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e-CFR data is current as of October 16, 2020

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter BPart 49Subpart C → Subject Group


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 49—INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT
Subpart C—General Federal Implementation Plan Provisions


Federal Major New Source Review Program for Nonattainment Areas in Indian Country

Source: 76 FR 38802, July 1, 2011, unless otherwise noted.

§49.166   Program overview.

(a) What constitutes the Federal major new source review (NSR) program for nonattainment areas in Indian country? As set forth in this Federal Implementation Plan (FIP), the Federal major NSR program for nonattainment areas in Indian country (or “program”) consists of §§49.166 through 49.175.

(b) What is the purpose of this program? This program has the following purposes:

(1) It establishes a preconstruction permitting program for new major sources and major modifications at existing major sources located in nonattainment areas in Indian country to meet the requirements of part D of title I of the Act.

(2) It requires that major sources subject to this program comply with the provisions and requirements of part 51, Appendix S of this chapter (Appendix S). Additionally, it sets forth the criteria and procedures in Appendix S that the reviewing authority (as defined in §49.167) will use to approve permits under this program. Note that for the purposes of this program, the term SIP as used in Appendix S means any EPA-approved implementation plan, including a Tribal Implementation Plan (TIP). While some of the important provisions of Appendix S are paraphrased in various paragraphs of this program to highlight them, the provisions of Appendix S govern.

(3) It also sets forth procedures for appealing a permit issued under this program as provided in §49.172.

(c) When and where does this program apply? (1) The provisions of this program apply to new major sources and major modifications at existing major sources located in nonattainment areas in all Indian reservation lands where no EPA-approved program is in place and all other areas of Indian country where no EPA-approved program is in place and over which an Indian tribe, or the EPA, has demonstrated that a tribe has jurisdiction, and where there is no EPA-approved nonattainment major NSR program beginning on August 30, 2011. The provisions of this program apply only to new sources and modifications that are major for the regulated NSR pollutant(s) for which the area is designated nonattainment.

(2) The provisions of this program cease to apply in an area covered by an EPA-approved implementation plan on the date that our approval of that implementation plan becomes effective, provided that the plan includes provisions that comply with the requirements of part D of title I of the Act and §51.165 of this chapter for the construction of new major sources and major modifications at existing major sources in nonattainment areas. Permits previously issued under this program will remain in effect and be enforceable as a practical matter until and unless the Tribe issues new permits to these sources based on the provisions of the EPA-approved Tribal implementation plan.

(d) What general provisions apply under this program? The following general provisions apply to you as an owner/operator of a source:

(1) If you propose to construct a new major source or a major modification at an existing major source in a nonattainment area in Indian country, you must obtain a major NSR permit under this program before beginning actual construction. If you commence construction after the effective date of this program without applying for and receiving a permit pursuant to this program, you will be subject to appropriate enforcement action.

(2) If you do not construct or operate your source or modification in accordance with the terms of your major NSR permit issued under this program, you will be subject to appropriate enforcement action.

(3) Issuance of a permit under this program does not relieve you of the responsibility to comply fully with applicable provisions of any EPA-approved implementation plan or FIP and any other requirements under applicable law.

(4) Nothing in this program prevents a Tribe from administering a nonattainment major NSR permit program with different requirements in an approved TIP as long as the TIP meets the requirements of part D of title I of the Act.

[76 FR 38802, July 1, 2011, as amended at 81 FR 35981, June 3, 2016]

§49.167   Definitions.

For the purposes of this program, the definitions in part 51, Appendix S, paragraph II.A of this chapter apply, unless otherwise stated. The following definitions also apply to this program:

Allowable emissions means “allowable emissions” as defined in part 51, Appendix S, paragraph II.A.11 of this chapter, except that the allowable emissions for any emissions unit are calculated considering any emission limitations that are enforceable as a practical matter on the emissions unit's potential to emit.

Enforceable as a practical matter means that an emission limitation or other standard is both legally and practicably enforceable as follows:

(1) An emission limitation or other standard is legally enforceable if the reviewing authority has the right to enforce it.

(2) Practical enforceability for an emission limitation or for other standards (design standards, equipment standards, work practices, operational standards, pollution prevention techniques) in a permit for a source is achieved if the permit's provisions specify:

(i) A limitation or standard and the emissions units or activities at the source subject to the limitation or standard;

(ii) The time period for the limitation or standard (e.g., hourly, daily, monthly and/or annual limits such as rolling annual limits) and

(iii) The method to determine compliance, including appropriate monitoring, recordkeeping, reporting and testing.

(3) For rules and general permits that apply to categories of sources, practical enforceability additionally requires that the provisions:

(i) Identify the types or categories of sources that are covered by the rule or general permit;

(ii) Where coverage is optional, provide for notice to the reviewing authority of the source's election to be covered by the rule or general permit and

(iii) Specify the enforcement consequences relevant to the rule or general permit.

Environmental Appeals Board means the Board within the EPA described in §1.25(e) of this chapter.

Indian country, as defined in 18 U.S.C. 1151, means the following as applied to this program:

(1) All land within the limits of any Indian reservation under the jurisdiction of the United States government, notwithstanding the issuance of any patent and including rights-of-way running through the reservation;1

1Under this definition, EPA treats as reservations trust lands validly set aside for the use of a tribe even if the trust lands have not been formally designated as a reservation.

(2) All dependent Indian communities within the borders of the United States whether within the original or subsequently acquired territory thereof and whether within or without the limits of a state and

(3) All Indian allotments, the Indian titles to which have not been extinguished, including rights-of-way running through the same.

Indian governing body means the governing body of any Tribe, band or group of Indians subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and recognized by the United States as possessing power of self-government.

(4) The geographic scope of applicability of this rule is as specified in §49.166(c)(1).

Reviewing authority means the Administrator or an Indian Tribe in cases where a Tribal agency is assisting EPA with administration of the program through a delegation under §49.173.

Synthetic minor HAP source means a source that otherwise has the potential to emit HAPs in amounts that are at or above those for major sources of HAP in §63.2 of this chapter, but that has taken a restriction such that its potential to emit is less than such amounts for major sources. Such restrictions must be enforceable as a practical matter.

Synthetic minor source means a source that otherwise has the potential to emit regulated NSR pollutants in amounts that are at or above those for major sources in Appendix S, but that has taken a restriction such that its potential to emit is less than such amounts for major sources. Such restrictions must be enforceable as a practical matter.

[76 FR 38802, July 1, 2011, as amended at 81 FR 35981, June 3, 2016]

§49.168   Does this program apply to me?

(a) In a nonattainment area for a pollutant in Indian country, the requirements of this program apply to you under either of the following circumstances:

(1) If you propose to construct a new major source (as defined in part 51, Appendix S, paragraph II.A.4 of this chapter) of the nonattainment pollutant.

(2) If you propose to construct a major modification at your existing major source (as defined in part 51, Appendix S, paragraph II.A.5 of this chapter), where your source is a major source of the nonattainment pollutant and the proposed modification is a major modification for the nonattainment pollutant.

(b) If you own or operate a major source with a state-issued nonattainment major NSR permit, you must apply to convert such permit to a Federal permit under this program by September 4, 2012.

(c) If you propose to establish a synthetic minor source or synthetic minor HAP source or to construct a minor modification at your major source, you will have to comply with the requirements of the Federal minor NSR program in Indian country at §§49.151 through 49.165 or other EPA-approved minor NSR program, as applicable.

§49.169   Permit approval criteria.

(a) What are the general criteria for permit approval? The general review criteria for permits are provided in part 51, Appendix S, paragraph II.B of this chapter. In summary, that paragraph basically requires the reviewing authority to ensure that the proposed new major source or major modification would meet all applicable emission requirements in the EPA-approved implementation plan or FIP, any applicable new source performance standard in part 60 of this chapter and any applicable national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants in part 61 or part 63 of this chapter, before a permit can be issued.

(b) What are the program-specific criteria for permit approval? The approval criteria or conditions for obtaining a major NSR permit for major sources and major modifications locating in nonattainment areas are given in part 51, Appendix S, paragraph IV.A of this chapter. In summary, these are the following:

(1) The lowest achievable emission rate (LAER) requirement for any NSR pollutant subject to this program.

(2) Certification that all existing major sources owned or operated by you in the same state as the state including the Tribal land where the proposed source or modification is locating are in compliance or under a compliance schedule.

(3) Emissions reductions (offsets) requirement for any source or modification subject to this program.

(4) A demonstration that the emission offsets will provide a net air quality benefit in the affected area.

(5) An analysis of alternative sites, sizes, production processes and environmental control techniques for such proposed source that demonstrates that the benefits of the proposed source significantly outweigh the environmental and social costs imposed as a result of its location, construction or modification.

§49.170   Emission offset requirement exemption.

An Indian governing body may seek an exemption from the emission offset requirement (see §49.169(b)(3)) for major sources and major modifications subject to this program that are located within the Tribe's Indian country pursuant to section 173(a)(1)(B) of the Act, under which major sources and major modifications subject to this program may be exempted from the offset requirement if they are located in a zone targeted for economic development by the Administrator, in consultation with the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Under this Economic Development Zone (EDZ) approach, the Administrator would waive the offset requirement for such sources and modifications, provided that:

(a) The new major source or major modification is located in a geographical area which meets the criteria for an EDZ and the Administrator has approved a request from a Tribe and declared the area an EDZ and

(b) The state/Tribe demonstrates that the new permitted emissions are consistent with the achievement of reasonable further progress pursuant to section 172(c)(4) of the Act and will not interfere with attainment of the applicable NAAQS by the applicable attainment date.

§49.171   Public participation requirements.

(a) What permit information will be publicly available? With the exception of any confidential information as defined in part 2, subpart B of this chapter, the reviewing authority must make available for public inspection the documents listed in paragraphs (a)(1) through (4) of this section. The reviewing authority must make such information available for public inspection at the appropriate EPA Regional Office and in at least one location in the area affected by the source, such as the Tribal environmental office or a local library.

(1) All information submitted as part of your application for a permit.

(2) Any additional information requested by the reviewing authority.

(3) The reviewing authority's analysis of the application and any additional information submitted by you, including the LAER analysis and, where applicable, the analysis of your emissions reductions (offsets), your demonstration of a net air quality benefit in the affected area and your analysis of alternative sites, sizes, production processes and environmental control techniques.

(4) A copy of the draft permit or the decision to deny the permit with the justification for denial.

(b) How will the public be notified and participate?

(1) Before issuing a permit under this program, the reviewing authority must prepare a draft permit and must provide adequate public notice to ensure that the affected community and the general public have reasonable access to the application and draft permit information, as set out in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section. The public notice must provide an opportunity for public comment and notice of a public hearing, if any, on the draft permit.

(i) The reviewing authority must mail a copy of the notice to you, the appropriate Indian governing body and the Tribal, state and local air pollution authorities having jurisdiction adjacent to the area of Indian country potentially impacted by the air pollution source.

(ii) Depending on such factors as the nature and size of your source, local air quality considerations and the characteristics of the population in the affected area (e.g., subsistence hunting and fishing or other seasonal cultural practices), the reviewing authority must use appropriate means of notification, such as those listed in paragraphs (b)(1)(ii)(A) through (E) of this section.

(A) The reviewing authority may mail or e-mail a copy of the notice to persons on a mailing list developed by the reviewing authority consisting of those persons who have requested to be placed on such a mailing list.

(B) The reviewing authority may post the notice on its Web site.

(C) The reviewing authority may publish the notice in a newspaper of general circulation in the area affected by the source. Where possible, the notice may also be published in a Tribal newspaper or newsletter.

(D) The reviewing authority may provide copies of the notice for posting at one or more locations in the area affected by the source, such as Post Offices, trading posts, libraries, Tribal environmental offices, community centers or other gathering places in the community.

(E) The reviewing authority may employ other means of notification as appropriate.

(2) The notice required pursuant to paragraph (b)(1) of this section must include the following information at a minimum:

(i) Identifying information, including your name and address (and plant name and address if different) and the name and telephone number of the plant manager/contact.

(ii) The name and address of the reviewing authority processing the permit action;

(iii) The regulated NSR pollutants to be emitted, the affected emissions units and the emission limitations for each affected emissions unit;

(iv) The emissions change involved in the permit action;

(v) Instructions for requesting a public hearing;

(vi) The name, address and telephone number of a contact person in the reviewing authority's office from whom additional information may be obtained;

(vii) Locations and times of availability of the information (listed in paragraph (a) of this section) for public inspection and

(viii) A statement that any person may submit written comments, a written request for a public hearing or both, on the draft permit action. The reviewing authority must provide a period of at least 30 days from the date of the public notice for comments and for requests for a public hearing.

(c) How will the public comment and will there be a public hearing?

(1) Any person may submit written comments on the draft permit and may request a public hearing. These comments must raise any reasonably ascertainable issue with supporting arguments by the close of the public comment period (including any public hearing). The reviewing authority must consider all comments in making the final decision. The reviewing authority must keep a record of the commenters and of the issues raised during the public participation process and such records must be available to the public.

(2) The reviewing authority must extend the public comment period under paragraph (b) of this section to the close of any public hearing under this section. The hearing officer may also extend the comment period by so stating at the hearing.

(3) A request for a public hearing must be in writing and must state the nature of the issues proposed to be raised at the hearing.

(4) The reviewing authority must hold a hearing whenever there is, on the basis of requests, a significant degree of public interest in a draft permit. The reviewing authority may also hold a public hearing at its discretion, whenever, for instance, such a hearing might clarify one or more issues involved in the permit decision. The reviewing authority must provide notice of any public hearing at least 30 days prior to the date of the hearing. Public notice of the hearing may be concurrent with that of the draft permit and the two notices may be combined. Reasonable limits may be set upon the time allowed for oral statements at the hearing.

(5) The reviewing authority must make a tape recording or written transcript of any hearing available to the public.

§49.172   Final permit issuance and administrative and judicial review.

(a) How will final action occur and when will my permit become effective? After making a decision on a permit, the reviewing authority must notify you of the decision, in writing and if the permit is denied, provide the reasons for such denial and the procedures for appeal. If the reviewing authority issues a final permit to you, it must make a copy of the permit available at any location where the draft permit was made available. In addition, the reviewing authority must provide adequate public notice of the final permit decision to ensure that the affected community, general public and any individuals who commented on the draft permit have reasonable access to the decision and supporting materials. A final permit becomes effective 30 days after service of notice of the final permit decision, unless:

(1) A later effective date is specified in the permit or

(2) Review of the final permit is requested under paragraph (d) of this section (in which case the specific terms and conditions of the permit that are the subject of the request for review must be stayed) or

(3) The draft permit was subjected to a public comment period and no comments requested a change in the draft permit or a denial of the permit, in which case the reviewing authority may make the permit effective immediately upon issuance.

(b) For how long will the reviewing authority retain my permit-related records? The records, including any required applications for each draft and final permit or application for permit revision, must be kept by the reviewing authority for not less than 5 years.

(c) What is the administrative record for each final permit?

(1) The reviewing authority must base final permit decisions on an administrative record consisting of:

(i) All comments received during any public comment period, including any extension or reopening;

(ii) The tape or transcript of any hearing(s) held;

(iii) Any written material submitted at such a hearing;

(iv) Any new materials placed in the record as a result of the reviewing authority's evaluation of public comments;

(v) Other documents in the supporting files for the permit that were relied upon in the decision-making;

(vi) The final permit;

(vii) The application and any supporting data furnished by you, the permit applicant;

(viii) The draft permit or notice of intent to deny the application or to terminate the permit and

(ix) Other documents in the supporting files for the draft permit that were relied upon in the decision-making.

(2) The additional documents required under paragraph (c)(1) of this section should be added to the record as soon as possible after their receipt or publication by the reviewing authority. The record must be complete on the date the final permit is issued.

(3) Material readily available or published materials that are generally available and that are included in the administrative record under the standards of paragraph (c)(1) of this section need not be physically included in the same file as the rest of the record as long as it is specifically referred to in that file.

(d) Can permit decisions be appealed? (1) Permit decisions may be appealed under the permit appeal procedures of 40 CFR 124.19.

(2) An appeal under paragraph (d)(1) of this section is, under section 307(b) of the Act, a prerequisite to seeking judicial review of the final agency action.

(e) Can my permit be reopened? The reviewing authority may reopen an existing, currently-in-effect permit for cause on its own initiative, such as if it contains a material mistake or fails to assure compliance with applicable requirements. However, except for those permit reopenings that do not increase the emissions limitations in the permit, such as permit reopenings that correct typographical, calculation and other errors, all other permit reopenings shall be carried out after the opportunity of public notice and comment and in accordance with one or more of the public participation requirements under §49.171(b)(1)(ii).

(f) Can my permit be rescinded? (1) Any permit issued under this section or a prior version of this section shall remain in effect until it is rescinded under this paragraph (f).

(2) An owner or operator of a stationary source or modification who holds a permit issued under this section for the construction of a new source or modification that meets the requirement in paragraph (f)(3) of this section may request that the reviewing authority rescind the permit or a particular portion of the permit.

(3) The reviewing authority may grant an application for rescission if the application shows that §§49.166 through 49.173 would not apply to the source or modification.

(4) If the reviewing authority rescinds a permit under this paragraph (f), the public shall be given adequate notice of the rescission determination in accordance with one or more of the following methods:

(i) The reviewing authority may mail or email a copy of the notice to persons on a mailing list developed by the reviewing authority consisting of those persons who have requested to be placed on such a mailing list.

(ii) The reviewing authority may post the notice on its Web site.

(iii) The reviewing authority may publish the notice in a newspaper of general circulation in the area affected by the source. Where possible, the notice may also be published in a Tribal newspaper or newsletter.

(iv) The reviewing authority may provide copies of the notice for posting at one or more locations in the area affected by the source, such as Post Offices, trading posts, libraries, Tribal environmental offices, community centers or other gathering places in the community.

(v) The reviewing authority may employ other means of notification as appropriate.

[76 FR 38802, July 1, 2011, as amended at 81 FR 78048, Nov. 7, 2016; 85 FR 51656, Aug. 21, 2020]

§49.173   Administration and delegation of the nonattainment major NSR program in Indian country.

(a) Who administers a nonattainment major NSR program in Indian country?

(1) If the Administrator has approved a TIP that includes a major NSR program for sources in nonattainment areas of Indian country that meets the requirements of part D of title I of the Act and §51.165 of this chapter, the Tribe is the reviewing authority and will administer the approved major NSR program under Tribal law.

(2) If the Administrator has not approved an implementation plan, the Administrator may delegate the authority to assist EPA with administration of portions of this Federal nonattainment major NSR program implemented under Federal authority to a Tribal agency upon request, in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (b) of this section. If the Tribal agency has been granted such delegation, it will have the authority to assist EPA according to paragraph (b) of this section and it will be the reviewing authority for purposes of the provisions for which it has been granted delegation.

(3) If the Administrator has not approved an implementation plan or granted delegation to a Tribal agency, the Administrator is the reviewing authority and will directly administer all aspects of this Federal nonattainment major NSR program in Indian country under Federal authority.

(b) Delegation of administration of the Federal nonattainment major NSR program to Tribes. This paragraph (b) establishes the process by which the Administrator may delegate authority to a Tribal agency, with or without signature authority, to assist EPA with administration of portions of this Federal nonattainment major NSR program, in accordance with the provisions in paragraphs (b)(1) through (8) of this section. Any Federal requirements under this program that are administered by the delegate Tribal agency will be subject to enforcement by EPA under Federal law. This section provides for administrative delegation of the Federal nonattainment major NSR program and does not affect the eligibility criteria under §49.6 for treatment in the same manner as a state.

(1) Information to be included in the Administrative Delegation Request. In order to be delegated authority to assist EPA with administration of this FIP permit program for sources, the Tribal agency must submit a request to the Administrator that:

(i) Identifies the specific provisions for which delegation is requested;

(ii) Identifies the Indian Reservation or other areas of Indian country for which delegation is requested;

(iii) Includes a statement by the applicant's legal counsel (or equivalent official) that includes the following information:

(A) A statement that the applicant is a Tribe recognized by the Secretary of the Interior;

(B) A descriptive statement that is consistent with the type of information described in §49.7(a)(2) demonstrating that the applicant is currently carrying out substantial governmental duties and powers over a defined area and

(C) A description of the laws of the Tribe that provide adequate authority to administer the Federal rules and provisions for which delegation is requested and

(iv) A demonstration that the Tribal agency has the technical capability and adequate resources to administer the FIP provisions for which the delegation is requested.

(2) Delegation of Partial Administrative Authority Agreement. A Delegation of Partial Administrative Authority Agreement (Agreement) will set forth the terms and conditions of the delegation, will specify the provisions that the delegate Tribal agency will be authorized to implement on behalf of EPA and will be entered into by the Administrator and the delegate Tribal agency. The Agreement will become effective upon the date that both the Administrator and the delegate Tribal agency have signed the Agreement or as otherwise stated in the Agreement. Once the delegation becomes effective, the delegate Tribal agency will be responsible, to the extent specified in the Agreement, for assisting EPA with administration of the provisions of the Federal nonattainment major NSR program that are subject to the Agreement.

(3) Publication of notice of the Agreement. The Administrator will publish a notice in the Federal Register informing the public of any Agreement for a particular area of Indian country. The Administrator also will publish the notice in a newspaper of general circulation in the area affected by the delegation. In addition, the Administrator will mail a copy of the notice to persons on a mailing list developed by the Administrator consisting of those persons who have requested to be placed on such a mailing list.

(4) Revision or revocation of an Agreement. An Agreement may be modified, amended or revoked, in part or in whole, by the Administrator after consultation with the delegate Tribal agency.

(5) Transmission of information to the Administrator. When administration of a portion of the Federal nonattainment major NSR program in Indian country that includes receipt of permit application materials and preparation of draft permits has been delegated in accordance with the provisions of this section, the delegate Tribal agency must provide to the Administrator a copy of each permit application (including any application for permit revision) and each draft permit. You, the permit applicant, may be required by the delegate Tribal agency to provide a copy of the permit application directly to the Administrator. With the Administrator's consent, the delegate Tribal agency may submit to the Administrator a permit application summary form and any relevant portion of the permit application, in place of the complete permit application. To the extent practicable, the preceding information should be provided in electronic format by the delegate Tribal agency or by you, the permit applicant, as applicable and as requested by the Administrator. The delegate Tribal agency must also submit to the Administrator such information as the Administrator may reasonably require to ascertain whether the delegate Tribal agency is implementing and administering the delegated program in compliance with the requirements of the Act and of this program.

(6) Waiver of information transmission requirements. The Administrator may waive the requirements of paragraph (b)(5) of this section for any category of sources (including any class, type or size within such category) by transmitting the waiver in writing to the delegate Tribal agency.

(7) Retention of records. Where a delegate Tribal agency prepares draft or final permits or receives applications for permit revisions on behalf of EPA, the records for each draft and final permit or application for permit revision must be kept by the delegate Tribal agency for a period not less than 5 years.

(8) Delegation of signature authority. To receive delegation of signature authority, the legal statement submitted by the Tribal agency pursuant to paragraph (b)(1) of this section must certify that no applicable provision of Tribal law requires that a major NSR permit be issued after a certain time if the delegate Tribal agency has failed to take action on the application (or includes any other similar provision providing for default issuance of a permit).

(c) Are there any non-delegable elements of the Federal nonattainment major NSR program in Indian country? The following authorities cannot be delegated outside of EPA:

(1) The Administrator's authority to object to the issuance of a major NSR permit.

(2) The Administrator's authority to enforce permits issued pursuant to this program.

(d) How will EPA transition its authority to an approved nonattainment major NSR program?

(1) The Administrator will suspend the issuance of nonattainment major NSR permits under this program promptly upon publication of notice of approval of a TIP with a major NSR permit program for nonattainment areas.

(2) The Administrator may retain jurisdiction over the permits for which the administrative or judicial review process is not complete and will address this issue in the notice of program approval.

(3) After approval of a program for issuing nonattainment major NSR permits and the suspension of issuance of nonattainment major NSR permits by the Administrator, the Administrator will continue to administer nonattainment major NSR permits until permits are issued under the approved Tribal implementation plan program.

(4) Permits previously issued under this program will remain in effect and be enforceable as a practical matter until and unless the Tribe issues new permits to these sources based on the provisions of the EPA-approved Tribal implementation plan.

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