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e-CFR data is current as of December 2, 2020

Title 46Chapter ISubchapter I-APart 108Subpart D → Subject Group


Title 46: Shipping
PART 108—DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT
Subpart D—Fire Extinguishing Systems


Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems

§108.431   Carbon dioxide systems: General.

(a) Sections 108.431 through 108.457 apply to high pressure carbon dioxide fire extinguishing systems.

(b) Low pressure systems, that is, those in which the carbon dioxide is stored in liquid form at low temperature, must be approved by the Commandant.

(c) Each carbon dioxide system cylinder must be fabricated, tested, and marked in accordance with §§147.60 and 147.65 of this chapter.

[CGD 73-251, 43 FR 56808, Dec. 4, 1978, as amended by CGD 84-044, 53 FR 7749, Mar. 10, 1988]

§108.433   Quantity of CO2: General.

Each CO2 system must have enough gas to meet the quantity requirements of §108.439 for the space requiring the greatest amount of CO2.

§108.437   Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment.

(a) The minimum pipe size for the initial charge must meet table 108.441 and the discharge of the required amount of CO2 must be completed within 2 minutes.

(b) The minimum pipe size for the delayed discharge must be at least 1.25 centimeters ( 12 inch) standard pipe.

(c) The pipe used for the initial discharge must not be used for the delayed discharge, except systems having a volume of less than 57 cubic meters (2,000 cubic feet).

§108.439   Quantity of CO2 for protection of spaces.

(a) The number of pounds of CO2 required to protect a space must be equal to the gross volume of the space divided by the appropriate factor from Table 108.439.

(b) If a machinery space includes a casing, the gross volume of the space may be calculated using the reductions allowed in 46 CFR 95.10-5(e).

(c) If fuel can drain from a space to an adjacent space or if two spaces are not entirely separate, the requirements for both spaces must be used to determine the amount of CO2 to be provided and the CO2 system must be arranged to discharge into both spaces simultaneously.

Table 108.439—CO2 Supply Factors

[Gross volume of space in cubic feet]

OverNot overFactor
050015
5001,60016
1,6004,50018
4,50050,00020
50,000   22

§108.441   Piping and discharge rates for CO2 systems.

(a) The size of branch lines to spaces protected by a CO2 system must meet Table 108.441.

(b) Distribution piping within a space must be proportioned from the supply line to give proper distribution to the outlets without throttling.

(c) The number, type, and location of discharge outlets must distribute the CO2 uniformly throughout the space.

Table 108.441—CO2 System Pipe Size

CO2 supply in system, kilograms (pounds)Minimum pipe size (inches), millimeters (inches)
45 (100)12.7 ( 12 ).
104 (225)19.05 ( 34 ).
136 (300)25.4 (1).
272 (600)31.75 (114 ).
450 (1,000)38.10 (112 ).
1,110 (2,450)50.80 (2).
1,130 (2,500)63.5 (212 ).
2,023 (4,450)76.2 (3).
3,229 (7,100)88.9 (312 ).
4,750 (10,000)101.6 (4).
6,818 (15,000)114.3 (412 ).

(d) The total area of all discharge outlets must be more than 35 percent and less than 85 percent of the nominal cylinder outlet area or the area of the supply pipe, whichever is smaller. The nominal cylinder outlet area in square centimeters is determined by multiplying the factor 0.0313 by the number of kilograms of CO2 required. (The nominal cylinder outlet area in square inches is determined by multiplying the factor 0.0022 by the number of pounds of CO2 required). The nominal cylinder outlet area must not be less than 71 square millimeters (0.110 square inches).

(e) A CO2 system must discharge at least 85 percent of the required amount within 2 minutes.

§108.443   Controls and valves.

(a) At least one control for operating a CO2 system must be outside the space or spaces that the system protects and in a location that would be accessible if a fire occurred in any space that the system protects. Control valves must not be located in a protected space unless the CO2 cylinders are also in the protected space.

(b) A CO2 system that protects more than one space must have a manifold with a stop valve, the normal position of which is closed, that directs the flow of CO2 to each protected space.

(c) A CO2 system that protects only one space must have a stop valve installed between the cylinders and the discharge outlets in the system, except on a system that has a CO2 supply of 136 kilograms (300 pounds) or less.

(d) At least one of the control stations in a CO2 system that protects a machinery space must be as near as practicable to one of the main escapes from that space.

(e) All distribution valves and controls must be of an approved type.

(f) Each CO2 system that has a stop valve must have a remote control that operates only the stop valve and must have a separate remote control for releasing the required amount of CO2 into the space protected by the system.

(g) Each CO2 system that does not have a stop valve must be operated by a remote control that releases the required amount of CO2 into the space protected by the system.

(h) Remote controls to each space must be in an enclosure.

(i) Each system must have a manual control at its cylinders for releasing CO2 from the cylinders, except that if the system has pilot cylinders, a manual control is not required for other than pilot cylinders.

(j) If gas pressure is used to release CO2 from a system having more than 2 cylinders, the system must have at least 2 pilot cylinders to release the CO2 from the remaining cylinders.

(k) If the entrance to a space containing the CO2 supply or controls of a CO2 system has a lock, the space must have a key to the lock in a break-glass type box that is next to and visible from the entrance.

§108.444   Lockout valves.

(a) A lockout valve must be provided on any carbon dioxide extinguishing system protecting a space over 6,000 cubic feet in volume and installed or altered after July 9, 2013. “Altered” means modified or refurbished beyond the maintenance required by the manufacturer's design, installation, operation and maintenance manual.

(b) The lockout valve must be a manually operated valve located in the discharge manifold prior to the stop valve or selector valves. When in the closed position, the lockout valve must provide complete isolation of the system from the protected space or spaces, making it impossible for carbon dioxide to discharge in the event of equipment failure during maintenance.

(c) The lockout valve design or locking mechanism must make it obvious whether the valve is open or closed.

(d) A valve is considered a lockout valve if it has a hasp or other means of attachment to which, or through which, a lock can be affixed, or it has a locking mechanism built into it.

(e) The master or person-in-charge must ensure that the valve is locked open at all times, except while maintenance is being performed on the extinguishing system, when the valve must be locked in the closed position.

(f) Lockout valves added to existing systems must be approved by the Commandant as part of the installed system.

[USCG-2006-24797, 77 FR 33882, June 7, 2012]

§108.445   Alarm and means of escape.

(a) Each CO2 system that has a supply of more than 136 kilograms (300 pounds) of CO2, except a system that protects a tank, must have an alarm that sounds for at least 20 seconds before the CO2 is released into the space.

(b) Each audible alarm for a CO2 system must have the CO2 supply for the system as its source of power and must be in a visible location in the spaces protected.

§108.446   Odorizing units.

Each carbon dioxide extinguishing system installed or altered after July 9, 2013, must have an approved odorizing unit to produce the scent of wintergreen, the detection of which will serve as an indication that carbon dioxide gas is present in a protected area and any other area into which the carbon dioxide may migrate. “Altered” means modified or refurbished beyond the maintenance required by the manufacturer's design, installation, operation and maintenance manual.

[USCG-2006-24797, 77 FR 33882, June 7, 2012]

§108.447   Piping.

(a) Each pipe, valve, and fitting in a CO2 system must have a bursting pressure of at least 420 kilograms per square centimeter (6,000 pounds per square inch).

(b) All piping for a CO2 system of nominal size of 19.05 millimeters ( 34 inch) inside diameter or less must be at least Schedule 40 (standard weight) and all piping of nominal size over 19.05 millimeters ( 34 inch) inside diameter must be at least Schedule 80 (extra heavy).

(c) Each pipe, valve, and fitting made of ferrous materials in a CO2 system must be protected inside and outside from corrosion.

(d) Each CO2 system must have a pressure relief valve set to relieve between 168 and 196 kilograms per square centimeter (2,400 and 2,800 pounds per square inch) in the distribution manifold or other location that protects the piping when all branch line shut off valves are closed.

(e) The end of each branch line in a CO2 system must extend at least 50 millimeters (2 inches) beyond the last discharge outlet and be closed with a cap or plug.

(f) Piping, valves, and fittings in a CO2 system must be securely supported and protected from damage.

(g) Each CO2 system must have drains and dirt traps located where dirt or moisture can accumulate in the system.

(h) Discharge piping in a CO2 system may not be used for any other purpose except as part of a fire detection system.

(i) Piping in a CO2 system that passes through accommodation spaces must not have drains or other openings within these spaces.

§108.449   Piping tests.

(a) Each test prescribed in (b), (c), and (d) of this section must be performed upon completion of the piping installation.

(b) When tested with CO2 or other inert gas under a pressure of 70 kilograms per square centimeter (1000 pounds per square inch), with no additional gas introduced into the system, the leakage in the piping from the cylinders to the stop valves in the manifold must not allow a pressure drop of more than 10.5 kilograms per square centimeter (150 pounds per square inch) per minute for a 2 minute period.

(c) When tested with CO2 or other inert gas under a pressure of 42 kilograms per square centimeter (600 pounds per square inch), with no additional gas introduced into the system, the leakage in each branch line must not allow a pressure drop of more than 10.5 kilograms per square centimeter (150 pounds per square inch) per minute for a 2-minute period. The distribution piping must be capped within the protected space.

(d) Small independent systems protecting emergency generator rooms, lamp lockers and similar small spaces need not meet the tests prescribed in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section if they are tested by blowing out the piping with air at a pressure of at least 7 kilograms per square centimeter (100 pounds per square inch).

§108.451   CO2 storage.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each cylinder of a CO2 system must be outside each space protected by the system and in a location that would be accessible if a fire occurred in any space protected by the system.

(b) A CO2 system that has a CO2 supply of 136 kilograms (300 pounds) or less may have one or more cylinders in the space protected by the system if the space has a heat detection system to activate the system automatically in addition to the remote and manual controls required by this subpart.

(c) Each space that contains cylinders of a CO2 system must be ventilated and designed to prevent an ambient temperature of more than 54 °C. (130 °F.)

(d) Each cylinder in a CO2 system must be securely fastened, supported, protected from damage, in an accessible location, and capable of removal from that location.

(e) Each unit must have a means for weighing cylinders of a CO2 system.

(f) A cylinder in a CO2 system may not be mounted in a position that is inclined more than 30° from a vertical position, except that a cylinder having flexible or bent siphon tubes may be mounted in a position that is inclined up to 80° from the vertical. The bottom of each cylinder when mounted must be at least 5 centimeters (2 inches) from the deck.

(g) If a cylinder does not have a check valve on its independent cylinder discharge, it must have a plug or cap to close the outlet when the cylinder is moved.

[CGD 73-251, 43 FR 56808, Dec. 4, 1978, as amended by CGD 84-044, 53 FR 7749, Mar. 10, 1988]

§108.453   Discharge outlets.

Each discharge outlet must be of an approved type.

§108.455   Enclosure openings.

(a) Mechanical ventilation for spaces protected by a CO2 system must be designed to shut down automatically when the system is activated.

(b) Each space that is protected by a CO2 system and that has natural ventilation must have a means for closing that ventilation.

(c) Each space protected by a CO2 system must have the following means for closing the openings to the space from outside the space:

(1) Doors, shutters, or dampers for closing each opening in the lower portion of the space.

(2) Doors, shutters, dampers or temporary means such as canvas or other material normally on board a unit may be used for closing each opening in the upper portion of the space.

§108.457   Pressure release.

Each air tight or vapor tight space, such as a paint locker, that is protected by a CO2 system must have a means for releasing pressure that accumulates within the space if CO2 is discharged into the space.

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