(iv) Root system: A primary root and seminal roots. The primary root is not readily distinguishable from the seminal roots; therefore, all roots arising from the seed are referred to as seminal roots.

(2) Abnormal seedling description.

(i) Shoot:

(A) Missing.

(B) No leaf.

(C) Leaf extending less than halfway up into the coleoptile.

(D) Leaf extensively shredded or split.

(E) Spindly or watery.

(F) Grainy, spirally twisted, shredded, and weak.

(G) Deep open cracks in the mesocotyl.

(ii) Root:

(A) Less than one strong seminal root.

(B) [Reserved]

(iii) Seedling:

(A) Decayed at point of attachment to the scutellum.

(B) One or more essential structures impaired as a result of decay from primary infection.

(C) Albino.

(D) Endosperm obviously detached from the root-shoot axis (e.g. kernel lifted away by the growing shoot).

(E) Thickened and shortened roots and/or shoots.

(b) Rice.

(1) General description.

(i) Germination habit: Hypogeal monocot.

(ii) Food reserves: Endosperm. The scutellum is a modified cotyledon which is in direct contact with the endosperm. During germination the scutellum remains inside the seed to absorb nutrients from the endosperm and transfer them to the growing seedling.

(iii) Shoot system: The shoot consists of the coleoptile, leaves enclosed in the coleoptile, and the mesocotyl. The coleoptile elongates and pushes through the soil or water surface; the mesocotyl may elongate depending on the variety and environmental conditions. Splitting of the coleoptile occurs naturally as a result of growth and emergence of the leaves.

(iv) Root system: Strong primary root and seminal roots. Adventitious roots may start to develop from the mesocotyl or coleoptilar node within the test period. If the mesocotyl elongates, the adventitious roots will be carried above the grain.

(2) Abnormal seedling description.

(i) Shoot:

(A) Missing.

(B) No leaf.

(C) Leaf extending less than halfway up into the coleoptile.

(D) Leaf extensively shredded or split.

(E) Spindly or watery.

(F) Deep open cracks in the mesocotyl.

(ii) Root:

(A) None.

(B) Weak primary root with insufficient seminal or adventitious roots.

(iii) Seedling:

(A) Decayed at point of attachment to the scutellum.

(B) One or more essential structures impaired as a result of decay from primary infection.

(C) Albino.

(c) Corn.

(1) General description.

(i) Germination habit: Hypogeal monocot.

(ii) Food reserves: Endosperm. The scutellum is a modified cotyledon which is in direct contact with the endosperm. During germination the scutellum remains inside the seed to absorb nutrients from the endosperm and transfer them to the growing seedling.

(iii) Shoot system: The shoot consists of the coleoptile, leaves enclosed in the coleoptile, and the mesocotyl. The coleoptile elongates and pushes through the soil surface. The mesocotyl usually elongates. Splitting of the coleoptile occurs naturally as a result of growth and emergence of the leaves. A twisted and curled shoot bound by a tough seed coat may be considered normal, provided the shoot is not decayed.

(iv) Root system: Strong primary root and seminal roots. Adventitious roots may start to develop from the mesocotyl or coleoptilar node within the test period.

(2) Abnormal seedling description.

(i) Shoot:

(A) Missing.

(B) Thickened and shortened.

(C) No leaf.

(D) Leaf extending less than halfway up into the coleoptile.

(E) Leaf extensively shredded or split.

(F) Spindly or watery.

(G) Deep open cracks in the mesocotyl.

(ii) Root:

(A) None.

(B) Weak, stubby, or missing primary root with weak seminal roots.

(iii) Seedling:

(A) Decayed at point of attachment to the scutellum.

(B) One or more essential structures impaired as a result of decay from primary infection.

(C) Albino.

(d) Johnsongrass, sorghum, sorgrass, sorghum almum, sudangrass, and sorghum-sudangrass.

(1) General description.

(i) Germination habit: Hypogeal monocot.

(ii) Food reserves: Endosperm. The scutellum is a modified cotyledon which is in direct contact with endosperm. During germination the scutellum remains inside the seed to absorb nutrients from the endosperm and transfer them to the growing seedling.

(iii) Shoot system: The shoot consists of the coleoptile, leaves enclosed in the coleoptile, and the mesocotyl. The coleoptile elongates and pushes through the soil surface; the mesocotyl usually elongates. Areas of natural, reddish pigmentation may develop on the mesocotyl and coleoptile. Splitting of the coleoptile occurs naturally as a result of growth and emergence of the leaves.

(iv) Root system: A long primary root, usually with secondary roots developing within the test period. Adventitious roots may start to develop from the mesocotyl or coleoptilar node within the test period. Areas of natural, reddish pigmentation may develop on the root.

(2) Abnormal seedling description.

(i) Shoot:

(A) Missing.

(B) Thickened and shortened.

(C) No leaf.

(D) Leaf extending less than halfway up into the coleoptile.

(E) Leaf extensively shredded or split.

(F) Spindly or watery.

(G) Deep open cracks in the mesocotyl.

(ii) Root:

(A) None.

(B) Damaged or weak primary root with less than two strong secondary roots.

(iii) Seedling:

(A) Decayed at point of attachment to the scutellum.

(B) One or more essential structures impaired as a result of decay from primary infection.

(C) Albino.

(e) Grasses and millets.

(1) General description.

(i) Germination habit: Hypogeal monocot.

(ii) Food reserves: Endosperm. The scutellum is a modified cotyledon which is in direct contact with the endosperm. During germination the scutellum remains inside the seed to absorb nutrients from the endosperm and transfer them to the growing seedling.

(iii) Shoot system: The shoot consists of the coleoptile, leaves enclosed in the coleoptile, and the mesocotyl. The coleoptile elongates and pushes through the soil surface. The mesocotyl may or may not elongate significantly, depending on the kind. Splitting of the coleoptile occurs naturally as a result of growth and emergence of the leaves.

(iv) Root system: A long primary root. Secondary or adventitious roots may develop within the test period. In certain kinds (e.g. bermudagrass) the primary root may not be readily visible because it is coiled inside the tightly fitting lemma and palea. At the time of evaluation, the glumes should be removed and the root observed. Such seedlings are classified as normal if the primary root has developed. For Kentucky bluegrass, a primary root 116 inch (1.6 mm) or more in length is classified as normal.

(2) Abnormal seedling description.

(i) Shoot:

(A) Missing.

(B) Short, thick, and grainy.

(C) No leaf.

(D) Leaf extending less than halfway up into the coleoptile.

(E) Leaf extensively shredded or split.

(F) Spindly or watery.

(G) Deep open cracks in the mesocotyl.

(ii) Root:

(A) Missing or defective primary root even if other roots are present.

(B) Spindly, stubby, or watery primary root.

(iii) Seedling:

(A) Decayed at point of attachment to the scutellum.

(B) One or more essential structures impaired as a result of decay from primary infection.

(C) Albino.

(D) Yellow (when grown in light).

(E) Endosperm obviously detached from the root-shoot axis (e.g. kernel lifted away by the growing shoot).

[59 FR 64501, Dec. 14, 1994, as amended at 65 FR 1708, Jan. 11, 2000]

§201.56-6   Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

Kinds of seed: Alfalfa, alyceclover, asparagusbean, beans (Phaseolus spp.), Florida beggarweed, black medic, broadbean, burclovers, buttonclover, chickpea, clovers (Trifolium spp.), cowpea, crotalarias, crownvetch, guar, hairy indigo, kudzu, lentil, lespedezas, lupines, northern sweetvetch, peas, peanut, roughpea, sainfoin, sesbania, sourclover, soybean, sweetclovers, trefoils, velvetbean, and vetches.

(a) Field bean, garden bean, lima bean, mung bean, asparagusbean, and cowpea.

(1) General description.

(i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot.

(ii) Food reserves: Cotyledons which are large and fleshy.

(iii) Shoot system: The hypocotyl elongates and carries the cotyledons above the soil surface. The epicotyl elongates, causing the terminal bud to emerge from between the cotyledons; the primary leaves expand rapidly.

(iv) Root system: A long primary root with secondary roots.

(2) Abnormal seedling description.

(i) Cotyledons:

(A) For garden bean (Phaseolus vulgaris in part), remove any attached seed coats at the end of the test period for evaluation of cotyledons:

(1) Less than half of the original cotyledon tissue remaining attached.

(2) Less than half of the original cotyledon tissue free of necrosis or decay.

(B) All other kinds:

(1) Both missing and the seedling generally weak.

(2) [Reserved]

(ii) Epicotyl:

(A) Missing.

(B) Deep open cracks.

(C) Malformed, such as markedly curled or thickened.

(D) Less than one primary leaf.

(E) Primary leaves too small in proportion to the rest of the seedling, usually associated with visible defects of, or damage to, the main stem of the epicotyl.

(F) Terminal bud missing or damaged. (If a few seedlings with total or partial decay to the epicotyl are found, they may be classified as normal, provided the hypocotyl and root are normal. The epicotyl on such seedlings usually does not decay when grown in a fairly dry environment and exposed to light. A retest, preferably in soil or sand, will aid in interpretation of such seedlings.)

(iii) Hypocotyl:

(A) Deep open cracks extending into the conducting tissue. (A healed break, sometimes referred to as a “knee,” is considered normal.)

(B) Malformed, such as markedly shortened, curled, or thickened. (Hypocotyl stunting or curling may be caused by seedling orientation or constriction on or in the substratum.) (Hypocotyl collar rot is the breakdown of hypocotyl tissue initially characterized by a watery appearance and collapse of the hypocotyl below the cotyledonary node. The area later becomes discolored, shrivelled, and necrotic. The condition is caused by insufficient calcium available to the seedling. If hypocotyl collar rot is observed on seedlings of garden bean, the sample involved shall be retested in accordance with §201.58(b)(12).)

(iv) Root:

(A) None.

(B) Weak, stubby, or missing primary root with weak secondary or adventitious roots. (A root bound within a tough seed coat is considered normal.)

(v) Seedling:

(A) One or more essential structures impaired as the result of decay from primary infection. (Secondary infection is common in towel and blotter tests. Some pathogens, such as Fusarium, Phomopsis, and Rhizoctonia, can spread through the substratum and infect seedlings some distance away from the primary source. Seedlings with secondary infection are to be classified as normal. A retest in sand or soil may be advisable.)

(B) Albino.

(b) Adzuki bean, broadbean, chickpea, field pea, lentil, pea, roughpea, runner bean, velvetbean, and vetches.

(1) General description.

(i) Germination habit: Hypogeal dicot.

(ii) Food reserves: Cotyledons which are large and fleshy, and remain enclosed within the seed coat beneath the soil surface. They are usually not photosynthetic.

(iii) Shoot system: The epicotyl elongates and carries the terminal bud and primary leaves above the soil surface. The stem bears one or more scale leaves and, prior to emergence, is arched near the apex, causing the terminal bud to be pulled through the soil; after emergence, the stem straightens. For practical purposes, the hypocotyl is not discernible and is not an evaluation factor. Buds in the axils of each cotyledon and scale leaf usually remain dormant unless the terminal bud is seriously damaged. In this case, one or more axillary buds may start to develop into a shoot. If the axillary shoot is well-developed, it may be considered normal.

(iv) Root system: A long primary root with secondary roots.

(2) Abnormal seedling description.

(i) Cotyledons:

(A) Less than half of the original tissue remaining attached.

(B) Less than half of the original tissue free of necrosis or decay.

(ii) Epicotyl:

(A) Missing.

(B) Less than one primary leaf.

(C) Malformed such as markedly shortened, curled, or thickened.

(D) Severely damaged (e.g. terminal bud missing or damaged) with only a weak shoot developing from the axil of a cotyledon or scale leaf.

(E) Two weak and spindly shoots.

(F) Deep open cracks extending into the conducting tissue.

(iii) Root:

(A) None.

(B) Weak, stubby, or missing primary root with weak secondary roots.

(iv) Seedlings:

(A) One or more essential structures impaired as a result of decay from primary infection. (Secondary infection is common in towel and blotter tests. Some pathogens can spread through the substratum and infect seedlings some distance away from the primary source. Seedlings with secondary infection are classified as normal. A retest in sand or soil may be advisable.)

(B) Albino.

(c) Soybean and lupine.

(1) General description.

(i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot.

(ii) Food reserves: Cotyledons, which are large and fleshy; they expand and become photosynthetic.

(iii) Shoot system: The hypocotyl elongates and carries the cotyledons above the soil surface. The primary leaves usually increase in size and the epicotyl may elongate within the test period.

(iv) Root system: A long primary root with secondary roots.

(2) Abnormal seedling description.

(i) Cotyledons:

(A) Less than half of the original cotyledon tissue remaining attached.

(B) Less than half of the original cotyledon tissue free of necrosis or decay.

(ii) Epicotyl:

(A) Missing.

(B) Less than one primary leaf.

(C) Deep open cracks.

(D) Terminal bud damaged, missing, or decayed. (If a few seedlings with partial decay of the epicotyl are found, they may be classified as normal, provided the hypocotyl and root are normal. The epicotyl on such seedlings usually does not decay when grown in a fairly dry environment and is exposed to light. A retest, preferably in soil or sand, will aid in interpretation of such seedlings.)

(iii) Hypocotyl:

(A) Deep open cracks extending into the conducting tissue. (Adventitious roots may occur at the site of injury, particularly on the hypocotyl and near the base of the cotyledons. The seedling is classified as normal if the injury is healed over and other essential structures are normal.)

(B) Malformed, such as markedly shortened, curled, or thickened. (Hypocotyl development is slow until the roots start functioning. Caution should be exercised to ensure slow seedlings are not classified as abnormal. Hypocotyl stunting or curling also may be caused by seedling orientation or constriction on or in the substratum.)

(iv) Root:

(A) None.

(B) Weak, stubby, or missing primary root with weak secondary or adventitious roots. (Roots of seedlings on “Kimpak” with insufficient moisture may not become established and hypocotyl elongation may appear to be abnormal. There may be curling of the root and hypocotyl. When a number of seedlings are observed with this condition, the sample should be retested.)

(v) Seedlings:

(A) One or more essential structures impaired as a result of decay from primary infection. (Secondary infection is common in towel and blotter tests. Some pathogens, such as Fusarium, Phomopsis, and Rhizoctonia, can spread through the substratum and infect seedlings some distance away from the primary source. Seedlings with secondary infection are to be classified as normal. A retest in sand or soil may be advisable.)

(B) Albino.

(d) Peanut.

(1) General description.

(i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot.

(ii) Food reserves: Cotyledons, which are large and fleshy.

(iii) Shoot system: The cotyledons are carried to the soil surface by the hypocotyl which is very thick, narrowing abruptly at the root. Elongation of the hypocotyl stops when the epicotyl is exposed to light at the soil surface. The primary leaves are compound and usually expand during the test period.

(iv) Root system: A long primary root with secondary roots. Adventitious roots develop from the base of the hypocotyl if the primary root is damaged.

(2) Abnormal seedling description.

(i) Cotyledons:

(A) Less than half of the original cotyledon tissue remaining attached.

(B) Less than half of the original cotyledon tissue free of necrosis or decay.

(ii) Epicotyl:

(A) Missing.

(B) Less than one primary leaf.

(C) Deep open cracks.

(D) Terminal bud damaged, missing, or decayed.

(iii) Hypocotyl:

(A) Deep open cracks extending into the conducting tissue.

(B) Malformed, such as markedly shortened or curled. (Hypocotyls remain somewhat thickened and may appear to be stunted. Light, depth of planting, and substratum moisture all contribute to the length of the hypocotyl. Hypocotyl stunting or curling may be caused by seedling orientation or constriction in the substratum. Seedlings planted in a soil test with the radicle too close to the surface may send roots above the soil and appear to exhibit negative geotropism and a distorted, U-shaped hypocotyl.

(iv) Root:

(A) None.

(B) Weak, stubby, or missing primary root with weak secondary or adventitious roots.

(v) Seedling:

(A) One or more essential structures impaired as a result of primary infection.

(B) Albino.

(e) Alfalfa, alyceclover, Florida beggarweed, black medic, burclovers, buttonclover, milkvetch, clovers, crotalarias, crownvetch, guar, hairy indigo, kudzu, lespedezas, northern sweetvetch, sainfoin, sesbania, sourclover, sweetclovers, and trefoils.

(1) General description.

(i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot.

(ii) Food reserve: Cotyledons, which are small and fleshy; they expand and become photosynthetic. The cotyledons of sub clover develop elongated petioles.

(iii) Shoot system: The hypocotyl elongates and carries the cotyledons above the soil surface. The epicotyl usually does not show any development within the test period.

(iv) Root system: A long, tapering primary root, usually with root hairs. Secondary roots may or may not develop within the test period, depending on the kind.

(2) Abnormal seedling description.

(i) Cotyledons:

(A) Less than half of the original cotyledon tissue remaining attached. (Breaks at the point of attachment of the cotyledons to the hypocotyl are common in seeds which have been mechanically damaged. It is important that seedlings not be removed during preliminary counts unless development is sufficient to allow the conditions of the cotyledons to be determined. If the point of attachment of the cotyledons cannot be seen at the end of the test, the seed coat should be peeled back to determine whether a break has occurred.)

(B) Less than half of the original cotyledon tissue free of necrosis or decay.

(ii) Epicotyl:

(A) Missing. (May be assumed to be present if both cotyledons are intact.)

(B) [Reserved]

(iii) Hypocotyl:

(A) Deep open cracks extending into the conducting tissue.

(B) Malformed, such as markedly shortened, curled, or thickened. (Seedlings of sainfoin which have been constricted by growing through the netting of the pod, but which are otherwise normal, are classified as normal.)

(C) Weak and watery.

(iv) Root:

(A) None.

(B) Primary root stubby. (The roots of sweetclovers may be stubby when grown on artificial substrata due to the presence of coumarin in the seed; since this condition usually does not occur in soil, such seedlings are classified as normal. Roots may appear stubby as a result of being bound by the seed coat; such seedlings are classified as normal. Crownvetch produces phytotoxic effects similar to sweetclovers.)

(C) Split extending into the hypocotyl.

(v) Seedling:

(A) One or more essential structures impaired as a result of decay from primary infection.

(B) Albino.

[59 FR 64503, Dec. 14, 1994, as amended at 65 FR 1708, Jan. 11, 2000]

§201.56-7   Lily family, Liliaceae.

Kinds of seed: Asparagus, chives, leek, onion, and Welsh onion.

(a) Asparagus.

(1) General description.

(i) Germination habit: Hypogeal monocot.

(ii) Food reserves: Endosperm which is hard, semi- transparent, and non-starchy; minor reserves in the cotyledon. The endosperm surrounds the entire embryo.

(iii) Cotyledon: A single cylindrical cotyledon; following germination, all but the basal end remains embedded in the endosperm to absorb nutrients.

(iv) Shoot system: The epicotyl elongates and carries the terminal bud above the soil surface. The epicotyl may bear several small scale leaves. A short hypocotyl is barely distinguishable, joining the root to the basal end of the cotyledon. More than one shoot may arise simultaneously, and the seedling may be considered normal if at least one shoot is well- developed and has a terminal growing point, provided other essential structures are normal.

(v) Root system: A long slender primary root.

(2) Abnormal seedling description.

(i) Cotyledon:

(A) Detached from seedling.

(B) Deep open cracks at basal end.

(ii) Epicotyl:

(A) Missing.

(B) Terminal bud missing or damaged.

(C) Deep open cracks.

(D) Malformed, such as markedly shortened, curled, or thickened.

(E) Spindly.

(F) Watery.

(iii) Hypocotyl:

(A) Deep open cracks.

(B) [Reserved]

(iv) Root:

(A) No primary root.

(B) Stubby primary root with weak secondary roots.

(v) Seedling:

(A) One or more essential structures impaired as a result of decay from primary infection.

(B) Albino.

(b) Chives, leek, onion, Welsh onion.

(1) General description.

(i) Germination habit: Epigeal monocot.

(ii) Food reserves: Endosperm which is hard, semi-transparent, and non-starchy; minor reserves in the cotyledon.

(iii) Cotyledon: A single cylindrical cotyledon. The cotyledon emerges with the seed coat and endosperm attached to the tip. A sharp bend known as the “knee” forms; continued elongation of the cotyledon on each side of this knee pushes it above the soil surface. The cotyledon tip is pulled from the soil and straightens except for a slight kink which remains at the site of the knee.

(iv) Shoot system: The first foliage leaf emerges through a slit near the base of the cotyledon, but this does not usually occur during the test period. The hypocotyl is a very short transitional zone between the primary root and the cotyledon, and is not distinguishable for purposes of seedling evaluation.

(v) Root system: A long slender primary root with adventitious roots developing from the hypocotyl. The primary root does not develop secondary roots.

(2) Abnormal seedling description.

(i) Cotyledon:

(A) Short and thick.

(B) Without a definite bend or “knee”.

(C) Spindly or watery.

(ii) Epicotyl:

(A) Not observed during the test period.

(B) [Reserved]

(iii) Hypocotyl:

(A) Not evaluated.

(B) [Reserved]

(iv) Root:

(A) No primary root.

(B) Short, weak, or stubby primary root.

(v) Seedling:

(A) One or more essential structures impaired as a result of decay from primary infection.

(B) Albino.

[59 FR 64504, Dec. 14, 1994]

§201.56-8   Flax family, Linaceae.

Kind of seed: Flax.

(a) General description.

(1) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (Due to the mucilaginous nature of the seed coat, seedlings germinated on blotters may adhere to the blotter and appear to be negatively geotropic.)

(2) Food reserves: Cotyledons which expand and become photosynthetic.

(3) Shoot system: The hypocotyl elongates carrying the cotyledons above the soil surface. The epicotyl usually does not show any development within the test period.

(4) Root system: A primary root, with secondary roots usually developing within the test period.

(b) Abnormal seedling description.

(1) Cotyledons:

(i) Less than half of the original cotyledon tissue remaining attached.

(ii) Less than half of the original cotyledon tissue free of necrosis or decay.

(2) Epicotyl:

(i) Missing. (May be assumed to be present if cotyledons are intact.)

(ii) [Reserved]

(3) Hypocotyl:

(i) Deep open cracks extending into the conducting tissue.

(ii) Malformed, such as markedly shortened, curled, or thickened.

(4) Root:

(i) None.

(ii) Weak, stubby, or missing primary root with weak secondary or adventitious roots.

(5) Seedling:

(i) One or more essential structures impaired as a result of decay from primary infection.

(ii) Albino.

[59 FR 64505 Dec. 14, 1994]

§201.56-9   Mallow family, Malvaceae.

Kinds of seed: Cotton, kenaf, and okra.

(a) General description.

(1) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot.

(2) Food reserve: Cotyledons, which are convoluted in the seed; they expand and become thin, leaf-like, and photosynthetic.

(3) Shoot system: The hypocotyl elongates carrying the cotyledons above the soil surface. The epicotyl usually does not show any development within the test period. Areas of yellowish pigmentation may develop on the hypocotyl in cotton.

(4) Root system: A primary root, with secondary roots usually developing within the test period. Areas of yellowish pigmentation may develop on the root in cotton.

(b) Abnormal seedling description.

(1) Cotyledons:

(i) Less than half of the original cotyledon tissue remaining attached.

(ii) Less than half of the original cotyledon tissue free of necrosis or decay. (Remove any attached seed coats at the end of the test period for evaluation of cotyledons.)

(2) Epicotyl:

(i) Missing. (May be assumed to be present if both cotyledons are intact.)

(ii) [Reserved]

(3) Hypocotyl:

(i) Deep open cracks or grainy lesions extending into the conducting tissue.

(ii) Malformed, such as markedly shortened, curled, or thickened.

(4) Root:

(i) None.

(ii) Weak, stubby, or missing primary root with weak secondary or adventitious roots.

(5) Seedling:

(i) One or more essential structures impaired as a result of decay from primary infection. (A cotton seedling with yellowish areas on the root or hypocotyl is classified as normal, provided the cotyledons are free of infection.)

(ii) Albino.

[59 FR 64505 Dec. 14, 1994]

§201.56-10   Spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.

Kind of seed: Castorbean.

(a) General description.

(1) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot.

(2) Food reserves: Cotyledons, which are thin and leaf-like; endosperm (fleshy food-storage organs) usually persisting in the laboratory test.

(3) Shoot system: The hypocotyl lengthens, carrying the cotyledons, endosperm, and epicotyl above the soil surface.

(4) Root system: A primary root, with secondary roots usually developing within the test period.

(b) Abnormal seedling description.

(1) Cotyledons:

(i) Less than half of the original cotyledon tissue remaining attached.

(ii) Less than half of the original cotyledon tissue free of necrosis or decay.

(2) Endosperm:

(i) Missing.

(ii) [Reserved]

(3) Epicotyl:

(i) Missing.

(ii) Damaged or missing terminal bud.

(4) Hypocotyl:

(i) Deep open cracks extending into the conducting tissue.

(ii) Malformed, such as markedly shortened, curled, or thickened.

(5) Root:

(i) None.

(ii) Weak, stubby, or missing primary root with weak secondary or adventitious roots.

(6) Seedling:

(i) One or more essential structures impaired as a result of decay from primary infection.

(ii) Albino.

[59 FR 64505 Dec. 14, 1994]

§201.56-11   Knotweed family, Polygonaceae.

Kinds of seed: Buckwheat, rhubarb, and sorrel.

(a) General description.

(1) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot.

(2) Food reserves: Cotyledons, starchy endosperm.

(3) Shoot system: The hypocotyl elongates carrying the cotyledons above the soil surface. The epicotyl usually does not show any development within the test period.

(4) Root system: A primary root, with secondary roots developing within the test period for some kinds.

(b) Abnormal seedling description.

(1) Cotyledons:

(i) Less than half of the original cotyledon tissue remaining attached.

(ii) Less than half of the original cotyledon tissue free of necrosis or decay.

(2) Epicotyl:

(i) Missing. (May be assumed to be present if cotyledons are intact.)

(ii) [Reserved]

(3) Hypocotyl:

(i) Deep open cracks or grainy lesions extending into the conducting tissue.

(ii) Malformed, such as markedly shortened, curled, or thickened.

(iii) Watery.

(4) Root:

(i) None.

(ii) Weak, stubby, or missing primary root with weak secondary or adventitious roots.

(5) Seedling:

(i) One or more essential structures impaired as a result of decay from primary infection.

(ii) Albino.

[59 FR 64506, Dec. 14, 1994]

§201.56-12   Miscellaneous plant families.

Kinds of seed by family:

Carrot family, Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)—carrot, celery, celeriac, dill, parsley, parsnip;

Hemp family, Cannabaceae—hemp;

Dichondra family, Dichondraceae—dichondra;

Geranium family, Geraniaceae—alfilaria;

Mint family, Lamiaceae (Labiatae)—sage, summer savory; benne family, Pedaliaceae—sesame;

Rose family, Rosaceae—little burnet;

Nightshade family, Solanaceae—eggplant, tomato, husk tomato, pepper, tobacco; and

Valerian family, Valerianaceae—cornsalad.

(a) General description.

(1) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot.

(2) Food reserves: Cotyledons; endosperm may or may not be present, depending on the kind.

(3) Shoot system: The hypocotyl elongates, carrying the cotyledons above the soil surface. The epicotyl usually does not show any development within the test period.

(4) Root system: A primary root; secondary roots may or may not develop within the test period, depending on the kind.

(b) Abnormal seedling description.

(1) Cotyledons:

(i) Less than half of the original cotyledon tissue remaining attached.

(ii) Less than half of the original cotyledon tissue free of necrosis or decay.

(2) Epicotyl:

(i) Missing. (May be assumed to be present if the cotyledons are intact.)

(ii) [Reserved]

(3) Hypocotyl:

(i) Malformed, such as markedly shortened, curled, or thickened.

(ii) Deep open cracks extending into the conducting tissue.

(iii) Watery.

(4) Root:

(i) None.

(ii) Missing or stubby primary root with weak secondary or adventitious roots.

(5) Seedling:

(i) One or more essential structures impaired as a result of decay from primary infection.

(ii) Albino.

[59 FR 64506, Dec. 14, 1994]

§201.57   Hard seeds.

Seeds which remain hard at the end of the prescribed test because they have not absorbed water, due to an impermeable seed coat, are to be counted as “hard seed.” If at the end of the germination period provided for legumes, okra, cotton and dichondra in these rules and regulations there are still present swollen seeds or seeds of these kinds which have just started to germinate, all seeds or seedlings except the above-stated shall be removed and the test continued for 5 additional days and the normal seedlings included in the percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14 days when germinating at 15-25 °C or for 10 days when germinating at 20 °C.

[5 FR 33, Jan. 4, 1940, as amended at 10 FR 9952, Aug. 11, 1945; 20 FR 7936, Oct. 21, 1955; 65 FR 1708, Jan. 11, 2000]

§201.57a   Dormant seeds.

Dormant seeds are viable seeds, other than hard seeds, which fail to germinate when provided the specified germination conditions for the kind of seed in question.

(a) Viability of ungerminated seeds shall be determined by any of the following methods or combinations of methods: a cutting test, tetrazolium test, scarification, or application of germination promoting chemicals.

(b) The percentage of dormant seed, if present, shall be determined in addition to the percentage of germination for the following kinds: Bahiagrass, basin wildrye, big bluestem, little bluestem, sand bluestem, yellow bluestem, bottlebrush-squirreltail, buffalograss, buffelgrass, galletagrass, forage kochia, blue grama, side-oats grama, Indian ricegrass, johnsongrass, sand lovegrass, weeping lovegrass, mountain rye, sand dropseed, smilo, switchgrass, veldtgrass, western wheatgrass, and yellow indiangrass.

(c) For green needlegrass, if the test result of method 2 is less than the result of method 1, subtract the result of method 2 from method 1 and report the difference as the percentage of dormant seed. Refer to §201.58(b)(7).

[46 FR 53638, Oct. 29, 1981, as amended at 59 FR 64506, Dec. 14, 1994]

§201.58   Substrata, temperature, duration of test, and certain other specific directions for testing for germination and hard seed.

Specific germination requirements are set forth in table 2 to which the following paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) are applicable.

(a) Definitions and explainations applicable to table 2—(1) Duration of tests. The following deviations are permitted from the specified duration of tests: Any test may be terminated prior to the number of days listed under “Final count” if the miximum germination of the sample has then been determined. The number of days stated for the first count is approximate and a deviatioon of 1 to 3 days is permitted. If at the time of the prescribed test period the seedlings are not sufficiently developed for positive evaluation, it is possible to extend the time of the test period two additional days. (Also, see paragraph (a)(5) of this section and 201.57.)

(2) Light. Cool white fluorescent light shall be provided where light is required in table 2. The light intensity shall be 75 to 125 foot-candles (750-1,250 lux). (The light intensity for nondormant seed and during seedling development may be as low as 25 foot-candles to enable the essential structures to be evaluated with greater certainty.) The seeds shall be illuminated for at least 8 hours every 24 hours except when transferred to a low temperature germinator during the weekend. When seeds are germinated at alternating temperatures they shall be illuminated during high temperature periods. Seeds for which light is prescribed shall be germinated on top of the substratum except for ryegrass fluorescence tests.

(3) Moisture-on-dry-side. This term means that the moistened substratum should be pressed against a dry absorbent surface such as a dry paper towel or blotter to remove excess moisture. The moisture content thus obtained should be maintained throughout the germination test period.

(4) Potassium nitrate (KNO3). These terms mean a two-tenths (0.2) percent solution of potassium nitrate (KNO3) shall be used in moistening the substratum. Such solution is prepared by dissolving 2 grams of KNO3 in 1,000 ml. of distilled water. The grade of the potassium nitrate shall meet A.C.S. specifications.

(5) Prechill. The term “prechill” means a cold, moist treatment applied to seeds to overcome dormancy prior to the germination test. The prechill method varies among kinds, but is usually performed by holding imbibed seeds at a low temperature for a specified period of time. The prechill period is not included in the duration of tests given in table 2, unless otherwise specified.

(6) Predry. The term “predry” means to place the seed in a shallow layer at a temperature of 35° to 40 °C. for a period of 5 to 7 days, with provisions for circulation of the air.

(7) Substrata (Kinds). The symbols used for substrata are:

B = between blotters

TB = top of blotters

T = paper toweling, used either as folded towel tests or as roll towel tests in horizontal or vertical position

S = sand or soil where soil is an artificial planting mix of shredded peat moss, vermiculite, and perlite

TS = top of sand or soil

P = covered Petri dishes: with two layers of blotters; with one layer of absorbent cotton; with five layers of paper toweling; with three thicknesses of filter paper; or with sand or soil

C = creped cellulose paper wadding (0.3-inch thick Kimpak or equivalent) covered with a single thickness of blotter through which holes are punched for the seed that are pressed for about one-half their thickness into the paper wadding

TC = on top of creped cellulose paper without a blotter

RB = blotters with raised covers, prepared by folding up the edges of the blotter to form a good support for the upper fold which serves as a cover, preventing the top from making direct contact with the seeds.

(8) Temperature. A single numeral indicates a constant temperature. Two numerals separated by a dash indicate an alternation of temperature, the test to be held at the first temperature for approximately 16 hours and at the second temperature for approximately 8 hours per day. The temperature shall be determined at the substratum level and shall be as uniform as possible throughout the germination chamber. (A sharp alternation of temperature, such as obtained by hand transfer, may be beneficial in breaking dormancy.) If tests are not subjected to alternating temperatures over weekends and on holidays, they are to be held at the first-mentioned temperature during this time. In cases where two temperatures are indicated (separated by a semicolon) the first temperature shall be regarded as the regular method and the second as an alternate method.

(9) Paper substrata must be free of chemicals toxic to germinating seed and seedling growth. If root injury occurs from toxicity of a paper substratum or from the use of potassium nitrate, retests shall be made on soil or on a substratum moistened with water.

(10) Ethephon. This term means a 29 parts per million (0.0029 percent) solution of ethephon [(2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid] which shall be used to moisten the substratum. This solution is prepared by mixing 0.6 ml of a stock solution with 5,000 ml of distilled water. The stock solution contains 24 grams of active material per 100 ml of propylene glycol or two pounds of active material per gallon. A solution which is five times this concentration (5 × 29 ppm) may be used for extremely dormant seeds, provided seeds are transferred to substratum moistened with water after 1 to 3 days.

(11) Ethylene. This term means that five (5) ml of ethylene gas per cubic foot (176.57 ml/m3) of germinator space is injected into a germinator in which peanut seeds in moist rolled towels have been placed. Following injection of the ethylene, the germinator is kept closed until the first count (5 days). If the germinator door is opened for the purpose of checking or rewetting the samples, another injection of ethylene at the same rate shall be made.

(b) Special procedures and alternate methods for germination referred to in table 2—(1) Alyceclover; swollen seeds. At the conclusion of the 21-day test period, carefully pierce the seed coat with a sharp instrument and continue the test for 5 additional days. Alternate method: The swollen seeds may be placed at 20 °C for 48 hours and then at 35 °C for 3 additional days.

(2) Bahiagrass; removal of glumes. On all varieties except “Pensacola,” remove the enclosing structures (glumes, lemma, and palea) from the caryopsis with the aid of a sharp scalpel. If the seed is fresh or dormant, lightly scratch the surface of the caryopsis.

(3) Beet, Swiss chard; preparation of seed for test. Before the seeds are placed on the germination substratum, they shall be soaked in water for 2 hours, using at least 250 ml of water per 100 seeds, then washed in running water and the excess water blotted off. The temperature of the soaking and washing water should be no lower than 20 °C. Samples producing excessive discoloration of the hypocotyl or root should be retested in soil or by washing in running water for 3 hours and testing on “Kimpak,” keeping the seed covered with slightly moist blotters. Sugar beets may require 16 hours soaking in water at 25 °C, followed by rinsing and then drying for 2 hours at room temperature.

(4) Buffelgrass; alternate method for dormant seed. The caryopses shall be removed from the fascicles and placed on blotters moistened with a 0.2 percent solution of KNO3, in petri dishes. The seeds from a fascicle should be arranged so they will not be confused with seeds from other fascicles during the test. The seeds are then prechilled at 5 °C for 7 days and tested at 30 °C in light for 21 additional days. Firm ungerminated seeds remaining at the conclusion of the test should be scratched lightly and left in test for 7 additional days.

(5) Cotton (Gossypium spp.); dormant samples. Samples of cottonseed which do not respond to the usual method should be placed in a closed container with water and shaken until the lint is thoroughly wet. The excess moisture should then be blotted off.

(6) Endive (Cichorium endivia); dormant samples. Add about 18 inch of tap water at the beginning of the test and remove excess water after 24 hours.

(7) Green needlegrass; two test methods as prescribed in table 2 shall be used on each sample:

(i) For method 1, acid scarify 400 seeds for 10 minutes in concentrated sulfuric acid (95 to 98 percent H2 SO4). Rinse seeds and dry on blotters for 16 hours, then place seeds on blotters moistened with a solution of 0.055 percent (500 ppm gibberellic acid GA3) and 0.46 percent (3,000 ppm) thiram and germinate 14 days.

(ii) For method 2, plant 400 seeds on blotters moistened with a 0.2 percent solution of KNO3 and germinate 14 days. Refer to §201.57a(c).

(iii) Report the results of method 2 as the percentage germination. If the number in method 2 is less than method 1, subtract the results of method 2 from method 1 and report the difference as dormant seed.

(8) Rescue grass (Bromus catharticus); dormant samples. Wash for 48 hours in running water, or soak for 48 hours, changing the water and rinsing each morning and night.

(9) Rice (Oryza sativa)—Alternate method. Plant the seeds in moist sand. On the seventh day of the test add water to a depth of one-fourth inch above the sand level and leave for the remainder of the test. Only a final count is made. Dormant seeds: Presoak 24 to 48 hours in 40 °C. water. For deeply dormant seeds, presoak 24 hours in 1,000 p.p.m. ethylene chlorohydrin or 5 percent solution of sodium hypochlorite (clorox at bottle strength).

(10) Ryegrass; fluorescence test. The germination test for fluorescence of ryegrass shall be conducted in light [not to exceed 100 foot candles (1,076 lux)] with white filter paper as the substratum. The white filter paper should be nontoxic to the roots of ryegrass and of a texture that will resist penetration of ryegrass roots. Distilled or deionized water shall be used to moisten the filter paper. The test shall be conducted in a manner that will prevent the contact of roots of different seedlings. Roots of some seedlings produce fluorescent lines on white filter paper when viewed under ultraviolet light. First counts shall not be made before the eighth day; at that time remove only normal fluorescent seedlings. Evaluation of fluorescence shall be made under F15T8-BLB or comparable ultraviolet tubes in an area where light from other sources is excluded. If there are over 75 percent normal fluorescent seedlings present at the time of the first count, break the contact of the roots of the nonfluorescent seedlings from the substratum and reread the fluorescence at the time of the final count. At the final count, lift each remaining seedling, observing the path of each root since sometimes faint fluorescence will show on the substratum as the root is lifted. Abnormal seedlings and dead seeds are not evaluated for fluorescence. See §201.58a(a).

(11) Trifolium, Medicago, Melilotus, and Vicia faba; temperature requirements. A temperature of 18 °C. is desirable for Trifolium spp., Medicago spp., Melilotus spp., and Vicia faba.

(12) Garden bean; use of calcium nitrate. If hypocotyl collar rot is observed on seedlings, the sample involved shall be retested using a 0.3 to 0.6 percent solution of calcium nitrate (CaNO3) to moisten the substratum.

(13) Fourwing Saltbush (Atriplex canscens); preparation of seed for test. DE-wing seeds and soak for 2 hours in 3 leters of water after which rince with approximately 3 leters of distilled water. Remove excess water, air dry for 7 days at room temperature, then test for germination as indicated in Table 2.

(c) Procedures for coated seed. (1) Germination tests on coated seed shall be conducted in accordance with methods in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. However, kinds for which soaking or washing is specified in paragraph (b) shall not be soaked or washed in the case of coated seed.

(i) Coated seed units shall be placed on the substratum in the condition in which they are received without rinsing, soaking, or any other pretreatment.

(ii) Coated seed units in mixtures which are color coded or can otherwise be separated by kinds shall be germinated as separate kinds without removing the coating material.

(iii) Coated seed units in mixtures which cannot be separated by kinds without removing the coating material shall be de-coated and germinated as separate kinds. The coating material shall be removed in a manner that will not affect the germination capacity of the seeds.

(2) The moisture level of the substratum is important. It may depend on the water-absorbing capacity of the coating material. A retest may be necessary before satisfactory germination of the sample is achieved.

(3) Phytotoxic symptoms may be evident when germinating coated seeds in paper substrata. In such cases a retest in sand or soil may be necessary.

Table 2—Germination Requirements for Indicated Kinds

Name of seedSubstrataTemperature (°C)First count daysFinal count daysAdditional directions
Specific requirementsFresh and dormant seed
AGRICULTURAL SEED
AgrotricumB, T, S20; 1547Prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 5 days.
AlfalfaB, T, S20417See ¶(b)(11)
AlfilariaB, T20-30314Clip seeds
AlycecloverB, T354121See ¶(b)(1) for swollen seeds
Bahiagrass:
Var. PensacolaP, S20-35728Light; see ¶(b)(2)See §201.57a
All other vars.P30-35321Light; remove glumes; see ¶(b)(2)Scratch caryopses; KNO3; see §201.57a
BarleyB, T, S20; 1547Prechill 5 days at 5 or 10 °C or predry
BarrelcloverB, T204114Remove seeds from bur; see ¶(b)(11)
Bean:
AdzukiB, T, S20-304110
FieldB, T, S, TC20-30; 25518
MungB, T, S20-30317
Beet, fieldB, T, S20-30314See ¶(b)(3)
Beet, sugarB, T, S20-30; 20310See ¶(b)(3)
Beggarweed, FloridaB, T305128
Bentgrass:
ColonialP15-30; 10-30; 15-25728Light; KNO3Prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 7 days.
CreepingP15-30; 10-30; 15-25728Light; KNO3Prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 7 days.
VelvetP15-25; 20-30721Light; KNO3
BermudagrassP20-35721Light; KNO3; see ¶(a)(9)
Bermudagrass, giantP20-35721Light; KNO3; see ¶(a)(9)Prechill at 10 °C for 7 days and then test at 20-35 °C; continue tests of hulled seed for 14 days and of unhulled seed for 21 days
Bluegrass:
AnnualP20-30721Light
BulbousP, S101035KNO3 or soilPrechill all samples at 5 °C for 7 days.
CanadaP15-25; 15-301028Light; KNO310-30 °C.
GlaucanthaP15-25; 15-301028Light; KNO3
KentuckyP15-25; 15-301028Light; KNO3Prechill at 10 °C for 5 days.
NevadaP20-30721Light; KNO3
RoughP20-30721Light
TexasP20-30728Light; KNO3Prechill at 5 °C for 2 weeks.
WoodP20-30728Light
BluejointTB, P15-251021Light and KNO3 optionalPrechill at 5 °C for 5 days
Bluestem:
BigP, TS20-30714Light; KNO3Prechill at 5 °C for 2 weeks; see §201.57a.
LittleP, TS20-30714Light; KNO3Prechill at 5 °C for 2 weeks; see §201.57a.
SandP, TS20-30714Light; KNO3Prechill at 5 °C for 2 weeks; see §201.57a.
YellowP, TS20-30514Light; KNO3Prechill at 5 °C for 2 weeks; see §201.57a.
Bottlebrush-squirreltailP, B20; 151014See §201.57a.
Brome:
FieldP, TB15-25; 20-30614LightPrechill at 10 °C for 5 days.
MeadowB, T, TB20-30614Light optional
MountainP20-30614Light.
SmoothP, B, TB20-30614Light optionalPrechill at 5 or 10 °C for 5 days, then test at 30 °C for 9 additional days.
BroomcornB, T, S20-30310
BuckwheatB, T20-3036
Buffalograss:
(Burs)P,TB,TS20-35714Light;KNO3Prechill at 5 °C for 2 weeks; See §201.57a.
(Caryopses)P20-35514Light;KNO3
BuffelgrassS30728Light; press fascicles into well-packed soil and prechill at 5 °C for 7 daysSee ¶(b)(4); see §201.57a.
Burclover, CaliforniaB, T204114Remove seeds from bur; see ¶(b)(11)
Burclover, spottedB, T204114Remove seeds from bur; see ¶(b)(11)
Burnet, littlerB, T15514
ButtoncloverB, T204110See ¶(b)(11)15 °C.
CanarygrassB, T20-3037
Canarygrass, reedP20-30521Light; KNO3
CarpetgrassP20-351021LightKNO3.
CastorbeanT, S20-30714Remove caruncle if mold interferes with test
Chess, softP20-30714LightPrechill at 5 or 10 °C for 7 days.
ChickpeaT,S20-303117
Clover:
AlsikeB, T, S20317See ¶(b)(11)15 °C.
ArrowleafB, T20; 154114See ¶(b)(11)
BerseemB, T, S20317See ¶(b)(11)15 °C.
ClusterB, T204110See ¶(b)(11)15 °C.
CrimsonB, T, S20417See ¶(b)(11)15 °C.
KenyaB, T, S20317
LadinoB, T, S20317See ¶(b)(11)15 °C.
LappaB, T20317See ¶(b)(11)15 °C.
Large hopB, T204114See ¶(b)(11)15 °C.
PersianB, T20317See ¶(b)(11)15 °C.
RedB, T, S20417See ¶(b)(11)15 °C.
RoseB, T204110See ¶(b)(11)15 °C.
Small hopB, T204114See ¶(b)(11)15 °C.
StrawberryB, T20317See ¶(b)(11)15 °C.
SubB, T204114See ¶(b)(11)15 °C.
WhiteB, T, S20317See ¶(b)(11)15 °C.
Corn:
FieldB, T, S, TC20-30; 2547
PopB, T, S, TC20-30; 2547
CottonB, T, S20-30; 304112Test by alternate method; see ¶(b)(5).
CowpeaB, T, S20-30518
CrambeT,B20;2547KNO3
Crested dogtailP20-301021LightPrechill at 5° or 10 °C for 3 days.
Crotalaria:
LanceB, T, S20-304110
ShowyB, T, S20-304110
SlenderleafB, T, S20-304110
StripedB, T, S20-304110
SunnB, T, S20-304110
CrownvetchB,T,TB,S207114
DallisgrassP20-35721Light; KNO3
DichondraB, T20-307128
Drop seed, sandP5-35; 15-35514Light; KNO3Prechill at 5 °C for 4 weeks; see §201.57a.
EmmerB, T, S20; 1547Prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 5 days or predry.
Fescue:
ChewingsP15-25721Light and KNO3 optionalPrechill at 5 or 10 °C for 5 days.
HairP10-251028KNO3
HardP15-25721Light and KNO3 optional
MeadowP15-25; 20-30514Light and KNO3 optional
RedP15-25721Light and KNO3 optional
SheepP15-25721Light and KNO3 optional
TallP15-25; 20-30514Light and KNO3 optionalPrechill at 5 or 10 °C for 5 days and test for 21 days.
FlatpeaT15-25;2014128
FlaxB, T, S20-3037
Foxtail, creepingP15-30721Light;KNO3
Foxtail, meadowP20-30714Light
GalletagrassP, B20; 25; 20-30410See §201.57a
Grama:
BlueP, TB20-30714LightKNO3; see §201.57a.
Side-oatsP15-30714Light; KNO3See §201.57a.
GuarB, T, S30; 20-305114
GuineagrassP15-351028Light; KNO3 optional
HardinggrassP10-30728LightKNO3.
Alternate methodP15-25714Light; presoak at 15 °C for 24 hrs
HempB, T20-3037
Indiangrass, yellowP, TS20-30714Light; KNO3Prechill at 5 °C for 2 weeks; see §201.57a.
Indigo, hairyB, T20-305114
Japanese lawngrassP35-201028Light; KNO3
JohnsongrassP20-35735LightKNO3; see §201.57a.
KenafT, B20-30418
Kochia, forageP20414See §201.57a.
KudzuB, T20-305114
LentilB, T205110
Lespedeza:
KoreanB, T, S20-355114
SericeaB, T, S20-357121
SiberianB, T, S20-357121
StriateB, T, S20-357114
Lovegrass, sandP20-30514Light; KNO3Prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 6 weeks; see §201.57a.
Lovegrass, weepingP20-35514LightKNO3; see §201.57a.
Lupine:
BlueB, T, S204110
WhiteB, T203110
YellowB, T207110
ManilagrassP35-201028Light; KNO3
Medic, blackB, T, S20417See ¶(b)(11)
MilkvetchB, T206114
Alternate methodB, TB, T15-2510121
Millet:
BrowntopB, P, T20-30; 30414Light and KNO3 optionalPredry at 35 or 40 °C for 7 days and test at 30 °C.
Alternate methodB, P, T5-35414Light; KNO3
FoxtailB, T15-30; 20-30410
JapaneseB, T20-30410
PearlB, T20-3037
ProsoB, T20-3037
MolassesgrassP20-30721Light
Mustard:
BlackP20-3037LightKNO3 and prechill at 10 °C for 3 days.
IndiaP20-3037LightPrechill at 10 °C for 7 days and test for 5 days; KNO3.
WhiteP20-3035Light
NapiergrassB, T20-30310
Needlegrass, green:
Method 1P15-30714H2 SO4,GA3 and thiram; dark; see ¶(b)(7)
Method 2P15-30714KNO3; dark; see (b)(7)
OatB, T, S20; 15510Prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 5 days and test for 7 days or predry and test for 10 days.
Oatgrass, tallP20-30614Light
OrchardgrassP, TS15-25721Light; germination more rapid on soilPrechill at 5 or 10 °C for 7 days.
Panicgrass, blueP, TS20-30728Light
Panicgrass, greenP15-351028Light; KNO3 optional
Pea, fieldB, T, S20318
PeanutB, T, S20-30; 255110Remove shellsEthephon or ethylene; see ¶(a) (10) and (11).
Rape:
AnnualB, T20-3037
BirdP20-30310LightKNO3.
TurnipB, T20-3037
WinterB, T20-3037
RedtopP, TB20-30510LightKNO3.
RescuegrassP, S10-30728Light; see ¶(b)(8) for alternate methodIn soil at 15 °C.
RhodesgrassP20-30614Light; KNO3
RiceT, S20-30; 30514See ¶(b)(9) for alternate methodPresoak; see ¶(b)(9).
Ricegrass, IndianP15742Prechill at 5 °C for 4 weeks and test for 21 additional days; see §201.57a.
Alternate methodS5-15; 15; 15-25728Dark; prechill in soil at 5 °C for 4 weeks; see §201.57a.
RoughpeaB, T207114
RyeB, T, S20; 1547Prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 5 days or predry.
Rye, mountainB, T20; 1547See §201.57a.
Ryegrass:
AnnualP, TB15-25514Light optional; see ¶(b)(10) for fluorescence testLight; KNO3; prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 5 days and test at 15-25 °C; if still dormant prechill for 3 days and continue test at 15-25 °C an additional 4 days.
IntermediateP, TB15-25714LightKNO3 and prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 5 days and test at 15-25 °C; if still dormant rechill for 3 days and continue test at 15-25 °C an additional 4 days.
PerennialP, TB15-25514Light optional; see ¶(b)(10) for fluorescence testLight; KNO3; prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 5 days and test at 15-25 °C; if still dormant rechill for 3 days and continue test at 15-25 °C an additional 4 days.
WimmeraP, TB15-25; 20-30514Light optionalLight; KNO3; prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 5 days and test at 15-25 °C; if still dormant rechill for 3 days and continue test at 15-25 °C an additional 4 days.
SafflowerP, B, T, S15; 20414Light at 15 °C
Sagewort, LouisianaP15-25714Light
SainfoinB, T20-304114
Saltbush, fourwingB20514See ¶(b)(13)Prechill at 5 °C for 7 days.
Alternate methodB1521
SesameB, T, TB20-3036
SesbaniaB, T20-30517
SmiloP20-30742LightPrechill at 5 °C for 2 weeks; see §201.57a.
SorghumB, T, S20-30410Prechill grain vars. at 5° or 10 °C for 5 days; test sweet vars. at 30-45 °C, maintaining 45 °C for 2-4 hours per day.
Sorghum almumT, S20-35; 15-35521Prechill at 5 °C for 5 days; on the 10th day of test, clip or pierce the distal end of ungerminated seeds.
Sorghum-sudangrassB, T, S20-30; 25410Prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 5 days.
Sorgrass2B, T, S15-35; 20-35521Prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 7 days.
SourcloverB, T203114See ¶(b)(11)
SoybeanB, T, S, TC20-30; 25518
SpeltB, T, S20; 1547Prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 5 days, or predry.
SudangrassB, T, S20-30; 15-30410Prechill at 10 °C for 5 days.
SunflowerT,B2047
Sweetclover:
WhiteB, T, S20417See ¶(b)(11)
YellowB, T, S20417See ¶(b)(11)
Sweet vernalgrassP20-30614Light
Sweetvetch, northernB, TB, T15-25; 2014128
SwitchgrassP, TS15-30714Light; KNO3Prechill at 5 °C for 2 weeks; see §201.57a.
TimothyP, TB15-25; 20-30510Light; see ¶(a)(9)KNO3 and prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 5 days.
Timothy, turfP, TB15-25; 20-30510LightKNO3 and prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 5 days.
TobaccoP, TB20-30714Light
Trefoil:
BigB, T205112
BirdsfootB, P, T205112
TriticaleB, T, S20; 1547Prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 5 days, or predry.
VaseygrassP20-35721LightKNO3.
VeldtgrassP10-30728LightSee §201.57a.
VelvetbeanB, T, S, C20-303114
VelvetgrassP20-30614Light
Vetch:
CommonB, T205110
HairyB, T205114
HungarianB, T205110
MonanthaB, T205110
NarrowleafB, T205114
PurpleB, T205110
WoollypodB, T205114Prechill at 10 °C for 5 days, test at 15 °C.
Wheat:
CommonB, T, S20; 1547Prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 5 days, or predry.
ClubB, T, S20; 1547Prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 5 days, or predry.
DurumB, T, S20; 15410Prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 5 days, or predry.
PolishB, T, S20; 1547Prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 5 days, or predry.
PoulardB, T, S20; 1547Prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 5 days, or predry.
Wheat AgrotricumB, T, S20; 1547Prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 5 days, or predry.
Wheatgrass:
BeardlessP, TB15-25714Light and KNO3 optionalKNO3 and prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 7 days.
Fairway crestedP, TB15-25; 20-30514Light and KNO3 optionalKNO3 and prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 7 days.
Standard crestedP, TB15-25; 20-30514Light and KNO3 optionalKNO3 and prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 7 days.
IntermediateP15-25528Light and KNO3 optionalKNO3 and prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 7 days.
Alternate methodP20-30528Light
PubescentP15-25528Light and KNO3 optionalKNO3 and prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 7 days.
Alternate methodP20-30528Light
SiberianP, TB15-25714Light and KNO3 optionalKNO3 and prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 7 days.
SlenderP, TB15-25; 10-30514Light and KNO3 optionalPrechill at 5 or 10 °C for 5 days; if still dormant on the 10th day, rechill 2 days, then place at 20-30 °C for 4 days.
StreambankP, TB15-25514Light and KNO3 optionalPrechill at 5 or 10 °C for 5 days.
TallP15-25521Light and KNO3 optionalPrechill at 5 or 10 °C for 5 days.
Alternate methodP20-30521LightPrechill at 5 or 10 °C for 5 days.
WesternB, P, T15-30728DarkKNO3 or soil; see §201.57a.
Wildrye:
BasinP15-251021See §201.57a.
CanadaP15-30721LightPrechill at 5 °C for 2 weeks.
RussianP20-30514LightPrechill at 5 or 10 °C for 5 days.
VEGETABLE SEED
ArtichokeB, T20-30721
AsparagusB, T, S20-30721
AsparagusbeanB, T, S20-30518
Bean:
GardenB, T, S, TC20-30; 25None18See ¶(b)(12).
LimaB, T, C, S20-30519
RunnerB, T, S20-30519
BeetB, T, S20-30314See ¶(b)(3)
BroadbeanS, C204114See ¶(b)(11)Prechill at 10 °C for 3 days.
BroccoliB, P, T20-30310Prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 3 days; KNO3 and light.
Brussels sproutsB, P, T20-30310Prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 3 days; KNO3 and light
Burdock, greatB, T20-30714
CabbageB, P, T20-30310Prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 3 days; KNO3 and light.
Cabbage, ChineseB, T20-3037
Cabbage, tronchudaB, P20-30310Prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 3 days; KNO3 and light.
CardoonB, T20-30721
CarrotB, T20-30614
CauliflowerB, P, T20-30310Prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 3 days; KNO3 and light
CeleriacP5-25; 201021Light; see ¶(a)(9)
CeleryP15-25; 201021Light; see ¶(a)(9)
Chard, SwissB, T, S20-30314See ¶(b)(3)
ChicoryP, TS20-30514Light; KNO3 or soil; see ¶(a)(9)
ChivesB, T20614
CitronB, T20-30714Soak seeds 6 hrsTest at 30 °C.
CollardsB, P, T20-30310Prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 3 days; KNO3 and light .
Corn, sweetB, T, S, TC20-30; 2547
CornsaladB, T15728Test at 10 °C.
CowpeaB, T, S20-30518
Cress:
GardenB, P, T15410Light.
UplandP, TB20-3547Light; KNO3
WaterP20-30414Light
CucumberB, T, S20-3037Keep substratum on dry side; see ¶(a)(3)
DandelionP, TB20-30721Light; see ¶(a)(9)
DillB, T20-30721
EggplantP, TB, RB, T20-30714Light; KNO3.
EndiveP, TS20-30514Light; KNO3 or soilSee ¶(b)(6).
Gherkin, West IndiaB, T, S20-3037Test at 30 °C.
KaleB, P, T20-30310Prechill at 5° or 10 °C for 3 days; KNO3 and light.
Kale, ChineseB, P, T20-30310Prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 3 days; KNO3 and light.
Kale, SiberianB, P, T20-30; 2037
KohlrabiB, P, T20-30310Prechill at 5 or 10 °C for 3 days; KNO3 and light.
LeekB, T20614
LettuceP20None7LightPrechill at 10 °C for 3 days or test at 15 °C.
MelonB, T, S20-30410Keep substratum on dry side; see ¶(a)(3)
Mustard, IndiaP20-3037LightPrechill at 10 °C for 7 days and test for 5 additional days; KNO3.
Mustard, spinachB, T20-3037
OkraB, T20-304114
OnionB, T20610
Alternate methodS20612
Onion, WelshB, T20610
Pak-choiB, T20-3037
ParsleyB, T, TS20-301128
ParsnipB, T, TS20-30628
PeaB, T,S20518
PepperTB, RB, T20-30614Light and KNO3.
PumpkinB, T, S20-3047Keep substratum on dry side; see ¶(a)(3)
RadishB, T2046
RhubarbTB, TS20-30721Light
RutabagaB, T20-30314
SageB, T, S20-30514
SalsifyB, T15510Prechill at 10 °C for 3 days.
Savory, summerB, T20-30521
SorrelP, TB, TS20-30314LightTest at 15 °C.
SoybeanB, T, S, TC20-30; 25518
SpinachTB, T15;10721Keep substratum on dry side; see ¶(a)(3)
Spinach, New ZealandT15; 20521Soak fruits overnight (16 hrs), air dry 7 hrs; plant in very wet towels; do not rewater unless later counts exhibit drying outOn 21st day scrape fruits and test for 7 additional days.
Alternate methodB, T15521Remove pulp from basal end of fruit
SquashB, T, S20-3047Keep substratum on dry side; see ¶(a)(3)
TomatoB, P, RB, T20-30514Light; KNO3.
Tomato, huskP, TB20-30728Light; KNO3
TurnipB, T20-3037
WatermelonB, T, S20-30; 25414Keep substratum on dry side; see ¶(a)(3)Test at 30 °C.

1Hard seeds may be present. (See §201.57)

2Rhizomatous derivatives of a johnsongrass sorghum cross or a johnsongrass sudangrass cross.

[20 FR 7928, Oct. 21, 1955]

Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting §201.58, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.govinfo.gov.

Need assistance?