e-CFR banner

Home
gpo.gov
govinfo.gov

e-CFR Navigation Aids

Browse

Simple Search

Advanced Search

 — Boolean

 — Proximity

 

Search History

Search Tips

Corrections

Latest Updates

User Info

FAQs

Agency List

Incorporation By Reference

eCFR logo

Related Resources

 

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of December 5, 2019

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter CPart 63Subpart UUUUU → Subject Group


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 63—NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)
Subpart UUUUU—National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric Utility Steam Generating Units


Continuous Compliance Requirements

§63.10020   How do I monitor and collect data to demonstrate continuous compliance?

(a) You must monitor and collect data according to this section and the site-specific monitoring plan required by §63.10000(d).

(b) You must operate the monitoring system and collect data at all required intervals at all times that the affected EGU is operating, except for periods of monitoring system malfunctions or out-of-control periods (see §63.8(c)(7) of this part), and required monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities, including, as applicable, calibration checks and required zero and span adjustments. You are required to affect monitoring system repairs in response to monitoring system malfunctions and to return the monitoring system to operation as expeditiously as practicable.

(c) You may not use data recorded during EGU startup or shutdown in calculations used to report emissions, except as otherwise provided in §§63.10000(c)(1)(vi)(B) and 63.10005(a)(2)(iii). In addition, data recorded during monitoring system malfunctions or monitoring system out-of-control periods, repairs associated with monitoring system malfunctions or monitoring system out-of-control periods, or required monitoring system quality assurance or control activities may not be used in calculations used to report emissions or operating levels. You must use all of the quality-assured data collected during all other periods in assessing the operation of the control device and associated control system.

(d) Except for periods of monitoring system malfunctions or monitoring system out-of-control periods, repairs associated with monitoring system malfunctions or monitoring system out-of-control periods, and required monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities including, as applicable, calibration checks and required zero and span adjustments), failure to collect required data is a deviation from the monitoring requirements.

(e) Additional requirements during startup periods or shutdown periods if you choose to rely on paragraph (2) of the definition of “startup” in §63.10042 for your EGU.

(1) During each period of startup, you must record for each EGU:

(i) The date and time that clean fuels being combusted for the purpose of startup begins;

(ii) The quantity and heat input of clean fuel for each hour of startup;

(iii) The gross output for each hour of startup;

(iv) The date and time that non-clean fuel combustion begins; and

(v) The date and time that clean fuels being combusted for the purpose of startup ends.

(2) During each period of shutdown, you must record for each EGU:

(i) The date and time that clean fuels being combusted for the purpose of shutdown begins;

(ii) The quantity and heat input of clean fuel for each hour of shutdown;

(iii) The gross output for each hour of shutdown;

(iv) The date and time that non-clean fuel combustion ends; and

(v) The date and time that clean fuels being combusted for the purpose of shutdown ends.

(3) For PM or non-mercury HAP metals work practice monitoring during startup periods, you must monitor and collect data according to this section and the site-specific monitoring plan required by §63.10010(l).

(i) Except for an EGU that uses PM CEMS or PM CPMS to demonstrate compliance with the PM emissions limit, or that has LEE status for filterable PM or total non-Hg HAP metals for non- liquid oil-fired EGUs (or HAP metals emissions for liquid oil-fired EGUs), or individual non-mercury metals CEMS, you must:

(A) Record temperature and combustion air flow or calculated flow as determined from combustion equations of post-combustion (exhaust) gas, as well as amperage of forced draft fan(s), upstream of the filterable PM control devices during each hour of startup.

(B) Record temperature and flow of exhaust gas, as well as amperage of any induced draft fan(s), downstream of the filterable PM control devices during each hour of startup.

(C) For an EGU with an electrostatic precipitator, record the number of fields in service, as well as each field's secondary voltage and secondary current during each hour of startup.

(D) For an EGU with a fabric filter, record the number of compartments in service, as well as the differential pressure across the baghouse during each hour of startup.

(E) For an EGU with a wet scrubber needed for filterable PM control, record the scrubber liquid to flue gas ratio and the pressure drop across the scrubber during each hour of startup.

(ii) [Reserved]

[77 FR 9464, Feb. 16, 2012, as amended at 77 FR 23404, Apr. 19, 2012; 79 FR 68790, Nov. 19, 2014; 81 FR 20187, Apr. 6, 2016]

§63.10021   How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations, operating limits, and work practice standards?

(a) You must demonstrate continuous compliance with each emissions limit, operating limit, and work practice standard in Tables 1 through 4 to this subpart that applies to you, according to the monitoring specified in Tables 6 and 7 to this subpart and paragraphs (b) through (g) of this section.

(b) Except as otherwise provided in §63.10020(c), if you use a CEMS to measure SO2, PM, HCl, HF, or Hg emissions, or using a sorbent trap monitoring system to measure Hg emissions, you must demonstrate continuous compliance by using all quality-assured hourly data recorded by the CEMS (or sorbent trap monitoring system) and the other required monitoring systems (e.g., flow rate, CO2, O2, or moisture systems) to calculate the arithmetic average emissions rate in units of the standard on a continuous 30-boiler operating day (or, if alternate emissions averaging is used for Hg, 90-boiler operating day) rolling average basis, updated at the end of each new boiler operating day. Use Equation 8 to determine the 30- (or, if applicable, 90-) boiler operating day rolling average.

eCFR graphic er19ap12.002.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

Heri is the hourly emissions rate for hour i and n is the number of hourly emissions rate values collected over 30- (or, if applicable, 90-) boiler operating days.

(c) If you use a PM CPMS data to measure compliance with an operating limit in Table 4 to this subpart, you must record the PM CPMS output data for all periods when the process is operating and the PM CPMS is not out-of-control. You must demonstrate continuous compliance by using all quality-assured hourly average data collected by the PM CPMS for all operating hours to calculate the arithmetic average operating parameter in units of the operating limit (e.g., milliamps, PM concentration, raw data signal) on a 30 operating day rolling average basis, updated at the end of each new boiler operating day. Use Equation 9 to determine the 30 boiler operating day average.

eCFR graphic er16fe12.010.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

Hpvi is the hourly parameter value for hour i and n is the number of valid hourly parameter values collected over 30 boiler operating days.

(1) For any exceedance of the 30-boiler operating day PM CPMS average value from the established operating parameter limit for an EGU subject to the emissions limits in Table 1 to this subpart, you must:

(i) Within 48 hours of the exceedance, visually inspect the air pollution control device (APCD);

(ii) If the inspection of the APCD identifies the cause of the exceedance, take corrective action as soon as possible, and return the PM CPMS measurement to within the established value; and

(iii) Within 45 days of the exceedance or at the time of the annual compliance test, whichever comes first, conduct a PM emissions compliance test to determine compliance with the PM emissions limit and to verify or re-establish the CPMS operating limit. You are not required to conduct any additional testing for any exceedances that occur between the time of the original exceedance and the PM emissions compliance test required under this paragraph.

(2) PM CPMS exceedances of the operating limit for an EGU subject to the emissions limits in Table 1 of this subpart leading to more than four required performance tests in a 12-month period (rolling monthly) constitute a separate violation of this subpart.

(d) If you use quarterly performance testing to demonstrate compliance with one or more applicable emissions limits in Table 1 or 2 to this subpart, you

(1) May skip performance testing in those quarters during which less than 168 boiler operating hours occur, except that a performance test must be conducted at least once every calendar year.

(2) Must conduct the performance test as defined in Table 5 to this subpart and calculate the results of the testing in units of the applicable emissions standard; and

(3) Must conduct site-specific monitoring using CMS to demonstrate compliance with the site-specific monitoring requirements in Table 7 to this subpart pertaining to HCl and HF emissions from a liquid oil-fired EGU to ensure compliance with the HCl and HF emission limits in Tables 1 and 2 to this subpart, in accordance with the requirements of §63.10000(c)(2)(iii). The monitoring must meet the general operating requirements provided in §63.10020.

(e) Conduct periodic performance tune-ups of your EGU(s), as specified in paragraphs (e)(1) through (9) of this section. For your first tune-up, you may perform the burner inspection any time prior to the tune-up or you may delay the first burner inspection until the next scheduled EGU outage provided you meet the requirements of §63.10005. Subsequently, you must perform an inspection of the burner at least once every 36 calendar months unless your EGU employs neural network combustion optimization during normal operations in which case you must perform an inspection of the burner and combustion controls at least once every 48 calendar months. If your EGU is offline when a deadline to perform the tune-up passes, you shall perform the tune-up work practice requirements within 30 days after the re-start of the affected unit.

(1) As applicable, inspect the burner and combustion controls, and clean or replace any components of the burner or combustion controls as necessary upon initiation of the work practice program and at least once every required inspection period. Repair of a burner or combustion control component requiring special order parts may be scheduled as follows:

(i) Burner or combustion control component parts needing replacement that affect the ability to optimize NOX and CO must be installed within 3 calendar months after the burner inspection,

(ii) Burner or combustion control component parts that do not affect the ability to optimize NOX and CO may be installed on a schedule determined by the operator;

(2) As applicable, inspect the flame pattern and make any adjustments to the burner or combustion controls necessary to optimize the flame pattern. The adjustment should be consistent with the manufacturer's specifications, if available, or in accordance with best combustion engineering practice for that burner type;

(3) As applicable, observe the damper operations as a function of mill and/or cyclone loadings, cyclone and pulverizer coal feeder loadings, or other pulverizer and coal mill performance parameters, making adjustments and effecting repair to dampers, controls, mills, pulverizers, cyclones, and sensors;

(4) As applicable, evaluate windbox pressures and air proportions, making adjustments and effecting repair to dampers, actuators, controls, and sensors;

(5) Inspect the system controlling the air-to-fuel ratio and ensure that it is correctly calibrated and functioning properly. Such inspection may include calibrating excess O2 probes and/or sensors, adjusting overfire air systems, changing software parameters, and calibrating associated actuators and dampers to ensure that the systems are operated as designed. Any component out of calibration, in or near failure, or in a state that is likely to negate combustion optimization efforts prior to the next tune-up, should be corrected or repaired as necessary;

(6) Optimize combustion to minimize generation of CO and NOX. This optimization should be consistent with the manufacturer's specifications, if available, or best combustion engineering practice for the applicable burner type. NOX optimization includes burners, overfire air controls, concentric firing system improvements, neural network or combustion efficiency software, control systems calibrations, adjusting combustion zone temperature profiles, and add-on controls such as SCR and SNCR; CO optimization includes burners, overfire air controls, concentric firing system improvements, neural network or combustion efficiency software, control systems calibrations, and adjusting combustion zone temperature profiles;

(7) While operating at full load or the predominantly operated load, measure the concentration in the effluent stream of CO and NOX in ppm, by volume, and oxygen in volume percent, before and after the tune-up adjustments are made (measurements may be either on a dry or wet basis, as long as it is the same basis before and after the adjustments are made). You may use portable CO, NOX and O2 monitors for this measurement. EGU's employing neural network optimization systems need only provide a single pre- and post-tune-up value rather than continual values before and after each optimization adjustment made by the system;

(8) Maintain on-site and submit, if requested by the Administrator, an annual report containing the information in paragraphs (e)(1) through (e)(9) of this section including:

(i) The concentrations of CO and NOX in the effluent stream in ppm by volume, and oxygen in volume percent, measured before and after an adjustment of the EGU combustion systems;

(ii) A description of any corrective actions taken as a part of the combustion adjustment; and

(iii) The type(s) and amount(s) of fuel used over the 12 calendar months prior to an adjustment, but only if the unit was physically and legally capable of using more than one type of fuel during that period; and

(9) Report the dates of the initial and subsequent tune-ups in hard copy, as specified in §63.10031(f)(5), through June 30, 2020. On or after July 1, 2020, report the date of all tune-ups electronically, in accordance with §63.10031(f). The tune-up report date is the date when tune-up requirements in paragraphs (e)(6) and (7) of this section are completed.

(f) You must submit the reports required under §63.10031 and, if applicable, the reports required under appendices A and B to this subpart. The electronic reports required by appendices A and B to this subpart must be sent to the Administrator electronically in a format prescribed by the Administrator, as provided in §63.10031. CEMS data (except for PM CEMS and any approved alternative monitoring using a HAP metals CEMS) shall be submitted using EPA's Emissions Collection and Monitoring Plan System (ECMPS) Client Tool. Other data, including PM CEMS data, HAP metals CEMS data, and CEMS performance test detail reports, shall be submitted in the file format generated through use of EPA's Electronic Reporting Tool, the Compliance and Emissions Data Reporting Interface, or alternate electronic file format, all as provided for under §63.10031.

(g) You must report each instance in which you did not meet an applicable emissions limit or operating limit in Tables 1 through 4 to this subpart or failed to conduct a required tune-up. These instances are deviations from the requirements of this subpart. These deviations must be reported according to §63.10031.

(h) You must follow the startup or shutdown requirements as given in Table 3 to this subpart for each coal-fired, liquid oil-fired, or solid oil-derived fuel-fired EGU.

(1) You may use the diluent cap and default gross output values, as described in §63.10007(f), during startup periods or shutdown periods.

(2) You must operate all CMS, collect data, calculate pollutant emission rates, and record data during startup periods or shutdown periods.

(3) You must report the information as required in §63.10031.

(4) You may choose to submit an alternative non-opacity emission standard, in accordance with the requirements contained in §63.10011(g)(4). Until promulgation in the Federal Register of the final alternative non-opacity emission standard, you shall comply with paragraph (1) of the definition of “startup” in §63.10042.

(i) You must provide reports as specified in §63.10031 concerning activities and periods of startup and shutdown.

[77 FR 9464, Feb. 16, 2012, as amended at 77 FR 23404, Apr. 19, 2012; 78 FR 24086, Apr. 24, 2013; 79 FR 68791, Nov. 19, 2014; 81 FR 20187, Apr. 6, 2016; 82 FR 16739, Apr. 6, 2017; 83 FR 30883, July 2, 2018]

§63.10022   How do I demonstrate continuous compliance under the emissions averaging provision?

(a) Following the compliance date, the owner or operator must demonstrate compliance with this subpart on a continuous basis by meeting the requirements of paragraphs (a)(1) through (4) of this section.

(1) For each 30- (or 90-) day rolling average period, demonstrate compliance with the average weighted emissions limit for the existing units participating in the emissions averaging option as determined in §63.10009(f) and (g);

(2) For each existing unit participating in the emissions averaging option that is equipped with PM CPMS, maintain the average parameter value at or below the operating limit established during the most recent performance test;

(3) For each existing unit participating in the emissions averaging option venting to a common stack configuration containing affected units from other subcategories, maintain the appropriate operating limit for each unit as specified in Table 4 to this subpart that applies.

(4) For each existing EGU participating in the emissions averaging option, operate in accordance with the startup or shutdown work practice requirements given in Table 3 to this subpart.

(b) Any instance where the owner or operator fails to comply with the continuous monitoring requirements in paragraphs (a)(1) through (3) of this section is a deviation.

[77 FR 9464, Feb. 16, 2012, as amended at 77 FR 23404, Apr. 19, 2012; 79 FR 68791, Nov. 19, 2014]

§63.10023   How do I establish my PM CPMS operating limit and determine compliance with it?

(a) During the initial performance test or any such subsequent performance test that demonstrates compliance with the filterable PM, individual non-mercury HAP metals, or total non-mercury HAP metals limit (or for liquid oil-fired units, individual HAP metals or total HAP metals limit, including Hg) in Table 1 or 2, record all hourly average output values (e.g., milliamps, stack concentration, or other raw data signal) from the PM CPMS for the periods corresponding to the test runs (e.g., nine 1-hour average PM CPMS output values for three 3-hour test runs).

(b) Determine your operating limit as provided in paragraph (b)(1) or (b)(2) of this section. You must verify an existing or establish a new operating limit after each repeated performance test.

(1) [Reserved]

(2) Determine your operating limit as follows:

(i) If your PM performance test demonstrates your PM emissions do not exceed 75 percent of your emissions limit, you will use the average PM CPMS value recorded during the PM compliance test, the milliamp equivalent of zero output from your PM CPMS, and the average PM result of your compliance test to establish your operating limit. Calculate the operating limit by establishing a relationship of PM CPMS signal to PM concentration using the PM CPMS instrument zero, the average PM CPMS values corresponding to the three compliance test runs, and the average PM concentration from the Method 5 compliance test with the procedures in (b)(2)(i)(A) through (D) of this section.

(A) Determine your PM CPMS instrument zero output with one of the following procedures.

(1) Zero point data for in-situ instruments should be obtained by removing the instrument from the stack and monitoring ambient air on a test bench.

(2) Zero point data for extractive instruments should be obtained by removing the extractive probe from the stack and drawing in clean ambient air.

(3) The zero point can also can be obtained by performing manual reference method measurements when the flue gas is free of PM emissions or contains very low PM concentrations (e.g., when your process is not operating, but the fans are operating or your source is combusting only natural gas) and plotting these with the compliance data to find the zero intercept.

(4) If none of the steps in paragraphs (A)(1) through (3) of this section are possible, you must use a zero output value provided by the manufacturer.

(B) Determine your PM CPMS instrument average (x) in milliamps, and the average of your corresponding three PM compliance test runs (y), using equation 10.

eCFR graphic er24ap13.010.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

Xi = the PM CPMS data points for run i of the performance test,

Yi = the PM emissions value (in lb/MWh) for run i of the performance test, and

n = the number of data points.

(C) With your PM CPMS instrument zero expressed in milliamps, your three run average PM CPMS milliamp value, and your three run average PM emissions value (in lb/MWh) from your compliance runs, determine a relationship of PM lb/MWh per milliamp with equation 11.

eCFR graphic er24ap13.011.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

R = the relative PM lb/MWh per milliamp for your PM CPMS,

= the three run average PM lb/MWh,

y̅x = the three run average milliamp output from your PM CPMS, and

z = the milliamp equivalent of your instrument zero determined from (b)(2)(i)(A) of this section.

(D) Determine your source specific 30-day rolling average operating limit using the PM lb/MWh per milliamp value from equation 11 in equation 12, below. This sets your operating limit at the PM CPMS output value corresponding to 75 percent of your emission limit.

eCFR graphic er24ap13.012.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

OL = the operating limit for your PM CPMS on a 30-day rolling average, in milliamps,

L = your source PM emissions limit in lb/MWh,

z = your instrument zero in milliamps, determined from (b)(2)(i)(A) of this section, and

R = the relative PM lb/MWh per milliamp for your PM CPMS, from equation 11.

(ii) If your PM compliance test demonstrates your PM emissions exceed 75 percent of your emissions limit, you will use the average PM CPMS value recorded during the PM compliance test demonstrating compliance with the PM limit to establish your operating limit.

(A) Determine your operating limit by averaging the PM CPMS milliamp output corresponding to your three PM performance test runs that demonstrate compliance with the emission limit using equation 13.

eCFR graphic er24ap13.013.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

Xi = the PM CPMS data points for all runs i,

n = the number of data points, and

Oh = your site specific operating limit, in milliamps.

(iii) Your PM CPMS must provide a 4-20 milliamp output and the establishment of its relationship to manual reference method measurements must be determined in units of milliamps.

(iv) Your PM CPMS operating range must be capable of reading PM concentrations from zero to a level equivalent to two times your allowable emission limit. If your PM CPMS is an auto-ranging instrument capable of multiple scales, the primary range of the instrument must be capable of reading PM concentration from zero to a level equivalent to two times your allowable emission limit.

(v) During the initial performance test or any such subsequent performance test that demonstrates compliance with the PM limit, record and average all milliamp output values from the PM CPMS for the periods corresponding to the compliance test runs.

(vi) For PM performance test reports used to set a PM CPMS operating limit, the electronic submission of the test report must also include the make and model of the PM CPMS instrument, serial number of the instrument, analytical principle of the instrument (e.g. beta attenuation), span of the instruments primary analytical range, milliamp value equivalent to the instrument zero output, technique by which this zero value was determined, and the average milliamp signal corresponding to each PM compliance test run.

(c) You must operate and maintain your process and control equipment such that the 30 operating day average PM CPMS output does not exceed the operating limit determined in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.

[77 FR 9464, Feb. 16, 2012, as amended at 78 FR 24086, Apr. 24, 2013; 81 FR 20187, Apr. 6, 2016]

Need assistance?