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Title 40Chapter ISubchapter IPart 257Subpart B → Subject Group


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 257—CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND PRACTICES
Subpart B—Disposal Standards for the Receipt of Very Small Quantity Generator (VSQG) Wastes at Non-Municipal Non-Hazardous Waste Disposal Units


Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action

§257.21   Applicability.

(a) The requirements in this section apply to units identified in §257.5(a), except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) Ground-water monitoring requirements under §§257.22 through 257.25 may be suspended by the Director of an approved State for a unit identified in §257.5(a) if the owner or operator can demonstrate that there is no potential for migration of hazardous constituents from that unit to the uppermost aquifer during the active life of the unit plus 30 years. This demonstration must be certified by a qualified ground-water scientist and approved by the Director of an approved State, and must be based upon:

(1) Site-specific field collected measurements, sampling, and analysis of physical, chemical, and biological processes affecting contaminant fate and transport; and

(2) Contaminant fate and transport predictions that maximize contaminant migration and consider impacts on human health and environment.

(c) Owners and operators of facilities identified in §257.5(a) must comply with the ground-water monitoring requirements of this section according to the following schedule unless an alternative schedule is specified under paragraph (d) of this section:

(1) Existing units and lateral expansions must be in compliance with the ground-water monitoring requirements specified in §§257.22 through 257.25 by July 1, 1998.

(2) New units identified in §257.5(a) must be in compliance with the ground-water monitoring requirements specified in §§257.22 through 257.25 before waste can be placed in the unit.

(d) The Director of an approved State may specify an alternative schedule for the owners or operators of existing units and lateral expansions to comply with the ground-water monitoring requirements specified in §§257.22 through 257.25. This schedule must ensure that 50 percent of all existing units are in compliance by July 1, 1998, and all existing units are in compliance by July 1, 1999. In setting the compliance schedule, the Director of an approved State must consider potential risks posed by the unit to human health and the environment. The following factors should be considered in determining potential risk:

(1) Proximity of human and environmental receptors;

(2) Design of the unit;

(3) Age of the unit;

(4) The size of the unit; and

(5) Resource value of the underlying aquifer, including:

(i) Current and future uses;

(ii) Proximity and withdrawal rate of users; and

(iii) Ground-water quality and quantity.

(e) Once established at a unit, ground-water monitoring shall be conducted throughout the active life plus 30 years. The Director of an approved State may decrease the 30 year period if the owner/operator demonstrates that a shorter period of time is adequate to protect human health and the environment and the Director approves the demonstration.

(f) For the purposes of this section, a qualified ground-water scientist is a scientist or engineer who has received a baccalaureate or post-graduate degree in the natural sciences or engineering and has sufficient training and experience in ground-water hydrology and related fields as may be demonstrated by State registration, professional Certifications, or completion of accredited university programs that enable that individual to make sound professional judgments regarding ground-water monitoring, contaminant fate and transport, and corrective-action.

(g) The Director of an approved State may establish alternative schedules for demonstrating compliance with §257.22(d)(2), pertaining to notification of placement of certification in operating record; §257.24(c)(1), pertaining to notification that statistically significant increase (SSI) notice is in operating record; §257.24(c) (2) and (3), pertaining to an assessment monitoring program; §257.25(b), pertaining to sampling and analyzing appendix II of part 258 constituents; §257.25(d)(1), pertaining to placement of notice (appendix II of 40 CFR part 258 constituents detected) in record and notification of notice in record; §257.25(d)(2), pertaining to sampling for appendix I and II of 40 CFR part 258; §257.25(g), pertaining to notification (and placement of notice in record) of SSI above ground-water protection standard; §§257.25(g)(1)(iv) and 257.26(a), pertaining to assessment of corrective measures; §257.27(a), pertaining to selection of remedy and notification of placement in record; §257.28(c)(4), pertaining to notification of placement in record (alternative corrective action measures); and §257.28(f), pertaining to notification of placement in record (certification of remedy completed).

(h) Directors of approved States can use the flexibility in paragraph (i) of this section for any non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal unit that receives VSQG waste, if the non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal unit:

(1) Disposes of less than 20 tons of non-municipal waste daily, based on an annual average; and

(2) Has no evidence of ground-water contamination; and either

(3) Serves a community that experiences an annual interruption of at least three consecutive months of surface transportation that prevents access to a regional waste management facility; or

(4) Serves a community that has no practicable waste management alternative and the non-municipal solid waste disposal facility is located in an area that annually receives less than or equal to 25 inches of precipitation.

(5) Owners/operators of any non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal unit that meets the criteria in paragraph (h) of this section must place in the operating record information demonstrating this.

(i) Directors of approved States may allow any non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal unit meeting the criteria in paragraph (h) of this section to:

(1) Use alternatives to the ground-water monitoring system prescribed in §§257.22 through 257.25 so long as the alternatives will detect and, if necessary, assess the nature or extent of contamination from the non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal unit on a site-specific basis; or establish and use, on a site-specific basis, an alternative list of indicator parameters for some or all of the constituents listed in appendix I (Appendix I of 40 CFR part 258. Alternative indicator parameters approved by the Director of an approved State under this section must ensure detection of contamination from the non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal unit.

(2) If contamination is detected through the use of any alternative to the ground-water monitoring system prescribed in §§257.22 through 257.25, the non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal unit owner or operator must perform expanded monitoring to determine whether the detected contamination is an actual release from the non-municipal solid waste disposal unit and, if so, to determine the nature and extent of the contamination. The Director of the approved State shall establish a schedule for the non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal unit owner or operator to submit results from expanded monitoring in a manner that ensures protection of human health and the environment.

(i) If expanded monitoring indicates that contamination from the non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal unit has reached the saturated zone, the owner or operator must install ground-water monitoring wells and sample these wells in accordance with §§257.22 through 257.25.

(ii) If expanded monitoring indicates that contamination from the non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal unit is present in the unsaturated zone or on the surface, the Director of an approved State shall establish a schedule for the owner or operator to submit a description of any necessary corrective measures. The schedule shall ensure corrective measures, where necessary, are undertaken in a timely manner that protects human health and the environment. The proposed corrective measures are subject to revision and approval by the Director of the approved State. The owner or operator must implement the corrective measures according to a schedule established by the Director of the approved State.

(3) When considering whether to allow alternatives to a ground-water monitoring system prescribed in §§257.22 through 257.25, including alternative indicator parameters, the Director of an approved State shall consider at least the following factors:

(i) The geological and hydrogeological characteristics of the site;

(ii) The impact of manmade and natural features on the effectiveness of an alternative technology;

(iii) Climatic factors that may influence the selection, use, and reliability of alternative ground-water monitoring procedures; and

(iv) The effectiveness of indicator parameters in detecting a release.

(4) The Director of an approved State can require an owner or operator to comply with the requirements of §§257.22 through 257.25, where it is determined by the Director that using alternatives to ground-water monitoring approved under this paragraph are inadequate to detect contamination and, if necessary, to assess the nature and extent of contamination.

[61 FR 34269, July 1, 1996, as amended at 81 FR 85805, Nov. 28, 2016]

§257.22   Ground-water monitoring systems.

(a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number of wells, installed at appropriate locations and depths, to yield ground-water samples from the uppermost aquifer (as defined in §257.5(b)) that:

(1) Represent the quality of background ground water that has not been affected by leakage from a unit. A determination of background quality may include sampling of wells that are not hydraulically upgradient of the waste management area where:

(i) Hydrogeologic conditions do not allow the owner or operator to determine what wells are hydraulically upgradient; or

(ii) Sampling at other wells will provide an indication of background ground-water quality that is as representative or more representative than that provided by the upgradient wells; and

(2) Represent the quality of ground water passing the relevant point of compliance specified by the Director of an approved State or at the waste management unit boundary in an unapproved State. The downgradient monitoring system must be installed at the relevant point of compliance specified by the Director of an approved State or at the waste management unit boundary in an unapproved State that ensures detection of ground-water contamination in the uppermost aquifer. The relevant point of compliance specified by the Director of an approved State shall be no more than 150 meters from the waste management unit boundary and shall be located on land owned by the owner of the facility. In determining the relevant point of compliance the State Director shall consider at least the following factors: the hydrogeologic characteristics of the unit and surrounding land, the volume and physical and chemical characteristics of the leachate, the quantity, quality and direction of flow of ground water, the proximity and withdrawal rate of the ground-water users, the availability of alternative drinking water supplies, the existing quality of the ground water, including other sources of contamination and their cumulative impacts on the ground water, and whether the ground water is currently used or reasonably expected to be used for drinking water, public health, safety, and welfare effects, and practicable capability of the owner or operator. When physical obstacles preclude installation of ground-water monitoring wells at the relevant point of compliance at existing units, the down-gradient monitoring system may be installed at the closest practicable distance hydraulically down-gradient from the relevant point of compliance specified by the Director of an approved State that ensures detection of groundwater contamination in the uppermost aquifer.

(b) The Director of an approved State may approve a multi-unit ground-water monitoring system instead of separate ground-water monitoring systems for each unit when the facility has several units, provided the multi-unit ground-water monitoring system meets the requirement of §257.22(a) and will be as protective of human health and the environment as individual monitoring systems for each unit, based on the following factors:

(1) Number, spacing, and orientation of the units;

(2) Hydrogeologic setting;

(3) Site history;

(4) Engineering design of the units; and

(5) Type of waste accepted at the units.

(c) Monitoring wells must be cased in a manner that maintains the integrity of the monitoring well bore hole. This casing must be screened or perforated and packed with gravel or sand, where necessary, to enable collection of ground-water samples. The annular space (i.e., the space between the bore hole and well casing) above the sampling depth must be sealed to prevent contamination of samples and the ground water.

(1) The owner or operator must notify the State Director that the design, installation, development, and decommission of any monitoring wells, piezometers and other measurement, sampling, and analytical devices documentation has been placed in the operating record; and

(2) The monitoring wells, piezometers, and other measurement, sampling, and analytical devices must be operated and maintained so that they perform to design specifications throughout the life of the monitoring program.

(d) The number, spacing, and depths of monitoring systems shall be:

(1) Determined based upon site-specific technical information that must include thorough characterization of:

(i) Aquifer thickness, ground-water flow rate, ground-water flow direction including seasonal and temporal fluctuations in ground-water flow; and

(ii) Saturated and unsaturated geologic units and fill materials overlying the uppermost aquifer, materials comprising the uppermost aquifer, and materials comprising the confining unit defining the lower boundary of the uppermost aquifer; including, but not limited to: thicknesses, stratigraphy, lithology, hydraulic conductivities, porosities and effective porosities.

(2) Certified by a qualified ground-water scientist or approved by the Director of an approved State. Within 14 days of this certification, the owner or operator must notify the State Director that the certification has been placed in the operating record.

§257.23   Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

(a) The ground-water monitoring program must include consistent sampling and analysis procedures that are designed to ensure monitoring results that provide an accurate representation of ground-water quality at the background and downgradient wells installed in compliance with §257.22(a). The owner or operator must notify the State Director that the sampling and analysis program documentation has been placed in the operating record and the program must include procedures and techniques for:

(1) Sample collection;

(2) Sample preservation and shipment;

(3) Analytical procedures;

(4) Chain of custody control; and

(5) Quality assurance and quality control.

(b) The ground-water monitoring program must include sampling and analytical methods that are appropriate for ground-water sampling and that accurately measure hazardous constituents and other monitoring parameters in ground-water samples. Ground-water samples shall not be field-filtered prior to laboratory analysis.

(c) The sampling procedures and frequency must be protective of human health and the environment.

(d) Ground-water elevations must be measured in each well immediately prior to purging, each time ground water is sampled. The owner or operator must determine the rate and direction of ground-water flow each time ground water is sampled. Ground-water elevations in wells which monitor the same waste management area must be measured within a period of time short enough to avoid temporal variations in ground-water flow which could preclude accurate determination of ground-water flow rate and direction.

(e) The owner or operator must establish background ground-water quality in a hydraulically upgradient or background well(s) for each of the monitoring parameters or constituents required in the particular ground-water monitoring program that applies to the unit, as determined under §257.24(a), or §257.25(a). Background ground-water quality may be established at wells that are not located hydraulically upgradient from the unit if it meets the requirements of §257.22(a)(1).

(f) The number of samples collected to establish ground-water quality data must be consistent with the appropriate statistical procedures determined pursuant to paragraph (g) of this section. The sampling procedures shall be those specified under §257.24(b) for detection monitoring, §257.25 (b) and (d) for assessment monitoring, and §257.26(b) for corrective action.

(g) The owner or operator must specify in the operating record one of the following statistical methods to be used in evaluating ground-water monitoring data for each hazardous constituent. The statistical test chosen shall be conducted separately for each hazardous constituent in each well.

(1) A parametric analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by multiple comparisons procedures to identify statistically significant evidence of contamination. The method must include estimation and testing of the contrasts between each compliance well's mean and the background mean levels for each constituent.

(2) An analysis of variance (ANOVA) based on ranks followed by multiple comparisons procedures to identify statistically significant evidence of contamination. The method must include estimation and testing of the contrasts between each compliance well's median and the background median levels for each constituent.

(3) A tolerance or prediction interval procedure in which an interval for each constituent is established from the distribution of the background data, and the level of each constituent in each compliance well is compared to the upper tolerance or prediction limit.

(4) A control chart approach that gives control limits for each constituent.

(5) Another statistical test method that meets the performance standards of paragraph (h) of this section. The owner or operator must place a justification for this alternative in the operating record and notify the State Director of the use of this alternative test. The justification must demonstrate that the alternative method meets the performance standards of paragraph (h) of this section.

(h) Any statistical method chosen under paragraph (g) of this section shall comply with the following performance standards, as appropriate:

(1) The statistical method used to evaluate ground-water monitoring data shall be appropriate for the distribution of chemical parameters or hazardous constituents. If the distribution of the chemical parameters or hazardous constituents is shown by the owner or operator to be inappropriate for a normal theory test, then the data should be transformed or a distribution-free theory test should be used. If the distributions for the constituents differ, more than one statistical method may be needed.

(2) If an individual well comparison procedure is used to compare an individual compliance well constituent concentration with background constituent concentrations or a ground-water protection standard, the test shall be done at a Type I error level no less than 0.01 for each testing period. If a multiple comparisons procedure is used, the Type I experiment wise error rate for each testing period shall be no less than 0.05; however, the Type I error of no less than 0.01 for individual well comparisons must be maintained. This performance standard does not apply to tolerance intervals, prediction intervals, or control charts.

(3) If a control chart approach is used to evaluate ground-water monitoring data, the specific type of control chart and its associated parameter values shall be protective of human health and the environment. The parameters shall be determined after considering the number of samples in the background data base, the data distribution, and the range of the concentration values for each constituent of concern.

(4) If a tolerance interval or a predictional interval is used to evaluate ground-water monitoring data, the levels of confidence and, for tolerance intervals, the percentage of the population that the interval must contain, shall be protective of human health and the environment. These parameters shall be determined after considering the number of samples in the background data base, the data distribution, and the range of the concentration values for each constituent of concern.

(5) The statistical method shall account for data below the limit of detection with one or more statistical procedures that are protective of human health and the environment. Any practical quantitation limit (pql) that is used in the statistical method shall be the lowest concentration level that can be reliably achieved within specified limits of precision and accuracy during routine laboratory operating conditions that are available to the facility.

(6) If necessary, the statistical method shall include procedures to control or correct for seasonal and spatial variability as well as temporal correlation in the data.

(i) The owner or operator must determine whether or not there is a statistically significant increase over background values for each parameter or constituent required in the particular ground-water monitoring program that applies to the unit, as determined under §§257.24(a) or 257.25(a).

(1) In determining whether a statistically significant increase has occurred, the owner or operator must compare the ground-water quality of each parameter or constituent at each monitoring well designated pursuant to §257.22(a)(2) to the background value of that constituent, according to the statistical procedures and performance standards specified under paragraphs (g) and (h) of this section.

(2) Within a reasonable period of time after completing sampling and analysis, the owner or operator must determine whether there has been a statistically significant increase over background at each monitoring well.

§257.24   Detection monitoring program.

(a) Detection monitoring is required at facilities identified in §257.5(a) at all ground-water monitoring wells defined under §§257.22 (a)(1) and (a)(2). At a minimum, a detection monitoring program must include the monitoring for the constituents listed in appendix I of 40 CFR part 258.

(1) The Director of an approved State may delete any of the appendix I (Appendix I of 40 CFR part 258) monitoring parameters for a unit if it can be shown that the removed constituents are not reasonably expected to be contained in or derived from the waste contained in the unit.

(2) The Director of an approved State may establish an alternative list of indicator parameters for a unit, in lieu of some or all of the constituents in appendix I to 40 CFR part 258, if the alternative parameters provide a reliable indication of releases from the unit to the ground water. In determining alternative parameters, the Director shall consider the following factors:

(i) The types, quantities, and concentrations of constituents in waste managed at the unit;

(ii) The mobility, stability, and persistence of waste constituents or their reaction products in the unsaturated zone beneath the unit;

(iii) The detectability of indicator parameters, waste constituents, and reaction products in the ground water; and

(iv) The concentration or values and coefficients of variation of monitoring parameters or constituents in the groundwater background.

(b) The monitoring frequency for all constituents listed in appendix I to 40 CFR part 258, or in the alternative list approved in accordance with paragraph (a)(2) of this section, shall be at least semiannual during the active life of the unit plus 30 years. A minimum of four independent samples from each well (background and downgradient) must be collected and analyzed for the appendix I (Appendix I of 40 CFR part 258) constituents, or the alternative list approved in accordance with paragraph (a)(2) of this section, during the first semiannual sampling event. At least one sample from each well (background and downgradient) must be collected and analyzed during subsequent semiannual sampling events. The Director of an approved State may specify an appropriate alternative frequency for repeated sampling and analysis for appendix I (Appendix I of 40 CFR part 258) constituents, or the alternative list approved in accordance with paragraph (a)(2) of this section, during the active life plus 30 years. The alternative frequency during the active life shall be no less than annual. The alternative frequency shall be based on consideration of the following factors:

(1) Lithology of the aquifer and unsaturated zone;

(2) Hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer and unsaturated zone;

(3) Ground-water flow rates;

(4) Minimum distance between upgradient edge of the unit and downgradient monitoring well screen (minimum distance of travel); and

(5) Resource value of the aquifer.

(c) If the owner or operator determines, pursuant to §257.23(g), that there is a statistically significant increase over background for one or more of the constituents listed in appendix I to 40 CFR part 258, or in the alternative list approved in accordance with paragraph (a)(2) of this section, at any monitoring well at the boundary specified under §257.22(a)(2), the owner or operator:

(1) Must, within 14 days of this finding, place a notice in the operating record indicating which constituents have shown statistically significant changes from background levels, and notify the State Director that this notice was placed in the operating record; and

(2) Must establish an assessment monitoring program meeting the requirements of §257.25 within 90 days except as provided for in paragraph (c)(3) of this section.

(3) The owner/operator may demonstrate that a source other than the unit caused the contamination or that the statistically significant increase resulted from error in sampling, analysis, statistical evaluation, or natural variation in ground-water quality. A report documenting this demonstration must be certified by a qualified ground-water scientist or approved by the Director of an approved State and be placed in the operating record. If a successful demonstration is made and documented, the owner or operator may continue detection monitoring as specified in this section. If, after 90 days, a successful demonstration is not made, the owner or operator must initiate an assessment monitoring program as required in §257.25.

§257.25   Assessment monitoring program.

(a) Assessment monitoring is required whenever a statistically significant increase over background has been detected for one or more of the constituents listed in appendix I of 40 CFR part 258 or in the alternative list approved in accordance with §257.24(a)(2).

(b) Within 90 days of triggering an assessment monitoring program, and annually thereafter, the owner or operator must sample and analyze the ground water for all constituents identified in appendix II of 40 CFR part 258. A minimum of one sample from each downgradient well must be collected and analyzed during each sampling event. For any constituent detected in the downgradient wells as the result of the complete appendix II (Appendix II of 40 CFR part 258) analysis, a minimum of four independent samples from each well (background and downgradient) must be collected and analyzed to establish background for the new constituents. The Director of an approved State may specify an appropriate subset of wells to be sampled and analyzed for appendix II (Appendix II of 40 CFR part 258) constituents during assessment monitoring. The Director of an approved State may delete any of the appendix II (Appendix II of 40 CFR part 258) monitoring parameters for a unit if it can be shown that the removed constituents are not reasonably expected to be in or derived from the waste contained in the unit.

(c) The Director of an approved State may specify an appropriate alternate frequency for repeated sampling and analysis for the full set of appendix II (Appendix II of 40 CFR part 258) constituents, or the alternative list approved in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section, during the active life plus 30 years considering the following factors:

(1) Lithology of the aquifer and unsaturated zone;

(2) Hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer and unsaturated zone;

(3) Ground-water flow rates;

(4) Minimum distance between upgradient edge of the unit and downgradient monitoring well screen (minimum distance of travel);

(5) Resource value of the aquifer; and

(6) Nature (fate and transport) of any constituents detected in response to this section.

(d) After obtaining the results from the initial or subsequent sampling events required in paragraph (b) of this section, the owner or operator must:

(1) Within 14 days, place a notice in the operating record identifying the appendix II (appendix II of 40 CFR part 258) constituents that have been detected and notify the State Director that this notice has been placed in the operating record;

(2) Within 90 days, and on at least a semiannual basis thereafter, resample all wells specified by §257.22(a) to this section, conduct analyses for all constituents in appendix I (Appendix I of 40 CFR part 258) to this part or in the alternative list approved in accordance with §257.24(a)(2), and for those constituents in appendix II to 40 CFR part 258 that are detected in response to paragraph (b) of this section, and record their concentrations in the facility operating record. At least one sample from each well (background and downgradient) must be collected and analyzed during these sampling events. The Director of an approved State may specify an alternative monitoring frequency during the active life plus 30 years for the constituents referred to in this paragraph. The alternative frequency for appendix I (appendix I of 40 CFR part 258) constituents, or the alternative list approved in accordance with §257.24(a)(2), during the active life shall be no less than annual. The alternative frequency shall be based on consideration of the factors specified in paragraph (c) of this section;

(3) Establish background concentrations for any constituents detected pursuant to paragraphs (b) or (d)(2) of this section; and

(4) Establish ground-water protection standards for all constituents detected pursuant to paragraph (b) or (d) of this section. The ground-water protection standards shall be established in accordance with paragraphs (h) or (i) of this section.

(e) If the concentrations of all appendix II (appendix II of 40 CFR part 258) constituents are shown to be at or below background values, using the statistical procedures in §257.23(g), for two consecutive sampling events, the owner or operator must notify the State Director of this finding and may return to detection monitoring.

(f) If the concentrations of any appendix II (appendix II of part 258) constituents are above background values, but all concentrations are below the ground-water protection standard established under paragraphs (h) or (i) of this section, using the statistical procedures in §257.23(g), the owner or operator must continue assessment monitoring in accordance with this section.

(g) If one or more appendix II (appendix II of CFR part 258) constituents are detected at statistically significant levels above the ground-water protection standard established under paragraphs (h) or (i) of this section in any sampling event, the owner or operator must, within 14 days of this finding, place a notice in the operating record identifying the appendix II (appendix II of 40 CFR part 258) constituents that have exceeded the ground-water protection standard and notify the State Director and all appropriate local government officials that the notice has been placed in the operating record. The owner or operator also:

(1)(i) Must characterize the nature and extent of the release by installing additional monitoring wells as necessary;

(ii) Must install at least one additional monitoring well at the facility boundary in the direction of contaminant migration and sample this well in accordance with paragraph (d)(2) of this section;

(iii) Must notify all persons who own the land or reside on the land that directly overlies any part of the plume of contamination if contaminants have migrated off-site if indicated by sampling of wells in accordance paragraph (g)(1) of this section; and

(iv) Must initiate an assessment of corrective measures as required by §257.26 within 90 days; or

(2) May demonstrate that a source other than the non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal unit caused the contamination, or that the statistically significant increase resulted from error in sampling, analysis, statistical evaluation, or natural variation in ground-water quality. A report documenting this demonstration must be certified by a qualified ground-water scientist or approved by the Director of an approved State and placed in the operating record. If a successful demonstration is made the owner or operator must continue monitoring in accordance with the assessment monitoring program pursuant to this §257.25, and may return to detection monitoring if the appendix II (appendix II of 40 CFR part 258) constituents are at or below background as specified in paragraph (e) of this section. Until a successful demonstration is made, the owner or operator must comply with §257.25(g) including initiating an assessment of corrective measures.

(h) The owner or operator must establish a ground-water protection standard for each appendix II (appendix II of 40 CFR part 258) constituent detected in the ground-water. The ground-water protection standard shall be:

(1) For constituents for which a maximum contaminant level (MCL) has been promulgated under section 1412 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (codified) under 40 CFR part 141, the MCL for that constituent;

(2) For constituents for which MCLs have not been promulgated, the background concentration for the constituent established from wells in accordance with §257.22(a)(1); or

(3) For constituents for which the background level is higher than the MCL identified under subparagraph (h)(1) of this section or health based levels identified under paragraph (i)(1) of this section, the background concentration.

(i) The Director of an approved State may establish an alternative ground-water protection standard for constituents for which MCLs have not been established. These ground-water protection standards shall be appropriate health based levels that satisfy the following criteria:

(1) The level is derived in a manner consistent with Agency guidelines for assessing the health risks of environmental pollutants (51 FR 33992, 34006, 34014, 34028, September 24, 1986);

(2) The level is based on scientifically valid studies conducted in accordance with the Toxic Substances Control Act Good Laboratory Practice Standards (40 CFR part 792) or equivalent;

(3) For carcinogens, the level represents a concentration associated with an excess lifetime cancer risk level (due to continuous lifetime exposure) within the 1 × 10−4 to 1 × 10−6 range; and

(4) For systemic toxicants, the level represents a concentration to which the human population (including sensitive subgroups) could be exposed to on a daily basis that is likely to be without appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime. For purposes of this subpart, systemic toxicants include toxic chemicals that cause effects other than cancer or mutation.

(j) In establishing ground-water protection standards under paragraph (i) of this section, the Director of an approved State may consider the following:

(1) Multiple contaminants in the ground water;

(2) Exposure threats to sensitive environmental receptors; and

(3) Other site-specific exposure or potential exposure to ground water.

§257.26   Assessment of corrective measures.

(a) Within 90 days of finding that any of the constituents listed in appendix II (appendix II of 40 CFR Part 258) have been detected at a statistically significant level exceeding the ground-water protection standards defined under §257.25 (h) or (i), the owner or operator must initiate an assessment of corrective measures. Such an assessment must be completed within a reasonable period of time.

(b) The owner or operator must continue to monitor in accordance with the assessment monitoring program as specified in §257.25.

(c) The assessment shall include an analysis of the effectiveness of potential corrective measures in meeting all of the requirements and objectives of the remedy as described under §257.27, addressing at least the following:

(1) The performance, reliability, ease of implementation, and potential impacts of appropriate potential remedies, including safety impacts, cross-media impacts, and control of exposure to any residual contamination;

(2) The time required to begin and complete the remedy;

(3) The costs of remedy implementation; and

(4) The institutional requirements such as State or local permit requirements or other environmental or public health requirements that may substantially affect implementation of the remedy(s).

(d) The owner or operator must discuss the results of the corrective measures assessment, prior to the selection of remedy, in a public meeting with interested and affected parties.

§257.27   Selection of remedy.

(a) Based on the results of the corrective measures assessment conducted under §257.26, the owner or operator must select a remedy that, at a minimum, meets the standards listed in paragraph (b) of this section. The owner or operator must notify the State Director, within 14 days of selecting a remedy, that a report describing the selected remedy has been placed in the operating record and how it meets the standards in paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) Remedies must:

(1) Be protective of human health and the environment;

(2) Attain the ground-water protection standard as specified pursuant to §§257.25 (h) or (i);

(3) Control the source(s) of releases so as to reduce or eliminate, to the maximum extent practicable, further releases of appendix II (appendix II of 40 CFR part 258) constituents into the environment that may pose a threat to human health or the environment; and

(4) Comply with standards for management of wastes as specified in §257.28(d).

(c) In selecting a remedy that meets the standards of §257.27(b), the owner or operator shall consider the following evaluation factors:

(1) The long- and short-term effectiveness and protectiveness of the potential remedy(s), along with the degree of certainty that the remedy will prove successful based on consideration of the following:

(i) Magnitude of reduction of existing risks;

(ii) Magnitude of residual risks in terms of likelihood of further releases due to waste remaining following implementation of a remedy;

(iii) The type and degree of long-term management required, including monitoring, operation, and maintenance;

(iv) Short-term risks that might be posed to the community, workers, or the environment during implementation of such a remedy, including potential threats to human health and the environment associated with excavation, transportation, and re-disposal or containment;

(v) Time until full protection is achieved;

(vi) Potential for exposure of humans and environmental receptors to remaining wastes, considering the potential threat to human health and the environment associated with excavation, transportation, re-disposal, or containment;

(vii) Long-term reliability of the engineering and institutional controls; and

(viii) Potential need for replacement of the remedy.

(2) The effectiveness of the remedy in controlling the source to reduce further releases based on consideration of the following factors:

(i) The extent to which containment practices will reduce further releases;

(ii) The extent to which treatment technologies may be used.

(3) The ease or difficulty of implementing a potential remedy(s) based on consideration of the following types of factors:

(i) Degree of difficulty associated with constructing the technology;

(ii) Expected operational reliability of the technologies;

(iii) Need to coordinate with and obtain necessary approvals and permits from other agencies;

(iv) Availability of necessary equipment and specialists; and

(v) Available capacity and location of needed treatment, storage, and disposal services.

(4) Practicable capability of the owner or operator, including a consideration of the technical and economic capability.

(5) The degree to which community concerns are addressed by a potential remedy(s).

(d) The owner or operator shall specify as part of the selected remedy a schedule(s) for initiating and completing remedial activities. Such a schedule must require the initiation of remedial activities within a reasonable period of time taking into consideration the factors set forth in paragraphs (d)(1) through (d)(8) of this section. The owner or operator must consider the following factors in determining the schedule of remedial activities:

(1) Extent and nature of contamination;

(2) Practical capabilities of remedial technologies in achieving compliance with ground-water protection standards established under §§257.25 (g) or (h) and other objectives of the remedy;

(3) Availability of treatment or disposal capacity for wastes managed during implementation of the remedy;

(4) Desirability of utilizing technologies that are not currently available, but which may offer significant advantages over already available technologies in terms of effectiveness, reliability, safety, or ability to achieve remedial objectives;

(5) Potential risks to human health and the environment from exposure to contamination prior to completion of the remedy;

(6) Resource value of the aquifer including:

(i) Current and future uses;

(ii) Proximity and withdrawal rate of users;

(iii) Ground-water quantity and quality;

(iv) The potential damage to wildlife, crops, vegetation, and physical structures caused by exposure to waste constituent;

(v) The hydrogeologic characteristic of the unit and surrounding land;

(vi) Ground-water removal and treatment costs; and

(vii) The cost and availability of alternative water supplies.

(7) Practicable capability of the owner or operator.

(8) Other relevant factors.

(e) The Director of an approved State may determine that remediation of a release of an appendix II (appendix II of 40 CFR part 258) constituent from the unit is not necessary if the owner or operator demonstrates to the Director of the approved state that:

(1) The ground-water is additionally contaminated by substances that have originated from a source other than the unit and those substances are present in concentrations such that cleanup of the release from the unit would provide no significant reduction in risk to actual or potential receptors; or

(2) The constituent(s) is present in ground water that:

(i) Is not currently or reasonably expected to be a source of drinking water; and

(ii) Is not hydraulically connected with waters to which the hazardous constituents are migrating or are likely to migrate in a concentration(s) that would exceed the ground-water protection standards established under §257.25 (h) or (i); or

(3) Remediation of the release(s) is technically impracticable; or

(4) Remediation results in unacceptable cross-media impacts.

(f) A determination by the Director of an approved State pursuant to paragraph (e) of this section shall not affect the authority of the State to require the owner or operator to undertake source control measures or other measures that may be necessary to eliminate or minimize further releases to the ground-water, to prevent exposure to the ground-water, or to remediate the ground-water to concentrations that are technically practicable and significantly reduce threats to human health or the environment.

§257.28   Implementation of the corrective action program.

(a) Based on the schedule established under §257.27(d) for initiation and completion of remedial activities the owner/operator must:

(1) Establish and implement a corrective action ground-water monitoring program that:

(i) At a minimum, meets the requirements of an assessment monitoring program under §257.25;

(ii) Indicates the effectiveness of the corrective action remedy; and

(iii) Demonstrates compliance with ground-water protection standard pursuant to paragraph (e) of this section.

(2) Implement the corrective action remedy selected under §257.27; and

(3) Take any interim measures necessary to ensure the protection of human health and the environment. Interim measures should, to the greatest extent practicable, be consistent with the objectives of and contribute to the performance of any remedy that may be required pursuant to §257.27. The following factors must be considered by an owner or operator in determining whether interim measures are necessary:

(i) Time required to develop and implement a final remedy;

(ii) Actual or potential exposure of nearby populations or environmental receptors to hazardous constituents;

(iii) Actual or potential contamination of drinking water supplies or sensitive ecosystems;

(iv) Further degradation of the ground-water that may occur if remedial action is not initiated expeditiously;

(v) Weather conditions that may cause hazardous constituents to migrate or be released;

(vi) Risks of fire or explosion, or potential for exposure to hazardous constituents as a result of an accident or failure of a container or handling system; and

(vii) Other situations that may pose threats to human health and the environment.

(b) An owner or operator may determine, based on information developed after implementation of the remedy has begun or other information, that compliance with requirements of §257.27(b) are not being achieved through the remedy selected. In such cases, the owner or operator must implement other methods or techniques that could practicably achieve compliance with the requirements, unless the owner or operator makes the determination under §257.28(c).

(c) If the owner or operator determines that compliance with requirements under §257.27(b) cannot be practically achieved with any currently available methods, the owner or operator must:

(1) Obtain certification of a qualified ground-water scientist or approval by the Director of an approved State that compliance with requirements under §257.27(b) cannot be practically achieved with any currently available methods;

(2) Implement alternate measures to control exposure of humans or the environment to residual contamination, as necessary to protect human health and the environment; and

(3) Implement alternate measures for control of the sources of contamination, or for removal or decontamination of equipment, units, devices, or structures that are:

(i) Technically practicable; and

(ii) Consistent with the overall objective of the remedy.

(4) Notify the State Director within 14 days that a report justifying the alternative measures prior to implementing the alternative measures has been placed in the operating record.

(d) All solid wastes that are managed pursuant to a remedy required under §257.27, or an interim measure required under §257.28(a)(3), shall be managed in a manner:

(1) That is protective of human health and the environment; and

(2) That complies with applicable RCRA requirements.

(e) Remedies selected pursuant to §257.27 shall be considered complete when:

(1) The owner or operator complies with the ground-water protection standards established under §§257.25 (h) or (i) at all points within the plume of contamination that lie beyond the ground-water monitoring well system established under §257.22(a).

(2) Compliance with the ground-water protection standards established under §§257.25 (h) or (i) has been achieved by demonstrating that concentrations of appendix II (appendix II of Part 258) constituents have not exceeded the ground-water protection standard(s) for a period of three consecutive years using the statistical procedures and performance standards in §257.23 (g) and (h). The Director of an approved State may specify an alternative length of time during which the owner or operator must demonstrate that concentrations of appendix II (appendix II of 40 CFR part 258) constituents have not exceeded the ground-water protection standard(s) taking into consideration:

(i) Extent and concentration of the release(s);

(ii) Behavior characteristics of the hazardous constituents in the ground-water;

(iii) Accuracy of monitoring or modeling techniques, including any seasonal, meteorological, or other environmental variabilities that may affect the accuracy; and

(iv) Characteristics of the ground-water.

(3) All actions required to complete the remedy have been satisfied.

(f) Upon completion of the remedy, the owner or operator must notify the State Director within 14 days that a certification that the remedy has been completed in compliance with the requirements of §257.28(e) has been placed in the operating record. The certification must be signed by the owner or operator and by a qualified ground-water scientist or approved by the Director of an approved State.

§257.29   [Reserved]

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