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e-CFR data is current as of November 27, 2020

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter CPart 60Subpart KKKK → Subject Group


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 60—STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES (CONTINUED)
Subpart KKKK—Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines


Performance Tests

§60.4400   How do I conduct the initial and subsequent performance tests, regarding NOX?

(a) You must conduct an initial performance test, as required in §60.8. Subsequent NOX performance tests shall be conducted on an annual basis (no more than 14 calendar months following the previous performance test).

(1) There are two general methodologies that you may use to conduct the performance tests. For each test run:

(i) Measure the NOX concentration (in parts per million (ppm)), using EPA Method 7E or EPA Method 20 in appendix A of this part. For units complying with the output based standard, concurrently measure the stack gas flow rate, using EPA Methods 1 and 2 in appendix A of this part, and measure and record the electrical and thermal output from the unit. Then, use the following equation to calculate the NOX emission rate:

eCFR graphic er06jy06.004.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

E = NOX emission rate, in lb/MWh

1.194 × 10−7 = conversion constant, in lb/dscf-ppm

(NOX)c = average NOX concentration for the run, in ppm

Qstd = stack gas volumetric flow rate, in dscf/hr

P = gross electrical and mechanical energy output of the combustion turbine, in MW (for simple-cycle operation), for combined-cycle operation, the sum of all electrical and mechanical output from the combustion and steam turbines, or, for combined heat and power operation, the sum of all electrical and mechanical output from the combustion and steam turbines plus all useful recovered thermal output not used for additional electric or mechanical generation, in MW, calculated according to §60.4350(f)(2); or

(ii) Measure the NOX and diluent gas concentrations, using either EPA Methods 7E and 3A, or EPA Method 20 in appendix A of this part. Concurrently measure the heat input to the unit, using a fuel flowmeter (or flowmeters), and measure the electrical and thermal output of the unit. Use EPA Method 19 in appendix A of this part to calculate the NOX emission rate in lb/MMBtu. Then, use Equations 1 and, if necessary, 2 and 3 in §60.4350(f) to calculate the NOX emission rate in lb/MWh.

(2) Sampling traverse points for NOX and (if applicable) diluent gas are to be selected following EPA Method 20 or EPA Method 1 (non-particulate procedures), and sampled for equal time intervals. The sampling must be performed with a traversing single-hole probe, or, if feasible, with a stationary multi-hole probe that samples each of the points sequentially. Alternatively, a multi-hole probe designed and documented to sample equal volumes from each hole may be used to sample simultaneously at the required points.

(3) Notwithstanding paragraph (a)(2) of this section, you may test at fewer points than are specified in EPA Method 1 or EPA Method 20 in appendix A of this part if the following conditions are met:

(i) You may perform a stratification test for NOX and diluent pursuant to

(A) [Reserved], or

(B) The procedures specified in section 6.5.6.1(a) through (e) of appendix A of part 75 of this chapter.

(ii) Once the stratification sampling is completed, you may use the following alternative sample point selection criteria for the performance test:

(A) If each of the individual traverse point NOX concentrations is within ±10 percent of the mean concentration for all traverse points, or the individual traverse point diluent concentrations differs by no more than ±5ppm or ±0.5 percent CO2 (or O2) from the mean for all traverse points, then you may use three points (located either 16.7, 50.0 and 83.3 percent of the way across the stack or duct, or, for circular stacks or ducts greater than 2.4 meters (7.8 feet) in diameter, at 0.4, 1.2, and 2.0 meters from the wall). The three points must be located along the measurement line that exhibited the highest average NOX concentration during the stratification test; or

(B) For turbines with a NOX standard greater than 15 ppm @ 15% O2, you may sample at a single point, located at least 1 meter from the stack wall or at the stack centroid if each of the individual traverse point NOX concentrations is within ±5 percent of the mean concentration for all traverse points, or the individual traverse point diluent concentrations differs by no more than ±3ppm or ±0.3 percent CO2 (or O2) from the mean for all traverse points; or

(C) For turbines with a NOX standard less than or equal to 15 ppm @ 15% O2, you may sample at a single point, located at least 1 meter from the stack wall or at the stack centroid if each of the individual traverse point NOX concentrations is within ±2.5 percent of the mean concentration for all traverse points, or the individual traverse point diluent concentrations differs by no more than ±1ppm or ±0.15 percent CO2 (or O2) from the mean for all traverse points.

(b) The performance test must be done at any load condition within plus or minus 25 percent of 100 percent of peak load. You may perform testing at the highest achievable load point, if at least 75 percent of peak load cannot be achieved in practice. You must conduct three separate test runs for each performance test. The minimum time per run is 20 minutes.

(1) If the stationary combustion turbine combusts both oil and gas as primary or backup fuels, separate performance testing is required for each fuel.

(2) For a combined cycle and CHP turbine systems with supplemental heat (duct burner), you must measure the total NOX emissions after the duct burner rather than directly after the turbine. The duct burner must be in operation during the performance test.

(3) If water or steam injection is used to control NOX with no additional post-combustion NOX control and you choose to monitor the steam or water to fuel ratio in accordance with §60.4335, then that monitoring system must be operated concurrently with each EPA Method 20 or EPA Method 7E run and must be used to determine the fuel consumption and the steam or water to fuel ratio necessary to comply with the applicable §60.4320 NOX emission limit.

(4) Compliance with the applicable emission limit in §60.4320 must be demonstrated at each tested load level. Compliance is achieved if the three-run arithmetic average NOX emission rate at each tested level meets the applicable emission limit in §60.4320.

(5) If you elect to install a CEMS, the performance evaluation of the CEMS may either be conducted separately or (as described in §60.4405) as part of the initial performance test of the affected unit.

(6) The ambient temperature must be greater than 0 °F during the performance test.

§60.4405   How do I perform the initial performance test if I have chosen to install a NOX-diluent CEMS?

If you elect to install and certify a NOX-diluent CEMS under §60.4345, then the initial performance test required under §60.8 may be performed in the following alternative manner:

(a) Perform a minimum of nine RATA reference method runs, with a minimum time per run of 21 minutes, at a single load level, within plus or minus 25 percent of 100 percent of peak load. The ambient temperature must be greater than 0 °F during the RATA runs.

(b) For each RATA run, concurrently measure the heat input to the unit using a fuel flow meter (or flow meters) and measure the electrical and thermal output from the unit.

(c) Use the test data both to demonstrate compliance with the applicable NOX emission limit under §60.4320 and to provide the required reference method data for the RATA of the CEMS described under §60.4335.

(d) Compliance with the applicable emission limit in §60.4320 is achieved if the arithmetic average of all of the NOX emission rates for the RATA runs, expressed in units of ppm or lb/MWh, does not exceed the emission limit.

§60.4410   How do I establish a valid parameter range if I have chosen to continuously monitor parameters?

If you have chosen to monitor combustion parameters or parameters indicative of proper operation of NOX emission controls in accordance with §60.4340, the appropriate parameters must be continuously monitored and recorded during each run of the initial performance test, to establish acceptable operating ranges, for purposes of the parameter monitoring plan for the affected unit, as specified in §60.4355.

§60.4415   How do I conduct the initial and subsequent performance tests for sulfur?

Link to an amendment published at 85 FR 63410, Oct. 7, 2020.

(a) You must conduct an initial performance test, as required in §60.8. Subsequent SO2 performance tests shall be conducted on an annual basis (no more than 14 calendar months following the previous performance test). There are three methodologies that you may use to conduct the performance tests.

(1) If you choose to periodically determine the sulfur content of the fuel combusted in the turbine, a representative fuel sample would be collected following ASTM D5287 (incorporated by reference, see §60.17) for natural gas or ASTM D4177 (incorporated by reference, see §60.17) for oil. Alternatively, for oil, you may follow the procedures for manual pipeline sampling in section 14 of ASTM D4057 (incorporated by reference, see §60.17). The fuel analyses of this section may be performed either by you, a service contractor retained by you, the fuel vendor, or any other qualified agency. Analyze the samples for the total sulfur content of the fuel using:

(i) For liquid fuels, ASTM D129, or alternatively D1266, D1552, D2622, D4294, or D5453 (all of which are incorporated by reference, see §60.17); or

(ii) For gaseous fuels, ASTM D1072, or alternatively D3246, D4084, D4468, D4810, D6228, D6667, or Gas Processors Association Standard 2377 (all of which are incorporated by reference, see §60.17).

(2) Measure the SO2 concentration (in parts per million (ppm)), using EPA Methods 6, 6C, 8, or 20 in appendix A of this part. In addition, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) standard, ASME PTC 19-10-1981-Part 10, “Flue and Exhaust Gas Analyses,” manual methods for sulfur dioxide (incorporated by reference, see §60.17) can be used instead of EPA Methods 6 or 20. For units complying with the output based standard, concurrently measure the stack gas flow rate, using EPA Methods 1 and 2 in appendix A of this part, and measure and record the electrical and thermal output from the unit. Then use the following equation to calculate the SO2 emission rate:

eCFR graphic er06jy06.005.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

E = SO2 emission rate, in lb/MWh

1.664 × 10−7 = conversion constant, in lb/dscf-ppm

(SO2)c = average SO2 concentration for the run, in ppm

Qstd = stack gas volumetric flow rate, in dscf/hr

P = gross electrical and mechanical energy output of the combustion turbine, in MW (for simple-cycle operation), for combined-cycle operation, the sum of all electrical and mechanical output from the combustion and steam turbines, or, for combined heat and power operation, the sum of all electrical and mechanical output from the combustion and steam turbines plus all useful recovered thermal output not used for additional electric or mechanical generation, in MW, calculated according to §60.4350(f)(2); or

(3) Measure the SO2 and diluent gas concentrations, using either EPA Methods 6, 6C, or 8 and 3A, or 20 in appendix A of this part. In addition, you may use the manual methods for sulfur dioxide ASME PTC 19-10-1981-Part 10 (incorporated by reference, see §60.17). Concurrently measure the heat input to the unit, using a fuel flowmeter (or flowmeters), and measure the electrical and thermal output of the unit. Use EPA Method 19 in appendix A of this part to calculate the SO2 emission rate in lb/MMBtu. Then, use Equations 1 and, if necessary, 2 and 3 in §60.4350(f) to calculate the SO2 emission rate in lb/MWh.

(b) [Reserved]

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