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Title 29Subtitle BChapter VSubchapter BPart 780Subpart K → Subject Group

Title 29: Labor
Subpart K—Employment of Home- workers in Making Wreaths; Exemption From Minimum Wage, Overtime Compensation, and Child Labor Provisions Under Section 13(d)

Requirements for Exemption

§780.1002   Statutory requirements.

Section 13(d) of the Fair Labor Standards Act exempts from the minimum wage provisions of section 6, the overtime requirements of section 7 and the child labor restrictions of section 12:

Any homeworker engaged in the making of wreaths composed principally of natural holly, pine, cedar, or other evergreens (including the harvesting of the evergreens or other forest products used in making such wreaths).

§780.1003   What determines the application of the exemption.

The application of this exemption depends on the nature of the employee's work and not on the character of the employer's business. To determine whether an employee is exempt an examination should be made of the activities which that employee performs and the conditions under which he performs them. Some employees of the employer may be exempt and others may not.

§780.1004   General requirements.

The general requirements of the exemption are that:

(a) The employee must be a homeworker;

(b) The employee must be engaged in making wreaths as a homeworker;

(c) The wreaths must be made principally of evergreens;

(d) Any harvesting of the evergreens and other forest products by the homeworkers must be for use in making the wreaths by homeworkers.

§780.1005   Homeworkers.

The exemption applies to “any homeworker.” A homeworker within the meaning of the Act is a person who works for an employer in or about a home, apartment, tenement, or room in a residential establishment.

§780.1006   In or about a home.

Whether the work of an employee is being performed “in or about a home,” so that he may be considered a homeworker, must be determined on the facts in the particular case. In general, however the phrase “in or about a home” includes any home, apartment, or other dwelling place and surrounding premises, such yards, garages, sheds or basements. A convent, orphanage or similar institution is considered a home.

§780.1007   Exemption is inapplicable if wreath-making is not in or about a home.

The section 13(d) exemption does not apply when the wreaths are made in or about a place which is not considered a “home”. Careful consideration is required in many cases to determine whether work is being performed in or about a home. Thus, the circumstances under which an employee may engage in work in what ostensibly is a “home” may require the conclusion, on an examination of all the facts, that the work is not being performed in or about a home within the intent of the term and for purposes of section 13(d) of the Act.

§780.1008   Examples of places not considered homes.

The following are examples of workplaces which, on examination, have been considered not to be a “home”:

(a) Living quarters allocated to and regularly used solely for production purposes, where workers work regular schedules and are under constant supervision by the employer, are not considered to be a home.

(b) While a convent, orphanage or similar institution is considered a home, an area in such place which is set aside for and used for sewing or other productive work under supervision is not a home.

(c) Where an employee performs work on wreaths in a home and also engages in work on the wreaths for the employer during that workweek in a factory, he is not exempt in that week, since some of his work is not performed in a home.

§780.1009   Wreaths.

The only product which may be produced under the section 13(d) exemption by a homeworker is a wreath having no less than the specified evergreen content. The making of a product other than a wreath is nonexempt even though it is made principally of evergreens.

§780.1010   Principally.

The exemption is intended to apply to the making of an evergreen wreath. Such a wreath is one made “principally” of evergreens. Principally means chiefly, in the main or mainly (Hartford Accident and Indemnity Co. v. Casualty Underwriters Insurance Co., 130 F. Supp. 56). A wreath is made “principally” of evergreens when it is comprised mostly of evergreens. For example, where a wreath is composed of evergreens and other kinds of material, the evergreens should comprise a greater part of the wreath than all the other materials together, including materials such as frames, stands, and wires. The principal portion of a wreath may consist of any one or any combination of the evergreens listed in section 13(d), including “other evergreens.” The making of wreaths in which natural evergreens are a secondary component is not exempt.

§780.1011   Evergreens.

The material which must principally be used in making the wreaths is listed as “natural holly, pine, cedar, or other evergreens.” Other plants or materials cannot be used to satisfy this requirement.

§780.1012   Other evergreens.

The “other evergreens” of which the wreath may be principally made include any plant which retains its greenness through all the seasons of the year, such as laurel, ivy, yew, fir, and others. While plants other than evergreens may be used in making the wreaths, such plants, whether they are forest products cultivated plants, cannot be considered as part of the required principal evergreen component of the wreath.

§780.1013   Natural evergreens.

Only “natural” evergreens may comprise the principal part of the wreath. The word “natural” qualifies all of the evergreens listed in the section, including “other evergreens.” The term natural means that the evergreens at the time they are being used in making a wreath must be in the raw and natural state in which they have been harvested. Artificial evergreens (Herring Magic v. U.S., 258 F. 2d 197; Cal. Casualty Indemnity Exchange v. Industrial Accident Commission of Cal. 90 P. 2d 289) or evergreens which have been processed as by drying and spraying with tinsel or by other means are not included. It is immaterial whether the natural evergreen used in making a wreath has been cultivated or is a product of the woods or forest.

§780.1014   Harvesting.

The homeworker is permitted to harvest evergreens and other forest products to be used in making the wreath. The word harvesting means the removal of evergreens and other forest products from their growing positions in the woods or forest, including transportation of the harvested products to the home of the homeworker and the performance of other duties necessary for such harvesting.

§780.1015   Other forest products.

The homeworker may also harvest “other forest products” for use in making wreaths. The term other forest products means any plant of the forest and includes, of course, deciduous plants as well.

§780.1016   Use of evergreens and forest products.

Harvesting of evergreens and other forest products is exempt only when these products will be “used in making such wreaths.” The phrase “used in making such wreaths” places a definite limitation on the purpose for which evergreens may be harvested under section 13(d). Harvesting of these materials for a use other than making wreaths is nonexempt. Also, such harvesting is nonexempt when the evergreens are used for wreathmaking by persons other than the homeworkers (see Mitchell v. Hunt, 263 F. 2d 913). For example, harvesting of evergreens for sale or distribution to an employer who uses them in his factory to make wreaths is not exempt.

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