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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of December 3, 2019

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter CPart 63Subpart UUUUU → Subject Group


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 63—NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)
Subpart UUUUU—National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric Utility Steam Generating Units


Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements

§63.10005   What are my initial compliance requirements and by what date must I conduct them?

(a) General requirements. For each of your affected EGUs, you must demonstrate initial compliance with each applicable emissions limit in Table 1 or 2 of this subpart through performance testing. Where two emissions limits are specified for a particular pollutant (e.g., a heat input-based limit in lb/MMBtu and a gross output-based limit in lb/MWh), you may demonstrate compliance with either emission limit. For a particular compliance demonstration, you may be required to conduct one or more of the following activities in conjunction with performance testing: collection of data, e.g., hourly gross output data (megawatts); establishment of operating limits according to §63.10011 and Tables 4 and 7 to this subpart; and CMS performance evaluations. In all cases, you must demonstrate initial compliance no later than the date in paragraph (f) of this section for tune-up work practices for existing EGUs; the date that compliance must be demonstrated, as given in §63.9984 for other requirements for existing EGUs; and in paragraph (g) of this section for all requirements for new EGUs.

(1) To demonstrate initial compliance with an applicable emissions limit in Table 1 or 2 to this subpart using stack testing, the initial performance test generally consists of three runs at specified process operating conditions using approved methods. If you are required to establish operating limits (see paragraph (d) of this section and Table 4 to this subpart), you must collect all applicable parametric data during the performance test period. Also, if you choose to comply with an electrical output-based emission limit, you must collect hourly electrical load data during the test period.

(2) To demonstrate initial compliance using either a CMS that measures HAP concentrations directly (i.e., an Hg, HCl, or HF CEMS, or a sorbent trap monitoring system) or an SO2 or PM CEMS, the initial performance test shall consist of 30- or, for certain coal-fired existing EGUs that use emissions averaging for Hg, 90-boiler operating days. If the CMS is certified prior to the compliance date (or, if applicable, the approved extended compliance date), the test shall begin with the first operating day on or after that date, except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section. If the CMS is not certified prior to the compliance date, the test shall begin with the first operating day after certification testing is successfully completed. In all cases, the initial 30- or 90- operating day averaging period must be completed on or before the date that compliance must be demonstrated (i.e., 180 days after the applicable compliance date).

(i) The CMS performance test must demonstrate compliance with the applicable Hg, HCl, HF, PM, or SO2 emissions limit in Table 1 or 2 to this subpart.

(ii) You must collect hourly data from auxiliary monitoring systems (i.e., stack gas flow rate, CO2, O2, or moisture, as applicable) during the performance test period, in order to convert the pollutant concentrations to units of the standard. If you choose to comply with a gross output-based emission limit, you must also collect hourly gross output data during the performance test period.

(iii) For a group of affected units that are in the same subcategory, are subject to the same emission standards, and share a common stack, if you elect to demonstrate compliance by monitoring emissions at the common stack, startup and shutdown emissions (if any) that occur during the 30-(or, if applicable, 90-) boiler operating day performance test must either be excluded from or included in the compliance demonstration as follows:

(A) If one of the units that shares the stack either starts up or shuts down at a time when none of the other units is operating, you must exclude all pollutant emission rates measured during the startup or shutdown period, unless you are using a sorbent trap monitoring system to measure Hg emissions and have elected to include startup and shutdown emissions in the compliance demonstrations;

(B) If all units that are currently operating are in the startup or shutdown mode, you must exclude all pollutant emission rates measured during the startup or shutdown period, unless you are using a sorbent trap monitoring system to measure Hg emissions and have elected to include startup and shutdown emissions in the compliance demonstrations; or

(C) If any unit starts up or shuts down at a time when another unit is operating, and the other unit is not in the startup or shutdown mode, you must include all pollutant emission rates measured during the startup or shutdown period in the compliance demonstrations.

(b) Performance testing requirements. If you choose to use performance testing to demonstrate initial compliance with the applicable emissions limits in Tables 1 and 2 to this subpart for your EGUs, you must conduct the tests according to §63.10007 and Table 5 to this subpart. For the purposes of the initial compliance demonstration, you may use test data and results from a performance test conducted prior to the date on which compliance is required as specified in §63.9984, provided that the following conditions are fully met:

(1) For a performance test based on stack test data, the test was conducted no more than 12 calendar months prior to the date on which compliance is required as specified in §63.9984;

(2) For a performance test based on data from a certified CEMS or sorbent trap monitoring system, the test consists of all valid CMS data recorded in the 30 boiler operating days immediately preceding that date;

(3) The performance test was conducted in accordance with all applicable requirements in §63.10007 and Table 5 to this subpart;

(4) A record of all parameters needed to convert pollutant concentrations to units of the emission standard (e.g., stack flow rate, diluent gas concentrations, hourly gross outputs) is available for the entire performance test period; and

(5) For each performance test based on stack test data, you certify, and keep documentation demonstrating, that the EGU configuration, control devices, and fuel(s) have remained consistent with conditions since the prior performance test was conducted.

(6) For performance stack test data that are collected prior to the date that compliance must be demonstrated and are used to demonstrate initial compliance with applicable emissions limits, the interval for subsequent stack tests begins on the date that compliance must be demonstrated.

(c) Operating limits. In accordance with §63.10010 and Table 4 to this subpart, you may be required to establish operating limits using PM CPMS and using site-specific monitoring for certain liquid oil-fired units as part of your initial compliance demonstration.

(d) CMS requirements. If, for a particular emission or operating limit, you are required to (or elect to) demonstrate initial compliance using a continuous monitoring system, the CMS must pass a performance evaluation prior to the initial compliance demonstration. If a CMS has been previously certified under another state or federal program and is continuing to meet the on-going quality-assurance (QA) requirements of that program, then, provided that the certification and QA provisions of that program meet the applicable requirements of §§63.10010(b) through (h), an additional performance evaluation of the CMS is not required under this subpart.

(1) For an affected coal-fired, solid oil-derived fuel-fired, or liquid oil-fired EGU, you may demonstrate initial compliance with the applicable SO2, HCl, or HF emissions limit in Table 1 or 2 to this subpart through use of an SO2, HCl, or HF CEMS installed and operated in accordance with part 75 of this chapter or appendix B to this subpart, as applicable. You may also demonstrate compliance with a filterable PM emission limit in Table 1 or 2 to this subpart through use of a PM CEMS installed, certified, and operated in accordance with §63.10010(i). Initial compliance is achieved if the arithmetic average of 30-boiler operating days of quality-assured CEMS data, expressed in units of the standard (see §63.10007(e)), meets the applicable SO2, PM, HCl, or HF emissions limit in Table 1 or 2 to this subpart. Use Equation 19-19 of Method 19 in appendix A-7 to part 60 of this chapter to calculate the 30-boiler operating day average emissions rate. (Note: For this calculation, the term Ehj in Equation 19-19 must be in the same units of measure as the applicable HCl or HF emission limit in Table 1 or 2 to this subpart).

(2) For affected coal-fired or solid oil-derived fuel-fired EGUs that demonstrate compliance with the applicable emission limits for total non-mercury HAP metals, individual non-mercury HAP metals, total HAP metals, individual HAP metals, or filterable PM listed in Table 1 or 2 to this subpart using initial performance testing and continuous monitoring with PM CPMS:

(i) You must demonstrate initial compliance no later than the applicable date specified in §63.9984(f) for existing EGUs and in paragraph (g) of this section for new EGUs.

(ii) You must demonstrate continuous compliance with the PM CPMS site-specific operating limit that corresponds to the results of the performance test demonstrating compliance with the emission limit with which you choose to comply.

(iii) You must repeat the performance test annually for the selected pollutant emissions limit and reassess and adjust the site-specific operating limit in accordance with the results of the performance test.

(3) For affected EGUs that are either required to or elect to demonstrate initial compliance with the applicable Hg emission limit in Table 1 or 2 of this subpart using Hg CEMS or sorbent trap monitoring systems, initial compliance must be demonstrated no later than the applicable date specified in §63.9984(f) for existing EGUs and in paragraph (g) of this section for new EGUs. Initial compliance is achieved if the arithmetic average of 30- (or 90-) boiler operating days of quality-assured CEMS (or sorbent trap monitoring system) data, expressed in units of the standard (see section 6.2 of appendix A to this subpart), meets the applicable Hg emission limit in Table 1 or 2 to this subpart.

(4) For affected liquid oil-fired EGUs that demonstrate compliance with the applicable emission limits for HCl or HF listed in Table 1 or 2 to this subpart using quarterly testing and continuous monitoring with a CMS:

(i) You must demonstrate initial compliance no later than the applicable date specified in §63.9984(f) for existing EGUs and in paragraph (g) of this section for new EGUs.

(ii) You must demonstrate continuous compliance with the CMS site-specific operating limit that corresponds to the results of the performance test demonstrating compliance with the HCl or HF emissions limit.

(iii) You must repeat the performance test annually for the HCl or HF emissions limit and reassess and adjust the site-specific operating limit in accordance with the results of the performance test.

(e) Tune-ups. All affected EGUs are subject to the work practice standards in Table 3 of this subpart. As part of your initial compliance demonstration, you must conduct a performance tune-up of your EGU according to §63.10021(e).

(f) For an existing EGU without a neural network, a tune-up, following the procedures in §63.10021(e), must occur within 6 months (180 days) after April 16, 2015. For an existing EGU with a neural network, a tune-up must occur within 18 months (545 days) after April 16, 2016. If a tune-up occurs prior to April 16, 2015, you must keep records showing that the tune-up met all rule requirements.

(g) If your new or reconstructed affected source commenced construction or reconstruction between May 3, 2011, and July 2, 2011, you must demonstrate initial compliance with either the proposed emission limits or the promulgated emission limits no later than 180 days after April 16, 2012 or within 180 days after startup of the source, whichever is later, according to §63.7(a)(2)(ix).

(1) For the new or reconstructed affected source described in this paragraph (g), if you choose to comply with the proposed emission limits when demonstrating initial compliance, you must conduct a second compliance demonstration for the promulgated emission limits within 3 years after April 16, 2012 or within 3 years after startup of the affected source, whichever is later.

(2) If your new or reconstructed affected source commences construction or reconstruction after April 16, 2012, you must demonstrate initial compliance with the promulgated emission limits no later than 180 days after startup of the source.

(h) Low emitting EGUs. The provisions of this paragraph (h) apply to pollutants with emissions limits from new EGUs except Hg and to all pollutants with emissions limits from existing EGUs. You may pursue this compliance option unless prohibited pursuant to §63.10000(c)(1)(i).

(1) An EGU may qualify for low emitting EGU (LEE) status for Hg, HCl, HF, filterable PM, total non-Hg HAP metals, or individual non-Hg HAP metals (or total HAP metals or individual HAP metals, for liquid oil-fired EGUs) if you collect performance test data that meet the requirements of this paragraph (h), and if those data demonstrate:

(i) For all pollutants except Hg, performance test emissions results less than 50 percent of the applicable emissions limits in Table 1 or 2 to this subpart for all required testing for 3 consecutive years; or

(ii) For Hg emissions from an existing EGU, either:

(A) Average emissions less than 10 percent of the applicable Hg emissions limit in Table 2 to this subpart (expressed either in units of lb/TBtu or lb/GWh); or

(B) Potential Hg mass emissions of 29.0 or fewer pounds per year and compliance with the applicable Hg emission limit in Table 2 to this subpart (expressed either in units of lb/TBtu or lb/GWh).

(2) For all pollutants except Hg, you must conduct all required performance tests described in §63.10007 to demonstrate that a unit qualifies for LEE status.

(i) When conducting emissions testing to demonstrate LEE status, you must increase the minimum sample volume specified in Table 1 or 2 nominally by a factor of two.

(ii) Follow the instructions in §63.10007(e) and Table 5 to this subpart to convert the test data to the units of the applicable standard.

(3) For Hg, you must conduct a 30- (or 90-) boiler operating day performance test using Method 30B in appendix A-8 to part 60 of this chapter to determine whether a unit qualifies for LEE status. Locate the Method 30B sampling probe tip at a point within 10 percent of the duct area centered about the duct's centroid at a location that meets Method 1 in appendix A-1 to part 60 of this chapter and conduct at least three nominally equal length test runs over the 30- (or 90-) boiler operating day test period. You may use a pair of sorbent traps to sample the stack gas for a period consistent with that given in section 5.2.1 of appendix A to this subpart. Collect Hg emissions data continuously over the entire test period (except when changing sorbent traps or performing required reference method QA procedures). As an alternative to constant rate sampling per Method 30B, you may use proportional sampling per section 8.2.2 of Performance Specification 12 B in appendix B to part 60 of this chapter.

(i) Depending on whether you intend to assess LEE status for Hg in terms of the lb/TBtu or lb/GWh emission limit in Table 2 to this subpart or in terms of the annual Hg mass emissions limit of 29.0 lb/year, you will have to collect some or all of the following data during the 30-boiler operating day test period (see paragraph (h)(3)(iii) of this section):

(A) Diluent gas (CO2 or O2) data, using either Method 3A in appendix A-3 to part 60 of this chapter or a diluent gas monitor that has been certified according to part 75 of this chapter.

(B) Stack gas flow rate data, using either Method 2, 2F, or 2G in appendices A-1 and A-2 to part 60 of this chapter, or a flow rate monitor that has been certified according to part 75 of this chapter.

(C) Stack gas moisture content data, using either Method 4 in appendix A-1 to part 60 of this chapter, or a moisture monitoring system that has been certified according to part 75 of this chapter. Alternatively, an appropriate fuel-specific default moisture value from §75.11(b) of this chapter may be used in the calculations or you may petition the Administrator under §75.66 of this chapter for use of a default moisture value for non-coal-fired units.

(D) Hourly gross output data (megawatts), from facility records.

(ii) If you use CEMS to measure CO2 (or O2) concentration, and/or flow rate, and/or moisture, record hourly average values of each parameter throughout the 30-boiler operating day test period. If you opt to use EPA reference methods rather than CEMS for any parameter, you must perform at least one representative test run on each operating day of the test period, using the applicable reference method.

(iii) Calculate the average Hg concentration, in µg/m3 (dry basis), for the 30- (or 90-) boiler operating day performance test, as the arithmetic average of all Method 30B sorbent trap results. Also calculate, as applicable, the average values of CO2 or O2 concentration, stack gas flow rate, stack gas moisture content, and gross output for the test period. Then:

(A) To express the test results in units of lb/TBtu, follow the procedures in §63.10007(e). Use the average Hg concentration and diluent gas values in the calculations.

(B) To express the test results in units of lb/GWh, use Equations A-3 and A-4 in section 6.2.2 of appendix A to this subpart, replacing the hourly values “Ch”, “Qh”, “Bws” and “(MW)h” with the average values of these parameters from the performance test.

(C) To calculate pounds of Hg per year, use one of the following methods:

(1) Multiply the average lb/TBtu Hg emission rate (determined according to paragraph (h)(3)(iii)(A) of this section) by the maximum potential annual heat input to the unit (TBtu), which is equal to the maximum rated unit heat input (TBtu/hr) times 8,760 hours. If the maximum rated heat input value is expressed in units of MMBtu/hr, multiply it by 10−6 to convert it to TBtu/hr; or

(2) Multiply the average lb/GWh Hg emission rate (determined according to paragraph (h)(3)(iii)(B) of this section) by the maximum potential annual electricity generation (GWh), which is equal to the maximum rated electrical output of the unit (GW) times 8,760 hours. If the maximum rated electrical output value is expressed in units of MW, multiply it by 10−3 to convert it to GW; or

(3) If an EGU has a federally-enforceable permit limit on either the annual heat input or the number of annual operating hours, you may modify the calculations in paragraph (h)(3)(iii)(C)(1) of this section by replacing the maximum potential annual heat input or 8,760 unit operating hours with the permit limit on annual heat input or operating hours (as applicable).

(4) For a group of affected units that vent to a common stack, you may either assess LEE status for the units individually by performing a separate emission test of each unit in the duct leading from the unit to the common stack, or you may perform a single emission test in the common stack. If you choose the common stack testing option, the units in the configuration qualify for LEE status if:

(i) The emission rate measured at the common stack is less than 50 percent (10 percent for Hg) of the applicable emission limit in Table 1 or 2 to this subpart; or

(ii) For Hg from an existing EGU, the applicable Hg emission limit in Table 2 to this subpart is met and the potential annual mass emissions, calculated according to paragraph (h)(3)(iii) of this section (with some modifications), are less than or equal to 29.0 pounds times the number of units sharing the common stack. Base your calculations on the combined heat input capacity of all units sharing the stack (i.e., either the combined maximum rated value or, if applicable, a lower combined value restricted by permit conditions or operating hours).

(5) For an affected unit with a multiple stack or duct configuration in which the exhaust stacks or ducts are downstream of all emission control devices, you must perform a separate emission test in each stack or duct. The unit qualifies for LEE status if:

(i) The emission rate, based on all test runs performed at all of the stacks or ducts, is less than 50 percent (10 percent for Hg) of the applicable emission limit in Table 1 or 2 to this subpart; or

(ii) For Hg from an existing EGU, the applicable Hg emission limit in Table 2 to this subpart is met and the potential annual mass emissions, calculated according to paragraph (h)(3)(iii) of this section, are less than or equal to 29.0 pounds. Use the average Hg emission rate from paragraph (h)(5)(i) of this section in your calculations.

(i) Liquid-oil fuel moisture measurement. If your EGU combusts liquid fuels, if your fuel moisture content is no greater than 1.0 percent by weight, and if you would like to demonstrate initial and ongoing compliance with HCl and HF emissions limits, you must meet the requirements of paragraphs (i)(1) through (5) of this section.

(1) Measure fuel moisture content of each shipment of fuel if your fuel arrives on a batch basis; or

(2) Measure fuel moisture content daily if your fuel arrives on a continuous basis; or

(3) Obtain and maintain a fuel moisture certification from your fuel supplier.

(4) Use one of the following methods to determine fuel moisture content:

(i) ASTM D95-05 (Reapproved 2010), “Standard Test Method for Water in Petroleum Products and Bituminous Materials by Distillation,” or

(ii) ASTM D4006-11, “Standard Test Method for Water in Crude Oil by Distillation,” including Annex A1 and Appendix A1.

(5) Use one of the following methods to obtain fuel moisture samples:

(i) ASTM D4177-95 (Reapproved 2010), “Standard Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products,” including Annexes A1 through A6 and Appendices X1 and X2, or

(ii) ASTM D4057-06 (Reapproved 2011), “Standard Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products,” including Annex A1.

(6) Should the moisture in your liquid fuel be more than 1.0 percent by weight, you must

(i) Conduct HCl and HF emissions testing quarterly (and monitor site-specific operating parameters as provided in §63.10000(c)(2)(iii) or

(ii) Use an HCl CEMS and/or HF CEMS.

(j) Startup and shutdown for coal-fired or solid oil derived-fired units. You must follow the requirements given in Table 3 to this subpart.

(k) You must submit a Notification of Compliance Status summarizing the results of your initial compliance demonstration, as provided in §63.10030.

[77 FR 9464, Feb. 16, 2012, as amended at 77 FR 23403, Apr. 19, 2012; 78 FR 24084, Apr. 24, 2013; 79 FR 68789, Nov. 19, 2014; 81 FR 20181, Apr. 6, 2016]

§63.10006   When must I conduct subsequent performance tests or tune-ups?

(a) For liquid oil-fired, solid oil-derived fuel-fired and coal-fired EGUs and IGCC units using PM CPMS to monitor continuous performance with an applicable emission limit as provided for under §63.10000(c), you must conduct all applicable performance tests according to Table 5 to this subpart and §63.10007 at least every year.

(b) For affected units meeting the LEE requirements of §63.10005(h), you must repeat the performance test once every 3 years (once every year for Hg) according to Table 5 and §63.10007. Should subsequent emissions testing results show the unit does not meet the LEE eligibility requirements, LEE status is lost. If this should occur:

(1) For all pollutant emission limits except for Hg, you must conduct emissions testing quarterly, except as otherwise provided in §63.10021(d)(1).

(2) For Hg, you must install, certify, maintain, and operate a Hg CEMS or a sorbent trap monitoring system in accordance with appendix A to this subpart, within 6 calendar months of losing LEE eligibility. Until the Hg CEMS or sorbent trap monitoring system is installed, certified, and operating, you must conduct Hg emissions testing quarterly, except as otherwise provided in §63.10021(d)(1). You must have 3 calendar years of testing and CEMS or sorbent trap monitoring system data that satisfy the LEE emissions criteria to reestablish LEE status.

(c) Except where paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section apply, or where you install, certify, and operate a PM CEMS to demonstrate compliance with a filterable PM emissions limit, for liquid oil-, solid oil-derived fuel-, coal-fired and IGCC EGUs, you must conduct all applicable periodic emissions tests for filterable PM, individual, or total HAP metals emissions according to Table 5 to this subpart, §63.10007, and §63.10000(c), except as otherwise provided in §63.10021(d)(1).

(d) Except where paragraph (b) of this section applies, for solid oil-derived fuel- and coal-fired EGUs that do not use either an HCl CEMS to monitor compliance with the HCl limit or an SO2 CEMS to monitor compliance with the alternate equivalent SO2 emission limit, you must conduct all applicable periodic HCl emissions tests according to Table 5 to this subpart and §63.10007 at least quarterly, except as otherwise provided in §63.10021(d)(1).

(e) Except where paragraph (b) of this section applies, for liquid oil-fired EGUs without HCl CEMS, HF CEMS, or HCl and HF CEMS, you must conduct all applicable emissions tests for HCl, HF, or HCl and HF emissions according to Table 5 to this subpart and §63.10007 at least quarterly, except as otherwise provided in §63.10021(d)(1), and conduct site-specific monitoring under a plan as provided for in §63.10000(c)(2)(iii).

(f) Time between performance tests. (1) Notwithstanding the provisions of §63.10021(d)(1), the requirements listed in paragraphs (g) and (h) of this section, and the requirements of paragraph (f)(3) of this section, you must complete performance tests for your EGU as follows:

(i) At least 45 calendar days, measured from the test's end date, must separate performance tests conducted every quarter;

(ii) For annual testing:

(A) At least 320 calendar days, measured from the test's end date, must separate performance tests;

(B) At least 320 calendar days, measured from the test's end date, must separate annual sorbent trap mercury testing for 30-boiler operating day LEE tests;

(C) At least 230 calendar days, measured from the test's end date, must separate annual sorbent trap mercury testing for 90-boiler operating day LEE tests; and

(iii) At least 1,050 calendar days, measured from the test's end date, must separate performance tests conducted every 3 years.

(2) For units demonstrating compliance through quarterly emission testing, you must conduct a performance test in the 4th quarter of a calendar year if your EGU has skipped performance tests in the first 3 quarters of the calendar year.

(3) If your EGU misses a performance test deadline due to being inoperative and if 168 or more boiler operating hours occur in the next test period, you must complete an additional performance test in that period as follows:

(i) At least 15 calendar days must separate two performance tests conducted in the same quarter.

(ii) At least 107 calendar days must separate two performance tests conducted in the same calendar year.

(iii) At least 350 calendar days must separate two performance tests conducted in the same 3 year period.

(g) If you elect to demonstrate compliance using emissions averaging under §63.10009, you must continue to conduct performance stack tests at the appropriate frequency given in section (c) through (f) of this section.

(h) If a performance test on a non-mercury LEE shows emissions in excess of 50 percent of the emission limit and if you choose to reapply for LEE status, you must conduct performance tests at the appropriate frequency given in section (c) through (e) of this section for that pollutant until all performance tests over a consecutive 3-year period show compliance with the LEE criteria.

(i) If you are required to meet an applicable tune-up work practice standard, you must conduct a performance tune-up according to §63.10021(e).

(1) For EGUs not employing neural network combustion optimization during normal operation, each performance tune-up specified in §63.10021(e) must be no more than 36 calendar months after the previous performance tune-up.

(2) For EGUs employing neural network combustion optimization systems during normal operation, each performance tune-up specified in §63.10021(e) must be no more than 48 calendar months after the previous performance tune-up.

[77 FR 9464, Feb. 16, 2012, as amended at 77 FR 23403, Apr. 19, 2012; 78 FR 24085, Apr. 24, 2013; 81 FR 20182, Apr. 6, 2016]

§63.10007   What methods and other procedures must I use for the performance tests?

(a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, you must conduct all required performance tests according to §63.7(d), (e), (f), and (h). You must also develop a site-specific test plan according to the requirements in §63.7(c).

(1) If you use CEMS (Hg, HCl, SO2, or other) to determine compliance with a 30- (or, if applicable, 90-) boiler operating day rolling average emission limit, you must collect quality- assured CEMS data for all unit operating conditions, including startup and shutdown (see §63.10011(g) and Table 3 to this subpart), except as otherwise provided in §63.10020(b). Emission rates determined during startup periods and shutdown periods (as defined in §63.10042) are not to be included in the compliance determinations, except as otherwise provided in §§63.10000(c)(1)(vi)(B) and 63.10005(a)(2)(iii).

(2) If you conduct performance testing with test methods in lieu of continuous monitoring, operate the unit at maximum normal operating load conditions during each periodic (e.g., quarterly) performance test. Maximum normal operating load will be generally between 90 and 110 percent of design capacity but should be representative of site specific normal operations during each test run.

(3) For establishing operating limits with particulate matter continuous parametric monitoring system (PM CPMS) to demonstrate compliance with a PM or non Hg metals emissions limit, operate the unit at maximum normal operating load conditions during the performance test period. Maximum normal operating load will be generally between 90 and 110 percent of design capacity but should be representative of site specific normal operations during each test run.

(b) You must conduct each performance test (including traditional 3-run stack tests, 30-boiler operating day tests based on CEMS data (or sorbent trap monitoring system data), and 30-boiler operating day Hg emission tests for LEE qualification) according to the requirements in Table 5 to this subpart.

(c) If you choose the filterable PM method to comply with the PM emission limit and demonstrate continuous performance using a PM CPMS as provided for in §63.10000(c), you must also establish an operating limit according to §63.10011(b), §63.10023, and Tables 4 and 6 to this subpart. Should you desire to have operating limits that correspond to loads other than maximum normal operating load, you must conduct testing at those other loads to determine the additional operating limits.

(d) Except for a 30-boiler operating day performance test based on CEMS (or sorbent trap monitoring system) data, where the concept of test runs does not apply, you must conduct a minimum of three separate test runs for each performance test, as specified in §63.7(e)(3). Each test run must comply with the minimum applicable sampling time or volume specified in Table 1 or 2 to this subpart. Sections 63.10005(d) and (h), respectively, provide special instructions for conducting performance tests based on CEMS or sorbent trap monitoring systems, and for conducting emission tests for LEE qualification.

(e) To use the results of performance testing to determine compliance with the applicable emission limits in Table 1 or 2 to this subpart, proceed as follows:

(1) Except for a 30-boiler operating day performance test based on CEMS (or sorbent trap monitoring system) data, if measurement results for any pollutant are reported as below the method detection level (e.g., laboratory analytical results for one or more sample components are below the method defined analytical detection level), you must use the method detection level as the measured emissions level for that pollutant in calculating compliance. The measured result for a multiple component analysis (e.g., analytical values for multiple Method 29 fractions both for individual HAP metals and for total HAP metals) may include a combination of method detection level data and analytical data reported above the method detection level.

(2) If the limits are expressed in lb/MMBtu or lb/TBtu, you must use the F-factor methodology and equations in sections 12.2 and 12.3 of EPA Method 19 in appendix A-7 to part 60 of this chapter. In cases where an appropriate F-factor is not listed in Table 19-2 of Method 19, you may use F-factors from Table 1 in section 3.3.5 of appendix F to part 75 of this chapter, or F-factors derived using the procedures in section 3.3.6 of appendix to part 75 of this chapter. Use the following factors to convert the pollutant concentrations measured during the initial performance tests to units of lb/scf, for use in the applicable Method 19 equations:

(i) Multiply SO2 ppm by 1.66 × 10−7;

(ii) Multiply HCl ppm by 9.43 × 10−8;

(iii) Multiply HF ppm by 5.18 × 10−8;

(iv) Multiply HAP metals concentrations (mg/dscm) by 6.24 × 10−8; and

(v) Multiply Hg concentrations (µg/scm) by 6.24 × 10−11.

(3) To determine compliance with emission limits expressed in lb/MWh or lb/GWh, you must first calculate the pollutant mass emission rate during the performance test, in units of lb/h. For Hg, if a CEMS or sorbent trap monitoring system is used, use Equation A-2 or A-3 in appendix A to this subpart (as applicable). In all other cases, use an equation that has the general form of Equation A-2 or A-3, replacing the value of K with 1.66 × 10−7 lb/scf-ppm for SO2, 9.43 × 10−8 lb/scf-ppm for HCl (if an HCl CEMS is used), 5.18 × 10−8 lb/scf-ppm for HF (if an HF CEMS is used), or 6.24 × 10−8 lb-scm/mg-scf for HAP metals and for HCl and HF (when performance stack testing is used), and defining Ch as the average SO2, HCl, or HF concentration in ppm, or the average HAP metals concentration in mg/dscm. This calculation requires stack gas volumetric flow rate (scfh) and (in some cases) moisture content data (see §§63.10005(h)(3) and 63.10010). Then, if the applicable emission limit is in units of lb/GWh, use Equation A-4 in appendix A to this subpart to calculate the pollutant emission rate in lb/GWh. In this calculation, define (M)h as the calculated pollutant mass emission rate for the performance test (lb/h), and define (MW)h as the average electrical load during the performance test (megawatts). If the applicable emission limit is in lb/MWh rather than lb/GWh, omit the 103 term from Equation A-4 to determine the pollutant emission rate in lb/MWh.

(f) If you elect to (or are required to) use CEMS to continuously monitor Hg, HCl, HF, SO2, or PM emissions (or, if applicable, sorbent trap monitoring systems to continuously collect Hg emissions data), the following default values are available for use in the emission rate calculations during startup periods or shutdown periods (as defined in §63.10042). For the purposes of this subpart, these default values are not considered to be substitute data.

(1) Diluent cap values. If you use CEMS (or, if applicable, sorbent trap monitoring systems) to comply with a heat input-based emission rate limit, you may use the following diluent cap values for a startup or shutdown hour in which the measured CO2 concentration is below the cap value or the measured O2 concentration is above the cap value:

(i) For an IGCC EGU, you may use 1% for CO2 or 19% for O2.

(ii) For all other EGUs, you may use 5% for CO2 or 14% for O2.

(2) Default gross output. If you use CEMS to continuously monitor Hg, HCl, HF, SO2, or PM emissions (or, if applicable, sorbent trap monitoring systems to continuously collect Hg emissions data), the following default value is available for use in the emission rate calculations during startup periods or shutdown periods (as defined in §63.10042). For the purposes of this subpart, this default value is not considered to be substitute data. For a startup or shutdown hour in which there is heat input to an affected EGU but zero gross output, you must calculate the pollutant emission rate using a value equivalent to 5% of the maximum sustainable gross output, expressed in megawatts, as defined in section 6.5.2.1(a)(1) of appendix A to part 75 of this chapter. This default gross output is either the nameplate capacity of the EGU or the highest gross output observed in at least four representative quarters of EGU operation. For a monitored common stack, the default gross output is used only when all EGUs are operating (i.e., combusting fuel) are in startup or shutdown mode, and have zero electrical generation. Under those conditions, a default gross output equal to 5% of the combined maximum sustainable gross output of the EGUs that are operating but have a total of zero gross output must be used to calculate the hourly gross output-based pollutant emissions rate.

(g) Upon request, you shall make available to the EPA Administrator such records as may be necessary to determine whether the performance tests have been done according to the requirements of this section.

[77 FR 9464, Feb. 16, 2012, as amended at 77 FR 23403, Apr. 19, 2012; 78 FR 24085, Apr. 24, 2013; 79 FR 68789, Nov. 19, 2014; 81 FR 20182, Apr. 6, 2016]

§63.10008   [Reserved]

§63.10009   May I use emissions averaging to comply with this subpart?

(a) General eligibility. (1) You may use emissions averaging as described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section as an alternative to meeting the requirements of §63.9991 for filterable PM, SO2, HF, HCl, non-Hg HAP metals, or Hg on an EGU-specific basis if:

(i) You have more than one existing EGU in the same subcategory located at one or more contiguous properties, belonging to a single major industrial grouping, which are under common control of the same person (or persons under common control); and

(ii) You use CEMS (or sorbent trap monitoring systems for determining Hg emissions) or quarterly emissions testing for demonstrating compliance.

(2) You may demonstrate compliance by emissions averaging among the existing EGUs in the same subcategory, if your averaged Hg emissions for EGUs in the “unit designed for coal ≥8,300 Btu/lb” subcategory are equal to or less than 1.2 lb/TBtu or 1.3E-2 lb/GWh on a 30-boiler operating day basis or if your averaged emissions of individual, other pollutants from other subcategories of such EGUs are equal to or less than the applicable emissions limit in Table 2 to this subpart, according to the procedures in this section. Note that except for the alternate Hg emissions limit from EGUs in the “unit designed for coal ≥8,300 Btu/lb” subcategory, the averaging time for emissions averaging for pollutants is 30 days (rolling daily) using data from CEMS or a combination of data from CEMS and manual performance (LEE) testing. The averaging time for emissions averaging for the alternate Hg limit (equal to or less than 1.0 lb/TBtu or 1.1E-2 lb/GWh) from EGUs in the “unit designed for coal ≥8,300 Btu/lb” subcategory is 90-boiler operating days (rolling daily) using data from CEMS, sorbent trap monitoring, or a combination of monitoring data and data from manual performance (LEE) testing. For the purposes of this paragraph, 30- (or 90-) group boiler operating days is defined as a period during which at least one unit in the emissions averaging group operates on each of the 30 or 90 days. You must calculate the weighted average emissions rate for the group in accordance with the procedures in this paragraph using the data from all units in the group including any that operate fewer than 30 (or 90) days during the preceding 30 (or 90) group boiler days.

(i) You may choose to have your EGU emissions averaging group meet either the heat input basis (MMBtu or TBtu, as appropriate for the pollutant) or gross output basis (MWh or GWh, as appropriate for the pollutant).

(ii) You may not mix bases within your EGU emissions averaging group.

(iii) You may use emissions averaging for affected units in different subcategories if the units vent to the atmosphere through a common stack (see paragraph (m) of this section).

(b) Equations. Use the following equations when performing calculations for your EGU emissions averaging group:

(1) Group eligibility equations.

eCFR graphic er06ap16.001.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

WAERm = Maximum Weighted Average Emission Rate in terms of lb/heat input or lb/gross output,

Hermi,j = hourly emission rate (e.g., lb/MMBtu, lb/MWh) from CEMS or sorbent trap monitoring as determined during the initial compliance determination from EGU j,

Rmmj = Maximum rated heat input, MMBtu/h, or maximum rated gross output, MWh/h, for EGU j,

p = number of EGUs in emissions averaging group that rely on CEMS,

Terk = Emissions rate (lb/MMBTU or lb/MWh) as determined during the initial compliance determination of EGU k,

Rmtk = Maximum rated heat input, MMBtu/h, or maximum rated gross output, MWh/h, for EGU k, and

m = number of EGUs in emissions averaging group that rely on emissions testing.

eCFR graphic er06ap16.002.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

Variables with the similar names share the descriptions for Equation 1a of this section,

Smmj = maximum steam generation, lbsteam/h or lb/gross output, for EGU j,

Cfmj = conversion factor, calculated from the most recent compliance test results, in terms units of heat output or gross output per pound of steam generated (MMBtu/lbsteam or MWh/lbsteam) from EGU j,

Smtk = maximum steam generation, lbsteam/h or lb/gross output, for EGU k, and

Cfmk = conversion factor, calculated from the most recent compliance test results, in terms units of heat output or gross output per pound of steam generated (MMBtu/lbsteam or MWh/lbsteam) from EGU k.

(2) Weighted 30-boiler operating day rolling average emissions rate equations for pollutants other than Hg. Use Equation 2a or 2b of this section to calculate the 30 day rolling average emissions daily.

eCFR graphic er06ap16.003.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

Heri = hourly emission rate (e.g., lb/MMBtu, lb/MWh) from unit i's CEMS for the preceding 30-group boiler operating days,

Rmi = hourly heat input or gross output from unit i for the preceding 30-group boiler operating days,

p = number of EGUs in emissions averaging group that rely on CEMS or sorbent trap monitoring,

n = number of hours that hourly rates are collected over 30-group boiler operating days,

Teri = Emissions rate from most recent emissions test of unit i in terms of lb/heat input or lb/gross output,

Rti = Total heat input or gross output of unit i for the preceding 30-boiler operating days, and

m = number of EGUs in emissions averaging group that rely on emissions testing.

eCFR graphic er06ap16.004.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

variables with similar names share the descriptions for Equation 2a of this section,

Smi = steam generation in units of pounds from unit i that uses CEMS for the preceding 30-group boiler operating days,

Cfmi = conversion factor, calculated from the most recent compliance test results, in units of heat input per pound of steam generated or gross output per pound of steam generated, from unit i that uses CEMS from the preceding 30 group boiler operating days,

Sti = steam generation in units of pounds from unit i that uses emissions testing, and

Cfti = conversion factor, calculated from the most recent compliance test results, in units of heat input per pound of steam generated or gross output per pound of steam generated, from unit i that uses emissions testing.

(3) Weighted 90-boiler operating day rolling average emissions rate equations for Hg emissions from EGUs in the “coal-fired unit not low rank virgin coal” subcategory. Use Equation 3a or 3b of this section to calculate the 90-day rolling average emissions daily.

eCFR graphic er06ap16.005.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

Heri = hourly emission rate from unit i's CEMS or Hg sorbent trap monitoring system for the preceding 90-group boiler operating days,

Rmi = hourly heat input or gross output from unit i for the preceding 90-group boiler operating days,

p = number of EGUs in emissions averaging group that rely on CEMS,

n = number of hours that hourly rates are collected over the 90-group boiler operating days,

Teri = Emissions rate from most recent emissions test of unit i in terms of lb/heat input or lb/gross output,

Rti = Total heat input or gross output of unit i for the preceding 90-boiler operating days, and

m = number of EGUs in emissions averaging group that rely on emissions testing.

eCFR graphic er06ap16.006.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

variables with similar names share the descriptions for Equation 2a of this section,

Smi = steam generation in units of pounds from unit i that uses CEMS or a Hg sorbent trap monitoring for the preceding 90-group boiler operating days,

Cfmi = conversion factor, calculated from the most recent compliance test results, in units of heat input per pound of steam generated or gross output per pound of steam generated, from unit i that uses CEMS or sorbent trap monitoring from the preceding 90-group boiler operating days,

Sti = steam generation in units of pounds from unit i that uses emissions testing, and

Cfti = conversion factor, calculated from the most recent emissions test results, in units of heat input per pound of steam generated or gross output per pound of steam generated, from unit i that uses emissions testing.

(c) Separate stack requirements. For a group of two or more existing EGUs in the same subcategory that each vent to a separate stack, you may average filterable PM, SO2, HF, HCl, non-Hg HAP metals, or Hg emissions to demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 2 to this subpart if you satisfy the requirements in paragraphs (d) through (j) of this section.

(d) For each existing EGU in the averaging group:

(1) The emissions rate achieved during the initial performance test for the HAP being averaged must not exceed the emissions level that was being achieved 180 days after April 16, 2015, or the date on which emissions testing done to support your emissions averaging plan is complete (if the Administrator does not require submission and approval of your emissions averaging plan), or the date that you begin emissions averaging, whichever is earlier; or

(2) The control technology employed during the initial performance test must not be less than the design efficiency of the emissions control technology employed 180 days after April 16, 2015 or the date that you begin emissions averaging, whichever is earlier.

(e) The weighted-average emissions rate from the existing EGUs participating in the emissions averaging option must be in compliance with the limits in Table 2 to this subpart at all times following the date that you begin emissions averaging.

(f) Emissions averaging group eligibility demonstration. You must demonstrate the ability for the EGUs included in the emissions averaging group to demonstrate initial compliance according to paragraph (f)(1) or (2) of this section using the maximum rated heat input or gross output over a 30- (or 90-) boiler operating day period of each EGU and the results of the initial performance tests. For this demonstration and prior to preparing your emissions averaging plan, you must conduct required emissions monitoring for 30- (or 90-) days of boiler operation and any required manual performance testing to calculate maximum weighted average emissions rate in accordance with this section. If, before the start of your initial compliance demonstration, the Administrator becomes aware that you intend to use emissions averaging for that demonstration, or if your initial Notification of Compliance Status (NOCS) indicates that you intend to implement emissions averaging at a future date, the Administrator may require you to submit your proposed emissions averaging plan and supporting data for approval. If the Administrator requires approval of your plan, you may not begin using emissions averaging until the Administrator approves your plan.

(1) You must use Equation 1a in paragraph (b) of this section to demonstrate that the maximum weighted average emissions rates of filterable PM, HF, SO2, HCl, non-Hg HAP metals, or Hg emissions from the existing units participating in the emissions averaging option do not exceed the emissions limits in Table 2 to this subpart.

(2) If you are not capable of monitoring heat input or gross output, and the EGU generates steam for purposes other than generating electricity, you may use Equation 1b of paragraph (b) of this section as an alternative to using Equation 1a of paragraph (b) of this section to demonstrate that the maximum weighted average emissions rates of filterable PM, HF, SO2, HCl, non-Hg HAP metals, or Hg emissions from the existing units participating in the emissions averaging group do not exceed the emission limits in Table 2 to this subpart.

(g) You must determine the weighted average emissions rate in units of the applicable emissions limit on a 30 group boiler operating day rolling average basis (or, if applicable, on a 90 group boiler operating day rolling average basis for Hg) according to paragraphs (g)(1) and (2) of this section. The first averaging period ends on the 30th (or, if applicable, 90th for the alternate Hg emission limit) group boiler operating day after the date that you begin emissions averaging.

(1) You must use Equation 2a or 3a of paragraph (b) of this section to calculate the weighted average emissions rate using the actual heat input or gross output for each existing unit participating in the emissions averaging option.

(2) If you are not capable of monitoring heat input or gross output, you may use Equation 2b or 3b of paragraph (b) of this section as an alternative to using Equation 2a of paragraph (b) of this section to calculate the average weighted emission rate using the actual steam generation from the units participating in the emissions averaging option.

(h) CEMS (or sorbent trap monitoring) use. If an EGU in your emissions averaging group uses CEMS (or a sorbent trap monitor for Hg emissions) to demonstrate compliance, you must use those data to determine the 30 (or 90) group boiler operating day rolling average emissions rate.

(i) Emissions testing. If you use manual emissions testing to demonstrate compliance for one or more EGUs in your emissions averaging group, you must use the results from the most recent performance test to determine the 30 (or 90) day rolling average. You may use CEMS or sorbent trap data in combination with data from the most recent manual performance test in calculating the 30 (or 90) group boiler operating day rolling average emissions rate.

(j) Emissions averaging plan. You must develop an implementation plan for emissions averaging according to the following procedures and requirements in paragraphs (j)(1) and (2) of this section.

(1) You must include the information contained in paragraphs (j)(1)(i) through (v) of this section in your implementation plan for all the emissions units included in an emissions averaging:

(i) The identification of all existing EGUs in the emissions averaging group, including for each either the applicable HAP emission level or the control technology installed as of 180 days after February 16, 2015, or the date on which you complete the emissions measurements used to support your emissions averaging plan (if the Administrator does not require submission and approval of your emissions averaging plan), or the date that you begin emissions averaging, whichever is earlier; and the date on which you are requesting emissions averaging to commence;

(ii) The process weighting parameter (heat input, gross output, or steam generated) that will be monitored for each averaging group;

(iii) The specific control technology or pollution prevention measure to be used for each emission EGU in the averaging group and the date of its installation or application. If the pollution prevention measure reduces or eliminates emissions from multiple EGUs, you must identify each EGU;

(iv) The means of measurement (e.g., CEMS, sorbent trap monitoring, manual performance test) of filterable PM, SO2, HF, HCl, individual or total non-Hg HAP metals, or Hg emissions in accordance with the requirements in §63.10007 and to be used in the emissions averaging calculations; and

(v) A demonstration that emissions averaging can produce compliance with each of the applicable emission limit(s) in accordance with paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(2) If, as described in paragraph (f) of this section, the Administrator requests you to submit the averaging plan for review and approval, you must receive approval before initiating emissions averaging.

(i) The Administrator shall use following criteria in reviewing and approving or disapproving the plan:

(A) Whether the content of the plan includes all of the information specified in paragraph (j)(1) of this section; and

(B) Whether the plan presents information sufficient to determine that compliance will be achieved and maintained.

(ii) The Administrator shall not approve an emissions averaging implementation plan containing any of the following provisions:

(A) Any averaging between emissions of different pollutants or between units located at different facilities; or

(B) The inclusion of any emissions unit other than an existing unit in the same subcategory.

(k) Common stack requirements. For a group of two or more existing affected units, each of which vents through a single common stack, you may average emissions to demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 2 to this subpart if you satisfy the requirements in paragraph (l) or (m) of this section.

(l) For a group of two or more existing units in the same subcategory and which vent through a common emissions control system to a common stack that does not receive emissions from units in other subcategories or categories, you may treat such averaging group as a single existing unit for purposes of this subpart and comply with the requirements of this subpart as if the group were a single unit.

(m) For all other groups of units subject to paragraph (k) of this section, you may elect to conduct manual performance tests according to procedures specified in §63.10007 in the common stack. If emissions from affected units included in the emissions averaging and from other units not included in the emissions averaging (e.g., in a different subcategory) or other nonaffected units all vent to the common stack, you must shut down the units not included in the emissions averaging and the nonaffected units or vent their emissions to a different stack during the performance test. Alternatively, you may conduct a performance test of the combined emissions in the common stack with all units operating and show that the combined emissions meet the most stringent emissions limit. You may also use a CEMS or sorbent trap monitoring to apply this latter alternative to demonstrate that the combined emissions comply with the most stringent emissions limit on a continuous basis.

(n) Combination requirements. The common stack of a group of two or more existing EGUs in the same subcategory subject to paragraph (k) of this section may be treated as a single stack for purposes of paragraph (c) of this section and included in an emissions averaging group subject to paragraph (c) of this section.

[77 FR 9464, Feb. 16, 2012, as amended at 77 FR 23403, Apr. 19, 2012; 78 FR 24085, Apr. 24, 2013; 81 FR 20183, Apr. 6, 2016]

§63.10010   What are my monitoring, installation, operation, and maintenance requirements?

(a) Flue gases from the affected units under this subpart exhaust to the atmosphere through a variety of different configurations, including but not limited to individual stacks, a common stack configuration or a main stack plus a bypass stack. For the CEMS, PM CPMS, and sorbent trap monitoring systems used to provide data under this subpart, the continuous monitoring system installation requirements for these exhaust configurations are as follows:

(1) Single unit-single stack configurations. For an affected unit that exhausts to the atmosphere through a single, dedicated stack, you shall either install the required CEMS, PM CPMS, and sorbent trap monitoring systems in the stack or at a location in the ductwork downstream of all emissions control devices, where the pollutant and diluents concentrations are representative of the emissions that exit to the atmosphere.

(2) Unit utilizing common stack with other affected unit(s). When an affected unit utilizes a common stack with one or more other affected units, but no non-affected units, you shall either:

(i) Install the required CEMS, PM CPMS, and sorbent trap monitoring systems in the duct leading to the common stack from each unit; or

(ii) Install the required CEMS, PM CPMS, and sorbent trap monitoring systems in the common stack.

(3) Unit(s) utilizing common stack with non-affected unit(s). (i) When one or more affected units shares a common stack with one or more non-affected units, you shall either:

(A) Install the required CEMS, PM CPMS, and sorbent trap monitoring systems in the ducts leading to the common stack from each affected unit; or

(B) Install the required CEMS, PM CPMS, and sorbent trap monitoring systems described in this section in the common stack and attribute all of the emissions measured at the common stack to the affected unit(s).

(ii) If you choose the common stack monitoring option:

(A) For each hour in which valid data are obtained for all parameters, you must calculate the pollutant emission rate and

(B) You must assign the calculated pollutant emission rate to each unit that shares the common stack.

(4) Unit with a main stack and a bypass stack that exhausts to the atmosphere independent of the main stack. If the exhaust configuration of an affected unit consists of a main stack and a bypass stack, you shall install CEMS on both the main stack and the bypass stack. If it is not feasible to certify and quality-assure the data from a monitoring system on the bypass stack, you shall:

(i) Route the exhaust from the bypass through the main stack and its monitoring so that bypass emissions are measured; or

(ii) Install a CEMS only on the main stack and count hours that the bypass stack is in use as hours of deviation from the monitoring requirements.

(5) Unit with a common control device with multiple stack or duct configuration. If the flue gases from an affected unit, which is configured such that emissions are controlled with a common control device or series of control devices, are discharged to the atmosphere through more than one stack or are fed into a single stack through two or more ducts, you may:

(i) Install required CEMS, PM CPMS, and sorbent trap monitoring systems in each of the multiple stacks;

(ii) Install required CEMS, PM CPMS, and sorbent trap monitoring systems in each of the ducts that feed into the stack;

(iii) Install required CEMS, PM CPMS, and sorbent trap monitoring systems in one of the multiple stacks or ducts and monitor the flows and dilution rates in all multiple stacks or ducts in order to determine total exhaust gas flow rate and pollutant mass emissions rate in accordance with the applicable limit; or

(iv) In the case of multiple ducts feeding into a single stack, install CEMS, PM CPMS, and sorbent trap monitoring systems in the single stack as described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(6) Unit with multiple parallel control devices with multiple stacks. If the flue gases from an affected unit, which is configured such that emissions are controlled with multiple parallel control devices or multiple series of control devices are discharged to the atmosphere through more than one stack, you shall install the required CEMS, PM CPMS, and sorbent trap monitoring systems described in each of the multiple stacks. You shall calculate hourly flow-weighted average pollutant emission rates for the unit as follows:

(i) Calculate the pollutant emission rate at each stack or duct for each hour in which valid data are obtained for all parameters;

(ii) Multiply each calculated hourly pollutant emission rate at each stack or duct by the corresponding hourly stack gas flow rate at that stack or duct;

(iii) Sum the products determined under paragraph (a)(6)(ii) of this section; and

(iv) Divide the result obtained in paragraph (a)(6)(iii) of this section by the total hourly stack gas flow rate for the unit, summed across all of the stacks or ducts.

(b) If you use an oxygen (O2) or carbon dioxide (CO2) CEMS to convert measured pollutant concentrations to the units of the applicable emissions limit, the O2 or CO2 concentrations shall be monitored at a location that represents emissions to the atmosphere, i.e., at the outlet of the EGU, downstream of all emission control devices. You must install, certify, maintain, and operate the CEMS according to part 75 of this chapter. Use only quality-assured O2 or CO2 data in the emissions calculations; do not use part 75 substitute data values.

(c) If you are required to use a stack gas flow rate monitor, either for routine operation of a sorbent trap monitoring system or to convert pollutant concentrations to units of an electrical output-based emission standard in Table 1 or 2 to this subpart, you must install, certify, operate, and maintain the monitoring system and conduct on-going quality-assurance testing of the system according to part 75 of this chapter. Use only unadjusted, quality-assured flow rate data in the emissions calculations. Do not apply bias adjustment factors to the flow rate data and do not use substitute flow rate data in the calculations.

(d) If you are required to make corrections for stack gas moisture content when converting pollutant concentrations to the units of an emission standard in Table 1 of 2 to this subpart, you must install, certify, operate, and maintain a moisture monitoring system in accordance with part 75 of this chapter. Alternatively, for coal-fired units, you may use appropriate fuel-specific default moisture values from §75.11(b) of this chapter to estimate the moisture content of the stack gas or you may petition the Administrator under §75.66 of this chapter for use of a default moisture value for non-coal-fired units. If you install and operate a moisture monitoring system, do not use substitute moisture data in the emissions calculations.

(e) If you use an HCl and/or HF CEMS, you must install, certify, operate, maintain, and quality-assure the data from the monitoring system in accordance with appendix B to this subpart. Calculate and record a 30-boiler operating day rolling average HCl or HF emission rate in the units of the standard, updated after each new boiler operating day. Each 30-boiler operating day rolling average emission rate is the average of all the valid hourly HCl or HF emission rates in the preceding 30 boiler operating days (see section 9.4 of appendix B to this subpart).

(f)(1) If you use an SO2 CEMS, you must install the monitor at the outlet of the EGU, downstream of all emission control devices, and you must certify, operate, and maintain the CEMS according to part 75 of this chapter.

(2) For on-going QA, the SO2 CEMS must meet the applicable daily, quarterly, and semiannual or annual requirements in sections 2.1 through 2.3 of appendix B to part 75 of this chapter, with the following addition: You must perform the linearity checks required in section 2.2 of appendix B to part 75 of this chapter if the SO2 CEMS has a span value of 30 ppm or less.

(3) Calculate and record a 30-boiler operating day rolling average SO2 emission rate in the units of the standard, updated after each new boiler operating day. Each 30-boiler operating day rolling average emission rate is the average of all of the valid hourly SO2 emission rates in the 30 boiler operating day period.

(4) Use only unadjusted, quality-assured SO2 concentration values in the emissions calculations; do not apply bias adjustment factors to the part 75 SO2 data and do not use part 75 substitute data values. For startup or shutdown hours (as defined in §63.10042) the default gross output and the diluent cap are available for use in the hourly SO2 emission rate calculations, as described in §63.10007(f). Use a flag to identify each startup or shutdown hour and report a special code if the diluent cap or default gross output is used to calculate the SO2 emission rate for any of these hours.

(g) If you use a Hg CEMS or a sorbent trap monitoring system, you must install, certify, operate, maintain and quality-assure the data from the monitoring system in accordance with appendix A to this subpart. You must calculate and record a 30- (or, if alternate emissions averaging is used, 90-) boiler operating day rolling average Hg emission rate, in units of the standard, updated after each new boiler operating day. Each 30- (or, if alternate emissions averaging is used, 90-) boiler operating day rolling average emission rate, calculated according to section 6.2 of appendix A to the subpart, is the average of all of the valid hourly Hg emission rates in the preceding 30- (or, if alternate emissions averaging is used, a 90-) boiler operating days. Section 7.1.4.3 of appendix A to this subpart explains how to reduce sorbent trap monitoring system data to an hourly basis.

(h) If you use a PM CPMS to demonstrate continuous compliance with an operating limit, you must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate the PM CPMS and record the output of the system as specified in paragraphs (h)(1) through (5) of this section.

(1) Install, calibrate, operate, and maintain your PM CPMS according to the procedures in your approved site-specific monitoring plan developed in accordance with §63.10000(d), and meet the requirements in paragraphs (h)(1)(i) through (iii) of this section.

(i) The operating principle of the PM CPMS must be based on in-stack or extractive light scatter, light scintillation, beta attenuation, or mass accumulation detection of the exhaust gas or representative sample. The reportable measurement output from the PM CPMS may be expressed as milliamps, stack concentration, or other raw data signal.

(ii) The PM CPMS must have a cycle time (i.e., period required to complete sampling, measurement, and reporting for each measurement) no longer than 60 minutes.

(iii) The PM CPMS must be capable, at a minimum, of detecting and responding to particulate matter concentrations of 0.5 mg/acm.

(2) For a new unit, complete the initial PM CPMS performance evaluation no later than October 13, 2012 or 180 days after the date of initial startup, whichever is later. For an existing unit, complete the initial performance evaluation no later than October 13, 2015.

(3) Collect PM CPMS hourly average output data for all boiler operating hours except as indicated in paragraph (h)(5) of this section. Express the PM CPMS output as milliamps, PM concentration, or other raw data signal value.

(4) Calculate the arithmetic 30-boiler operating day rolling average of all of the hourly average PM CPMS output collected during all nonexempt boiler operating hours data (e.g., milliamps, PM concentration, raw data signal).

(5) You must collect data using the PM CPMS at all times the process unit is operating and at the intervals specified in paragraph (h)(1)(ii) of this section, except for periods of monitoring system malfunctions, repairs associated with monitoring system malfunctions, required monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities (including, as applicable, calibration checks and required zero and span adjustments), and any scheduled maintenance as defined in your site-specific monitoring plan.

(6) You must use all the data collected during all boiler operating hours in assessing the compliance with your operating limit except:

(i) Any data collected during periods of monitoring system malfunctions, repairs associated with monitoring system malfunctions, or required monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities that temporarily interrupt the measurement of output data from the PM CPMS. You must report any monitoring system malfunctions or out of control periods in your annual deviation reports. You must report any monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities per the requirements of §63.10031(b);

(ii) Any data collected during periods when the monitoring system is out of control as specified in your site-specific monitoring plan, repairs associated with periods when the monitoring system is out of control, or required monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities conducted during out-of-control periods. You must report any such periods in your annual deviation report;

(iii) Any data recorded during periods of startup or shutdown.

(7) You must record and make available upon request results of PM CPMS system performance audits, as well as the dates and duration of periods from when the PM CPMS is out of control until completion of the corrective actions necessary to return the PM CPMS to operation consistent with your site-specific monitoring plan.

(i) If you choose to comply with the PM filterable emissions limit in lieu of metal HAP limits, you may choose to install, certify, operate, and maintain a PM CEMS and record the output of the PM CEMS as specified in paragraphs (i)(1) through (5) of this section. The compliance limit will be expressed as a 30-boiler operating day rolling average of the numerical emissions limit value applicable for your unit in tables 1 or 2 to this subpart.

(1) Install and certify your PM CEMS according to the procedures and requirements in Performance Specification 11—Specifications and Test Procedures for Particulate Matter Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems at Stationary Sources in Appendix B to part 60 of this chapter, using Method 5 at Appendix A-3 to part 60 of this chapter and ensuring that the front half filter temperature shall be 160° ±14 °C (320° ±25 °F). The reportable measurement output from the PM CEMS must be expressed in units of the applicable emissions limit (e.g., lb/MMBtu, lb/MWh).

(2) Operate and maintain your PM CEMS according to the procedures and requirements in Procedure 2—Quality Assurance Requirements for Particulate Matter Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems at Stationary Sources in Appendix F to part 60 of this chapter.

(i) You must conduct the relative response audit (RRA) for your PM CEMS at least once annually.

(ii) You must conduct the relative correlation audit (RCA) for your PM CEMS at least once every 3 years.

(3) Collect PM CEMS hourly average output data for all boiler operating hours except as indicated in paragraph (i) of this section.

(4) Calculate the arithmetic 30-boiler operating day rolling average of all of the hourly average PM CEMS output data collected during all nonexempt boiler operating hours.

(5) You must collect data using the PM CEMS at all times the process unit is operating and at the intervals specified in paragraph (a) of this section, except for periods of monitoring system malfunctions, repairs associated with monitoring system malfunctions, and required monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities.

(i) You must use all the data collected during all boiler operating hours in assessing the compliance with your operating limit except:

(A) Any data collected during periods of monitoring system malfunctions, repairs associated with monitoring system malfunctions, or required monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities that temporarily interrupt the measurement of emissions (e.g., calibrations, certain audits). You must report any monitoring system malfunctions or out of control periods in your annual deviation reports. You must report any monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities per the requirements of §63.10031(b);

(B) Any data collected during periods when the monitoring system is out of control as specified in your site-specific monitoring plan, repairs associated with periods when the monitoring system is out of control, or required monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities conducted during out-of-control periods. You must report any such periods in your annual deviation report;

(C) Any data recorded during periods of startup or shutdown.

(ii) You must record and make available upon request results of PM CEMS system performance audits, dates and duration of periods when the PM CEMS is out of control to completion of the corrective actions necessary to return the PM CEMS to operation consistent with your site-specific monitoring plan.

(j) You may choose to comply with the metal HAP emissions limits using CEMS approved in accordance with §63.7(f) as an alternative to the performance test method specified in this rule. If approved to use a HAP metals CEMS, the compliance limit will be expressed as a 30-boiler operating day rolling average of the numerical emissions limit value applicable for your unit in tables 1 or 2. If approved, you may choose to install, certify, operate, and maintain a HAP metals CEMS and record the output of the HAP metals CEMS as specified in paragraphs (j)(1) through (5) of this section.

(1)(i) Install, calibrate, operate, and maintain your HAP metals CEMS according to your CMS quality control program, as described in §63.8(d)(2). The reportable measurement output from the HAP metals CEMS must be expressed in units of the applicable emissions limit (e.g., lb/MMBtu, lb/MWh) and in the form of a 30-boiler operating day rolling average.

(ii) Operate and maintain your HAP metals CEMS according to the procedures and criteria in your site specific performance evaluation and quality control program plan required in §63.8(d).

(2) Collect HAP metals CEMS hourly average output data for all boiler operating hours except as indicated in section (j)(4) of this section.

(3) Calculate the arithmetic 30-boiler operating day rolling average of all of the hourly average HAP metals CEMS output data collected during all nonexempt boiler operating hours data.

(4) You must collect data using the HAP metals CEMS at all times the process unit is operating and at the intervals specified in paragraph (a) of this section, except for periods of monitoring system malfunctions, repairs associated with monitoring system malfunctions, and required monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities.

(i) You must use all the data collected during all boiler operating hours in assessing the compliance with your emission limit except:

(A) Any data collected during periods of monitoring system malfunctions, repairs associated with monitoring system malfunctions, or required monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities that temporarily interrupt the measurement of emissions (e.g., calibrations, certain audits). You must report any monitoring system malfunctions or out of control periods in your annual deviation reports. You must report any monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities per the requirements of §63.10031(b);

(B) Any data collected during periods when the monitoring system is out of control as specified in your site-specific monitoring plan, repairs associated with periods when the monitoring system is out of control, or required monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities conducted during out-of-control periods. You must report any monitoring system malfunctions or out of control periods in your annual deviation reports. You must report any monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities per the requirements of §63.10031(b);

(C) Any data recorded during periods of startup or shutdown.

(ii) You must record and make available upon request results of HAP metals CEMS system performance audits, dates and duration of periods when the HAP metals CEMS is out of control to completion of the corrective actions necessary to return the HAP metals CEMS to operation consistent with your site-specific performance evaluation and quality control program plan.

(k) If you demonstrate compliance with the HCl and HF emission limits for a liquid oil-fired EGU by conducting quarterly testing, you must also develop a site-specific monitoring plan as provided for in §63.10000(c)(2)(iii) and Table 7 to this subpart.

(l) Should you choose to rely on paragraph (2) of the definition of “startup” in §63.10042 for your EGU, you must install, verify, operate, maintain, and quality assure each monitoring system necessary for demonstrating compliance with the PM or non-mercury metals work practice standards required to comply with §63.10020(e).

(1) You shall develop a site-specific monitoring plan for PM or non-mercury metals work practice monitoring during startup periods.

(2) You shall submit the site-specific monitoring plan upon request by the Administrator.

(3) The provisions of the monitoring plan must address the following items:

(i) Monitoring system installation;

(ii) Performance and equipment specifications;

(iii) Schedule for initial and periodic performance evaluations;

(iv) Performance evaluation procedures and acceptance criteria;

(v) On-going operation and maintenance procedures; and

(vi) On-going recordkeeping and reporting procedures.

(4) You may rely on monitoring system specifications or instructions or manufacturer's specifications to address paragraphs (l)(3)(i) through (vi) of this section.

(5) You must operate and maintain the monitoring system according to the site-specific monitoring plan.

[77 FR 9464, Feb. 16, 2012, as amended at 77 FR 23404, Apr. 19, 2012; 78 FR 24086, Apr. 24, 2013; 79 FR 68789, Nov. 19, 2014; 81 FR 20185, Apr. 6, 2016]

§63.10011   How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emissions limits and work practice standards?

(a) You must demonstrate initial compliance with each emissions limit that applies to you by conducting performance testing.

(b) If you are subject to an operating limit in Table 4 to this subpart, you demonstrate initial compliance with HAP metals or filterable PM emission limit(s) through performance stack tests and you elect to use a PM CPMS to demonstrate continuous performance, or if, for a liquid oil-fired EGU, and you use quarterly stack testing for HCl and HF plus site-specific parameter monitoring to demonstrate continuous performance, you must also establish a site-specific operating limit, in accordance with §63.10007 and Table 6 to this subpart. You may use only the parametric data recorded during successful performance tests (i.e., tests that demonstrate compliance with the applicable emissions limits) to establish an operating limit.

(c)(1) If you use CEMS or sorbent trap monitoring systems to measure a HAP (e.g., Hg or HCl) directly, the initial performance test, shall consist of a 30-boiler operating day (or, for certain coal-fired, existing EGUs that use emissions averaging for Hg, a 90-boiler operating day) rolling average emissions rate obtained with a certified CEMS or sorbent trap system, expressed in units of the standard. If the monitoring system is certified prior to the applicable compliance date, the initial averaging period shall either begin with: The first boiler operating day on or after the compliance date; or 30 (or, if applicable, 90) boiler operating days prior to that date, as described in §63.10005(b). In all cases, the initial 30- or 90-boiler operating day averaging period must be completed on or before the date that compliance must be demonstrated, in accordance with §63.9984(f). Initial compliance is demonstrated if the results of the performance test meet the applicable emission limit in Table 1 or 2 to this subpart.

(2) For an EGU that uses a CEMS to measure SO2 or PM emissions for initial compliance, the initial performance test shall consist of a 30-boiler operating day average emission rate obtained with certified CEMS, expressed in units of the standard. If the monitoring system is certified prior to the applicable compliance date, the initial averaging period shall either begin with: The first boiler operating day on or after the compliance date; or 30 boiler operating days prior to that date, as described in §63.10005(b). In all cases, the initial 30- boiler operating day averaging period must be completed on or before the date that compliance must be demonstrated, in accordance with §63.9984(f). Initial compliance is demonstrated if the results of the performance test meet the applicable SO2 or PM emission limit in Table 1 or 2 to this subpart.

(d) For candidate LEE units, use the results of the performance testing described in §63.10005(h) to determine initial compliance with the applicable emission limit(s) in Table 1 or 2 to this subpart and to determine whether the unit qualifies for LEE status.

(e) You must submit a Notification of Compliance Status containing the results of the initial compliance demonstration, in accordance with §63.10030(e).

(f)(1) You must determine the fuel whose combustion produces the least uncontrolled emissions, i.e., the cleanest fuel, either natural gas or distillate oil, that is available on site or accessible nearby for use during periods of startup or shutdown.

(2) Your cleanest fuel, either natural gas or distillate oil, for use during periods of startup or shutdown determination may take safety considerations into account.

(g) You must follow the startup or shutdown requirements as established in Table 3 to this subpart for each coal-fired, liquid oil-fired, or solid oil-derived fuel-fired EGU.

(1) You may use the diluent cap and default gross output values, as described in §63.10007(f), during startup periods or shutdown periods.

(2) You must operate all CMS, collect data, calculate pollutant emission rates, and record data during startup periods or shutdown periods.

(3) You must report the information as required in §63.10031.

(4) If you choose to use paragraph (2) of the definition of “startup” in §63.10042 and you find that you are unable to safely engage and operate your particulate matter (PM) control(s) within 1 hour of first firing of coal, residual oil, or solid oil-derived fuel, you may choose to rely on paragraph (1) of definition of “startup” in §63.10042 or you may submit a request to use an alternative non-opacity emissions standard, as described below.

(i) As mentioned in §63.6(g)(1), your request will be published in the Federal Register for notice and comment rulemaking. Until promulgation in the Federal Register of the final alternative non-opacity emission standard, you shall comply with paragraph (1) of the definition of “startup” in §63.10042. You shall not implement the alternative non-opacity emissions standard until promulgation in the Federal Register of the final alternative non-opacity emission standard.

(ii) Your request need not address the items contained in §63.6(g)(2).

(iii) Your request shall provide evidence of a documented manufacturer-identified safety issue.

(iv) Your request shall provide information to document that the PM control device is adequately designed and sized to meet the PM emission limit applicable to the EGU.

(v) In addition, your request shall contain documentation that:

(A) Your EGU is using clean fuels to the maximum extent possible, taking into account considerations such as not compromising boiler or control device integrity, to bring your EGU and PM control device up to the temperature necessary to alleviate or prevent the identified safety issues prior to the combustion of primary fuel in your EGU;

(B) You have followed explicitly your EGU manufacturer's procedures to alleviate or prevent the identified safety issue; and

(C) You have identified with specificity the details of your EGU manufacturer's statement of concern.

(vi) Your request shall specify the other work practice standards you will take to limit HAP emissions during startup periods and shutdown periods to ensure a control level consistent with the work practice standards of the final rule.

(vii) You must comply with all other work practice requirements, including but not limited to data collection, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements.

[77 FR 9464, Feb. 16, 2012, as amended at 77 FR 23404, Apr. 19, 2012; 79 FR 68790, Nov. 19, 2014; 81 FR 20186, Apr. 6, 2016]

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