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e-CFR data is current as of July 13, 2020

Title 29Subtitle BChapter VSubchapter BPart 780Subpart H → Subject Group

Title 29: Labor
Subpart H—Employment by Small Country Elevators Within Area of Production; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(14)

Establishment Commonly Recognized as a Country Elevator

§780.704   Dependence of exemption on nature of employing establishment.

If an employee is to be exempt under section 13(b)(14), he must be employed by an “establishment” which is “commonly recognized as a country elevator.” If he is employed by such an establishment, the fact that it may be part of a larger enterprise which also engages in activities that are not recognized as those of country elevators (see Tobin v. Flour Mills, 185 F. 2d 596) would not make the exemption inapplicable.

§780.705   Meaning of “establishment.”

The word “establishment” has long been interpreted by the Department of Labor and the courts to mean a distinct physical place of business and not to include all the places of business which may be operated by an organization (Phillips v. Walling, 334 U.S. 490; Mitchell v. Bekins Van and Storage Co., 352 U.S. 1027). Thus, in the case of a business organization which operates a number of country elevators (see Tobin v. Flour Mills, 185 F. 2d 596), each individual elevator or other place of business would constitute an establishment, within the meaning of the Act. Country elevators are usually one-unit places of business with, in some cases, an adjoining flat warehouse. No problem exists of determining what is the establishment in such cases. However, where separate facilities are used by a country elevator, a determination must be made, based on their proximity to the elevator and their relationship to its operations, on whether the facilities and the elevator are one or more than one establishment. If there are more than one, it must be determined by which establishment the employee is employed and whether that establishment meets the requirements of section 13(b)(14) before the application of the exemption to the employee can be ascertained (compare Mitchell v. Cammill, 245 F. 2d 207; Remington v. Shaw (W.D. Mich.), 2 WH Cases 262).

§780.706   Recognition of character of establishment.

A further requirement for exemption is that the establishment must be “commonly recognized” as a country elevator. The word “commonly” means ordinarily or generally and the term “recognized” means known. An elevator should be generally known by the public as a country elevator. This requirement imposes, on the establishment for whose employees exemption is sought, the obligation to demonstrate that it engages in the type of work and has the attributes which will cause the general public to know it as a country elevator. The recognition which the statute requires must be shown to exist if the employer seeks to take the benefit of the exemption (see Arnold v. Kanowsky, 361 U.S. 388, 395).

§780.707   Establishments “commonly recognized” as country elevators.

In determining whether a particular establishment is one that is “commonly recognized” as a country elevator—and this must be true of the particular establishment if the exemption is to apply—it should be kept in mind that the intent of section 13(b)(14) is to “exempt country elevators that market farm products, mostly grain, for farmers” (107 Cong. Rec. (daily ed.) p. 5883). It is also appropriate to consider the characteristics and functions which the courts and government agencies have recognized as those of “country elevators” and the distinctions which have been recognized between country elevators and other types of establishments. For example, in proceedings to determine industries of a seasonal nature under part 526 of the regulations in this chapter, “country” grain elevators, public terminal and subterminal grain elevators, wheat flour mill elevators, non-elevator-type bulk grain storing establishments, and “flat warehouses” in which grain is stored in sacks, have been recognized as distinct types of establishments engaged in grain storage. (See 24 FR 2584; 3581.) As the legislative history of the exemption cited above makes clear, country elevators handle “mostly grain.” The courts have recognized that the terms “country elevator” and “country grain elevator” are interchangeable (the term “country house” has also been recognized as synonymous), and that there are significant differences between country elevators and other types of establishments engaged in grain storage (see Tobin v. Flour Mils, 185 F. 2d 596; Mitchell v. Sampson Const. Co. (D. Kan.) 14 WH Cases 269).

§780.708   A country elevator is located near and serves farmers.

Country elevators, as commonly recognized, are typically located along railroads in small towns or rural areas near grain farmers, and have facilities especially designed for receiving bulk grain by wagon or truck from farms, elevating it to storage bins, and direct loading of the grain in its natural state into railroad boxcars. The principal function of such elevators is to provide a point of initial concentration for grain grown in their local area and to handle, store for limited periods, and load out such grain for movement in carload lots by rail from the producing area to its ultimate destination. They also perform a transport function in facilitating the even and orderly movement of grain over the interstate network of railroads from the producing areas to terminal elevators, markets, mills, processors, consumers, and to seaboard ports for export. The country elevator is typically the farmer's market for his grain or the point at which his grain is delivered to carriers for transportation to market. The elevator may purchase the grain from the farmer or store and handle it for him, and it may also store and handle substantial quantities of grain owned by or pledged to the Government under a price-support program. Country elevators customarily receive, weigh, test, grade, clean, mix, dry, fumigate, store, and load out grain in its natural state, and provide certain incidental services and supplies to farmers in the locality. The foregoing attributes of country elevators have been recognized by the courts. See, for example, Mitchell v. Sampson Const. Co. (D. Kan.) 14 WH Cases 269; Tobin v. Flour Mills, 185 F. 2d 596; Holt v. Barnesville Elevator Co., 145 F. 2d 250; Remington v. Shaw (W.D. Mich.), 2 WH Cases 262.

§780.709   Size and equipment of a country elevator.

Typically, the establishments commonly recognized as country elevators are small. Most of the establishments intended to come within the exemption have only one or two employees (107 Cong. Rec. (daily ed.) p. 5883), although some country elevators have a larger number. (See Holt v. Barnesville Elevator Co., 145 F. 2d 250.) Establishments with more than five employees are not within the exemption. (See §780.712.) The storage capacity of a country elevator may be as small as 6,000 bushels (see Tobin v. Flour Mills, 185 F. 2d 596) and will generally range from 15,000 to 50,000 bushels. As indicated in §780.708, country elevators are equipped to receive grain in wagons or trucks from farmers and to load it in railroad boxcars. The facilities typically include scales for weighing the farm vehicles loaded with grain, grain bins, cleaning and mixing machinery, driers for prestorage drying of grain and endless conveyor belts or chain scoops to carry grain from the ground to the top of the elevator. The facilities for receiving grain in truckloads or wagonloads from farmers and the limited storage capacity, together with location of the elevator in or near the grain-producing area, serve to distinguish country elevators from terminal or subterminal elevators, to which the exemption is not applicable. The latter are located at terminal or interior market points, receive grain in carload lots, and receive the bulk of their grain from country elevators. Although some may receive grain from farms in the immediate areas, they are not typically equipped to receive grain except by rail. (See Tobin v. Flour Mills, supra; Mitchell v. Sampson Const. Co. (D. Kan.) 14 WH Cases 269.) It is the facilities of a country elevator for the elevation of bulk grain and the discharge of such grain into rail cars that make it an “elevator” and distinguish it from warehouses that perform similar functions in the flat warehousing, storage, and marketing for farmers of grain in sacks. Such warehouses are not “elevators” and therefore do not come within the section 13(b)(14) exemption.

§780.710   A country elevator may sell products and services to farmers.

Section 13(b)(14) expressly provides that an establishment commonly recognized as a country elevator, within the meaning of the exemption, includes “such an establishment which sells products and services used in the operation of a farm.” This language makes it plain that if the establishment is “such an establishment,” that is, if its functions and attributes are such that it is “commonly recognized as a country elevator” but not otherwise, exemption of its employees under this section will not be lost solely by reason of the fact that it sells products and services used in the operation of a farm. Establishments commonly recognized as country elevators, especially the smaller ones, not only engage in the storing of grain but also conduct various merchandising or “sideline” operations as well. They may distribute feed grains to feeders and other farmers, sell fuels for farm use, sell and treat seeds, and sell other farm supplies such as fertilizers, farm chemicals, mixed concentrates, twine, lumber, and farm hardware supplies and machinery. (See Tobin v. Flour Mills, 185 F. 2d 596; Holt v. Barnesville Elevator Co., 145 F. 2d 250). Services performed for farmers by country elevators may include grinding of feeds, cleaning and fumigating seeds, supplying bottled gas, and gasoline station services. As conducted by establishments commonly recognized as country elevators, the selling of goods and services used in the operation of a farm is a minor and incidental secondary activity and not a main business of the elevator (see Tobin v. Flour Mills, supra; Holt v. Barnesville Elevator Co., supra).

§780.711   Exemption of mixed business applies only to country elevators.

The language of section 13(b)(14) permitting application of the exemption to country elevators selling products and services used in the operation of a farm does not extend the exemption to an establishment selling products and services to farmers merely because of the fact that it is also equipped to provide elevator services to its customers. The exemption will not apply if the extent of its business of making sales to farmers is such that the establishment is not commonly known as a “country elevator” or is commonly recognized as an establishment of a different kind. As the legislative history of the exemption indicates, its purpose is limited to exempting country elevators that market farm products, mostly grain, for farmers who are working long workweeks and need to have the elevator facilities open and available for disposal of their crops during the same hours that are worked by the farmers. (See 107 Cong. Rec. (daily ed.) p.5883.) The reason for the exemption does not justify its application to employees selling products and services to farmers otherwise than as an incidental and subordinate part of the business of a country elevator as commonly recognized. An establishment making such sales must be “such an establishment” to come within this exemption. An employer may, however, be engaged in the business of making sales of goods and services to farmers in an establishment separate from the one in which he provides the recognized country elevator services. In such event, the exemption of employees who work in both establishments may depend on whether the work in the sales establishment comes within another exemption provided by the Act. (See Remington v. Shaw (W.D. Mich.), 2 WH Cases 262, and infra, §780.724.)

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