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e-CFR data is current as of September 24, 2020

Title 28Chapter IPart 42Subpart G → Subject Group

Title 28: Judicial Administration
Subpart G—Nondiscrimination Based on Handicap in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities—Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973


§42.510   Discrimination prohibited.

(a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall on the basis of handicap be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.

(2) A recipient shall make all decisions concerning employment under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance in a manner which insures that discrimination on the basis of handicap does not occur and may not limit, segregate, or classify applicants or employees in any way that adversely affects their opportunities or status because of handicap.

(3) A recipient may not participate in a contractual or other relationship that has the effect of subjecting qualified handicapped applicants or employees to discrimination prohibited by this section. The relationships referred to in this paragraph include relationships with employment and referral agencies, labor unions, organizations providing or administering fringe benefits to employees of the recipient, and organizations providing training and apprenticeships, and with civil service agencies in State or local units of government.

(b) Specific activities. The prohibition against discrimination in employment applies to the following activities:

(1) Recruitment, advertising, and application processing;

(2) Hiring, upgrading, promotion, award of tenure, demotion, transfer, layoff, termination, right of return from layoff and rehiring;

(3) Pay and any other form of compensation and changes in compensation, including fringe benefits available by virtue of employment, whether or not administered by the recipient;

(4) Job assignments, job classifications, organizational structures, position descriptions, lines of progression, and seniority lists;

(5) Leaves of absence, sick leave, or any other leave;

(6) Selection and financial support for training, including apprenticeship, professional meetings, conferences, and selection for leaves of absence to pursue training;

(7) Employer-sponsored activities, including those that are social or recreational; and

(8) Any other term, condition, or privilege of employment.

(c) In offering employment or promotions to handicapped individuals, recipients may not reduce the amount of compensation offered because of any disability income, pension or other benefit the applicant or employee receives from another source.

(d) A recipient's obligation to comply with this section is not affected by any inconsistent term of any collective bargaining agreement to which it is a party.

§42.511   Reasonable accommodation.

(a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or employee unless the recipient can demonstrate, based on the individual assessment of the applicant or employee, that the accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of its program or activity.

(b) Reasonable accommodation may include making facilities used by employees readily accessible to and usable by handicapped persons, job restructuring, part-time or modified work schedules, acquisition or modification of equipment or devices (e.g., telecommunication or other telephone devices), the provisions of readers or qualified interpreters, and other similar actions.

(c) Whether an accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of a recipient's program or activity depends upon a case-by-case analysis weighing factors that include:

(1) The overall size of the recipient's program or activity with respect to number of employees, number and type of facilities, and size of budget;

(2) The type of the recipient's operation, including the composition and structure of the recipient's workforce; and

(3) The nature and cost of the accommodation needed.

A reasonable accommodation may require a recipient to bear more than an insignificant economic cost in making allowance for the handicap of a qualified applicant or employee and to accept minor inconvenience which does not bear on the ability of the handicapped individual to perform the essential duties of the job.

§42.512   Employment criteria.

(a) A recipient may not use any employment test or other selection criterion that tends to screen out handicapped persons unless:

(1) The test score or other selection criterion, as used by the recipient, is shown to be job-related for the position in question, and

(2) Alternative job-related tests or criteria that tend to screen out fewer handicapped persons are not shown by the appropriate Department officials to be available.

(b) A recipient shall administer tests using procedures (e.g., auxiliary aids such as readers for visually-impaired persons or qualified sign language interpreters for hearing-impaired persons) that accommodate the special problems of handicapped persons to the fullest extent, consistent with the objectives of the test. When a test is administered to an applicant or employee who has a handicap that impairs sensory, manual, or speaking skills, the test results must accurately reflect the applicant's or employee's job skills, aptitude, or whatever other factor the test purports to measure, rather than reflecting the applicant's or employee's impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills (except where those skills are the factors that the test purports to measure).

§42.513   Preemployment inquiries.

(a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, a recipient may not conduct a preemployment medical examination and may not make preemployment inquiry of an applicant as to whether the applicant is a handicapped person or as to the nature or severity of a handicap. A recipient may, however, make preemployment inquiry into an applicant's ability to perform job-related functions.

(b) When a recipient is taking remedial action to correct the effects of past discrimination pursuant to §42.505(a) of this subpart, when a recipient is taking voluntary action to overcome the effects of conditions that resulted in limited participation in its Federally assisted program or activity pursuant to §42.505(b) of this subpart, or when a recipient is taking affirmative action pursuant to section 503 of the Act, the recipient may invite applicants for employment to indicate whether and to what extent they are handicapped: Provided, That:

(1) The recipient states clearly on any written questionnaire used for this purpose or makes clear orally if no written questionnaire is used that the information requested is intended for use solely in connection with its remedial action obligations or its voluntary efforts;

(2) The recipient states clearly that the information is being requested on a voluntary basis, that it will be kept confidential as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, that refusal to provide it will not subject the applicant or employee to any adverse treatment, and that it will be used only in accordance with this part.

(c) Nothing in this section shall prohibit a recipient from conditioning an offer of employment on the results of a medical examination conducted prior to the employee's entrance on duty: Provided, That:

(1) All entering employees are subjected to such an examination regardless of handicap, and

(2) The results of such an examination are used only in accordance with the requirements of this subpart.

(d) The applicant's medical record shall be collected and maintained on separate forms and kept confidential, except that the following persons may be informed:

(1) Supervisors and managers regarding restrictions on the work of handicapped persons and necessary accommodations;

(2) First aid and safety personnel if the condition might require emergency treatment; and

(3) Government officials investigating compliance with the Act upon request for relevant information.

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