Home
gpo.gov
govinfo.gov

e-CFR Navigation Aids

Browse

Simple Search

Advanced Search

 — Boolean

 — Proximity

 

Search History

Search Tips

Corrections

Latest Updates

User Info

FAQs

Agency List

Incorporation By Reference

eCFR logo

Related Resources

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

We invite you to try out our new beta eCFR site at https://ecfr.federalregister.gov. We???ve made big changes to make the eCFR easier to use. Be sure to leave feedback using the Help button on the bottom right of each page!

e-CFR data is current as of August 6, 2020

Title 27Chapter ISubchapter FPart 70Subpart D → Subject Group


Title 27: Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms
PART 70—PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION
Subpart D—Collection of Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax


Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts, and Assessable Penalties

Additions to the Tax and Additional Amounts

§70.95   Scope.

For purposes of the administration of excise taxes by the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau in accordance with Title 26 of the United States Code, the penalties prescribed in §§70.96 through 70.107 shall apply.

[T.D. ATF-251, 52 FR 19314, May 22, 1987, as amended by T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47614, Nov. 14, 1990]

§70.96   Failure to file tax return or to pay tax.

(a) Addition to the tax—(1) Failure to file tax return. In the case of failure to file a return required under authority of:

(i) Title 26 U.S.C. 61, relating to returns and records;

(ii) Title 26 U.S.C. 51, relating to distilled spirits, wines and beer;

(iii) Title 26 U.S.C. 52, relating to tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes; or

(iv) Title 26 U.S.C. 53, relating to machine guns, destructive devices, and certain other firearms; and the regulations thereunder, on or before the date prescribed for filing (determined with regard to any extension of time for such filing), there shall be added to the tax required to be shown on the return the amount specified below unless the failure to file the return within the prescribed time is shown to the satisfaction of the appropriate TTB officer to be due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect. The amount to be added to the tax is 5 percent therof if the failure is not for more than one month, with an additional 5 percent for each additional month or fraction thereof during which the failure continues, but not to exceed 25 percent in the aggregate. The amount of any addition under paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall be reduced by the amount of the addition under paragraph (a)(2) of this section for any month to which an addition to tax applies under both paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(2) of this section.

(2) Failure to pay tax shown on return. In case of failure to pay the amount shown as tax on any return required to be filed after December 31, 1969 (without regard to any extension of time for filing thereof), specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, on or before the date prescribed for payment of such tax (determined with regard to any extension of time for payment), there shall be added to the tax shown on the return the amount specified below unless the failure to pay the tax within the prescribed time is shown to the satisfaction of the appropriate TTB officer to be due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect. The amount to be added to the tax is 0.5 percent of the amount of tax shown on the return if the failure is for not more than 1 month, with an additional 0.5 percent for each additional month or fraction thereof during which the failure continues, but not to exceed 25 percent in the aggregate.

(3) Failure to pay tax not shown on return. In case of failure to pay any amount in respect of any tax required to be shown on a return specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, which is not so shown (including an assessment made pursuant to 26 U.S.C. 6213(b)) within 10 days from the date of the notice and demand therefor, there shall be added to the amount shown in the notice and demand the amount specified below unless the failure to pay the tax within the prescribed time is shown to the satisfaction of the appropriate TTB officer to be due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect. The amount to be added to the tax is 0.5 percent of the amount stated in the notice and demand if the failure is for not more than one month, with an additional 0.5 percent for each additional month or fraction thereof during which the failure continues, but not to exceed 25 percent in the aggregate. The maximum amount of the addition permitted under this subparagraph shall be reduced by the amount of the addition under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, which is attributable to the tax for which the notice and demand is made and which is not paid within 10 days from the date of notice and demand. The preceding sentence applies to amounts assessed on or before December 31, 1986.

(4) Increases in penalties in certain cases. For increases in penalties for failure to file a return or pay tax in certain cases, see 26 U.S.C. 6651(d) or (f).

(b) Month defined. (1) If the date prescribed for filing the return or paying tax is the last day of a calendar month, each succeeding calendar month or fraction thereof during which the failure to file or pay tax continues shall constitute a month for purposes of section 6651.

(2) If the date prescribed for filing the return or paying tax is a date other than the last day of a calendar month, the period which terminates with the date numerically corresponding thereto in the succeeding calendar month and each such successive period shall constitute a month for purposes of section 6651. If, in the month of February, there is no date corresponding to the date prescribed for filing the return or paying tax, the period from such date in January through the last day of February shall constitute a month for purposes of section 6651. Thus, if a return is due on January 30, the first month shall end on February 28 (or 29 if a leap year), and the succeeding months shall end on March 30, April 30, etc.

(3) If a return is not timely filed or tax is not timely paid, the fact that the date prescribed for filing the return or paying tax, or the corresponding date in any succeeding calendar month, falls on a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday is immaterial in determining the number of months for which the addition to the tax under section 6651 applies.

(c) Showing of reasonable cause. A taxpayer who wishes to avoid the addition to the tax for failure to file a tax return or pay tax must make an affirmative showing of all facts alleged as a reasonable cause for the taxpayers failure to file such return or pay such tax on time in the form of a written statement containing a declaration that it is made under penalties of perjury. Such statement should be filed with the appropriate TTB officer. In addition, where special tax returns are delivered to an appropriate TTB officer, such statement may be delivered with the return. If the appropriate TTB officer determines that the delinquency was due to a reasonable cause and not to willful neglect, the addition to the tax will not be assessed. If the taxpayer exercised ordinary business care and prudence and was nevertheless unable to file the return within the prescribed time, then the delay is due to a reasonable cause. A failure to pay will be considered to be due to reasonable cause to the extent that the taxpayer has made a satisfactory showing that the taxpayer exercised ordinary business care and prudence in providing for payment of the tax liability and was nevertheless either unable to pay the tax or would suffer an undue hardship (as described in 26 CFR 1.6161-1(b)) if paid on the due date. In determining whether the taxpayer was unable to pay the tax in spite of the exercise of ordinary business care and prudence in providing for payment of a tax liability, consideration will be given to all the facts and circumstances of the taxpayer's financial situation, including the amount and nature of the taxpayer's expenditures in light of the income (or other amounts) the taxpayer could, at the time of such expenditures, reasonably expect to receive prior to the date prescribed for the payment of the tax. Thus, for example, a taxpayer who incurs lavish or extravagant living expenses in an amount such that the remainder of assets and anticipated income will be insufficient to pay the tax, has not exercised ordinary business care and prudence in providing for the payment of a tax liability. Further, a taxpayer who invests funds in speculative or illiquid assets has not exercised ordinary business care and prudence in providing for the payment of a tax liability unless, at the time of the investment, the remainder of the taxpayer's assets and estimated income will be sufficient to pay the tax or it can be reasonably foreseen that the speculative or illiquid investment made by the taxpayer can be utilized (by sale or as security for a loan) to realize sufficient funds to satisfy the tax liability. A taxpayer will be considered to have exercised ordinary business care and prudence if such taxpayer made reasonable efforts to conserve sufficient assets in marketable form to satisfy a tax liability and nevertheless was unable to pay all or a portion of the tax when it became due.

(d) Penalty imposed on net amount due—(1) Credits against the tax. The amount of tax required to be shown on the return for purposes of section 6651(a)(1) and the amount shown as tax on the return for purposes of section 6651(a)(2) shall be reduced by the amount of any part of the tax which is paid on or before the date prescribed for payment of the tax and by the amount of any credit against the tax which may be claimed on the return.

(2) Partial payments. (i) The amount of tax required to be shown on the return for purposes of section 6651(a)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code shall, for the purpose of computing the addition for any month, be reduced by the amount of any part of the tax which is paid after the date prescribed for payment and on or before the first day of such month, and

(ii) The amount of tax stated in the notice and demand for purposes of section 6651(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code shall, for the purpose of computing the addition for any month, be reduced by the amount of any part of the tax which is paid before the first day of such month.

(e) No addition to tax if fraud penalty assessed. No addition to the tax under section 6651 of the Internal Revenue Code shall be assessed with respect to an underpayment of tax if an addition to the tax for fraud is assessed with respect to the same underpayment under section 6653(b). See section 6653(d) of the Internal Revenue Code.

(26 U.S.C. 6651)

[T.D. ATF-251, 52 FR 19314, May 22, 1987, as amended by T.D ATF-301, 55 FR 47614, Nov. 14, 1990; T.D. ATF-353, 59 FR 2522, Jan. 18, 1994; T.D. ATF-450, 66 FR 29025, May 29, 2001; T.D. TTB-79, 74 FR 37424, July 28, 2009]

§70.97   Failure to pay tax.

(a) Negligence—(1) General. If any part of any underpayment (as defined in paragraph (d) of this section) is due to negligence or disregard of rules or regulations, there shall be added to the tax an amount equal to the sum of 5 percent of the underpayment, and an amount equal to 50 percent of the interest payable under section 6601 of the Internal Revenue Code with respect to the portion of such underpayment which is attributable to negligence for the period beginning on the last date prescribed by law for payment of such underpayment (determined without regard to any extension) and ending on the date of the assessment of the tax (or if earlier, the date or the payment of the tax).

(2) Underpayment taken into account reduced by a portion attributable to fraud. There shall not be taken into account under paragraph (a) of this section any portion of an underpayment attributable to fraud with respect to which a penalty is imposed under paragraph (b) of this section.

(3) Negligence. For purposes of paragraph (a) of this section, the term “negligence” includes any failure to make a reasonable attempt to comply with the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, and the term “disregard” includes any careless, reckless, or intentional disregard.

(4) The provisions of paragraph (a) apply to returns the due date for which (determined without regard to extensions) is after December 31, 1986.

(b) Fraud—(1) General. If any part of any underpayment (as defined in paragraph (d) of this section) of tax required to be shown on a return is due to fraud, there shall be added to the tax an amount equal to 50 percent of the portion of the underpayment which is attributable to fraud and an amount equal to 50 percent of the interest payable under section 6601 of the Internal Revenue Code with respect to such portion for the period beginning on the last day prescribed by law for payment of such underpayment (determined without regard to any extension) and ending on the date of the assessment of the tax or, if earlier, the date of the payment of the tax.

(2) The provisions of paragraph (b) of this section, apply to returns the due date for which (determined without regard to extensions) is on or before December 31, 1986.

(c) Fraud—(1) General. If any part of any underpayment (as defined in paragraph (d) of this section) of tax required to be shown on a return is due to fraud, there shall be added to the tax an amount equal to the sum of 75 percent of the portion of the underpayment which is attributable to fraud and an amount equal to 50 percent of the interest payable under section 6601 of the Internal Revenue Code with respect to such portion for the period beginning on the last day prescribed by law for payment of such underpayment (determined without regard to any extension) and ending on the date of the assessment of the tax or, if earlier, the date of the payment of the tax.

(2) Determination of portion attributable to fraud. If the appropriate TTB officer establishes that any portion of an underpayment is attributable to fraud, the entire underpayment shall be treated as attributable to fraud, except with respect to any portion of the underpayment which the taxpayer establishes is not attributable to fraud.

(3) The provisions of this paragraph (c) apply to returns the due date for which (determined without regard to extensions) is after December 31, 1986.

(d) Definition of underpayment. For purposes of this section, the term underpayment means the amount by which such tax imposed by the Internal Revenue Code exceeds the excess of—

(1) The sum of,

(i) The amount shown as the tax by the taxpayer upon the taxpayers return (determined without regard to any credit for an overpayment for any prior period, and without regard to any adjustment under authority of sections 6205(a) and 6413(a) of the Internal Revenue Code), if a return was made by the taxpayer within the time prescribed for filing such return (determined with regard to any extension of time for such filing) and an amount was shown as the tax by the taxpayer thereon, plus;

(ii) Any amount, not shown on the return, paid in respect of such tax, over—

(2) The amount of rebates made. For purposes of paragraph (d) of this section, the term rebate means so much of an abatement, credit, refund, or other repayment, as was made on the ground that the tax imposed was less than the excess of the amount specified in paragraph (d)(1) of this section over the rebates previously made.

(e) No delinquency penalty if fraud assessed. If any penalty is assessed under paragraph (b) or (c) of this section (relating to fraud) for an underpayment of tax which is required to be shown on a return, no penalty under section 6651 of the Internal Revenue Code (relating to failure to file such return or pay tax) shall be assessed with respect to the portion of the underpayment which is attributable to fraud.

(f) Failure to pay stamp tax. Any person who willfully fails to pay any tax which is payable by stamp or willfully attempts in any manner to evade or defeat any such tax or payment thereof, shall, in addition to other penalties provided by law, be liable to a penalty of 50 percent of the total amount of the underpayment of the tax.

(g) Additional penalty. For additional penalty for failure to pay certain liquor and tobacco taxes, see 27 CFR 70.102.

(26 U.S.C. 6653)

[T.D. ATF-6, 38 FR 32445, Nov. 26, 1973, as amended by T.D. ATF-353, 59 FR 2522, Jan. 18, 1994]

§70.98   Penalty for underpayment of deposits.

(a) General rule. If any person is required by the provisions of 26 U.S.C. enforced and administered by the Bureau or regulations prescribed thereunder to deposit any tax in a government depository that is authorized under 26 U.S.C. 6302(c) to receive the deposit, and fails to deposit the tax within the time prescribed therefor, a penalty shall be imposed on such person unless the failure is shown to be due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect. The penalty shall be:

(1) For penalties assessed before October 22, 1986, 5 percent of the amount of the underpayment without regard to the period during which the underpayment continues.

(2) For penalties assessed after October 21, 1986, on deposits of taxes required to be made before January 1, 1990, 10 percent of the amount of the underpayment without regard to the period during which the underpayment continues.

(3) For deposits of taxes required to be made after December 31, 1989.

(i) 2 percent of the amount of the underpayment if the failure is for not more than 5 days,

(ii) 5 percent of the amount of the underpayment if the failure is for more than 5 days but not more than 15 days,

(iii) 10 percent of the amount of the underpayment if the failure is for more than 15 days,

(iv) 15 percent of the amount of the underpayment if the tax is not deposited before the earlier of:

(A) The day 10 days after the date of the first delinquency notice to the taxpayer under section 6303, or

(B) The day on which notice and demand for immediate payment is given under 26 U.S.C. 6862 or the last sentence of 26 U.S.C. 6331(a).

For purposes of this section, the term “underpayment” means the amount of tax required to be deposited less the amount, if any, that was deposited on or before the date prescribed therefor. Section 7502(e) of the Internal Revenue Code applies in determining the date a deposit is made.

(b) Assertion of reasonable cause. To show that the underpayment was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, a taxpayer must make an affirmative showing of all facts alleged as a reasonable cause in a written statement containing a declaration that it is made under the penalties of perjury. The statement must be filed with the appropriate TTB officer. If the appropriate TTB officer determines that the underpayment was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, the penalty will not be imposed.

(26 U.S.C. 6656)

[T.D. ATF-251, 52 FR 19314, May 22, 1987, as amended by T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47615, Nov. 14, 1990; T.D. ATF-353, 59 FR 2523, Jan. 18, 1994]

§70.100   Penalty for fraudulently claiming drawback.

Whenever any person fraudulently claims or seeks to obtain an allowance of drawback on goods, wares, or merchandise on which no internal revenue tax shall have been paid, or fraudulently claims any greater allowance of drawback than the tax actually paid, that person shall forfeit triple the amount wrongfully or fraudulently claimed or sought to be obtained, or the sum of $500, at the election of the appropriate TTB officer.

(26 U.S.C. 7304)

[T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47615, Nov. 14, 1990]

§70.101   Bad checks.

If any check or money order in payment of any amount receivable under Title 26 of the United States Code is not duly paid, in addition to any other penalties provided by law, there shall be paid as a penalty by the person who tendered such check, upon notice and demand, in the same manner as tax, an amount equal to 1 percent of the amount of such check, except that if the amount of such check is less than $500, the penalty under this section shall be $5 or the amount of such check, whichever is the lesser. This section shall not apply if the person establishes to the satisfaction of the appropriate TTB officer that such check was tendered in good faith and that such person had reasonable cause to believe that such check would be duly paid.

(26 U.S.C. 6657)

[T.D. ATF-251, 52 FR 19314, May 22, 1987. Redesignated and amended by T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47606, 47615, Nov. 14, 1990]

§70.102   Coordination with title 11.

(a) Certain failures to pay tax. No addition to the tax shall be made under section 6651 of the Internal Revenue Code for failure to make timely payment of tax with respect to a period during which a case is pending under Title 11 of the United States Code—

(1) If such tax was incurred by the estate and the failure occurred pursuant to an order of the court finding probable insufficiency of funds of the estate to pay administrative expenses, or

(2) If such tax was incurred by the debtor before the earlier of the order for relief or (in the involuntary case) the appointment of a trustee and

(i) The petition was filed before the due date prescribed by law (including extensions) for filing a return of such tax, or

(ii) The date for making the addition to the tax occurs on or after the day on which the petition was filed.

(b) Exception for collected taxes. Paragraph (a) of this section shall not apply to any liability for an addition to the tax which arises from the failure to pay or deposit a tax withheld or collected from others and required to be paid to the United States.

(26 U.S.C. 6658)

[T.D. ATF-251, 52 FR 19314, May 22, 1987. Redesignated by T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47606, Nov. 14, 1990]

§70.103   Failure to pay tax.

Whoever fails to pay any tax imposed by Part I of Subchapter A of Chapter 51 of the Internal Revenue Code (liquor taxes) or by Chapter 52 (tobacco taxes) at the time prescribed shall, in addition to any other penalty provided in the Internal Revenue Code, be liable to a penalty of 5 percent of the tax due but unpaid. For additional penalties for failure to pay tax, see 27 CFR 70.97.

(26 U.S.C. 5684(a) and 5761(b))

[T.D. ATF-251, 52 FR 19314, May 22, 1987. Redesignated by T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47606, Nov. 14, 1990]

Assessable Penalties

§70.111   Rules for application of assessable penalties.

(a) Penalty assessed as tax. The penalties and liabilities provided by Subchapter B, Chapter 68, of the Internal Revenue Code shall be assessed and collected in the same manner as taxes. Except as otherwise provided, any reference in the Internal Revenue Code to “tax” imposed thereunder shall also be deemed to refer to the penalties and liabilities provided by Subchapter B of Chapter 68.

(b) Person defined. For purposes of Subchapter B of Chapter 68 of the Internal Revenue Code, the term “person” includes an officer or employee of a corporation, or a member or employee of a partnership, who as such officer, employee, or member is under a duty to perform the act in respect of which the violation occurs.

(26 U.S.C. 6671)

[T.D. ATF-251, 52 FR 19314, May 22, 1987. Redesignated by T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47606, Nov. 14, 1990]

§70.112   Failure to collect and pay over tax, or attempt to evade or defeat tax.

Any person required to collect, truthfully account for, and pay over any tax imposed by the Internal Revenue Code who willfully fails to collect such tax, or truthfully account for and pay over such tax, or willfully attempts in any manner to evade or defeat any such tax or the payment thereof, shall, in addition to other penalties, be liable to a penalty equal to the total amount of the tax evaded, or not collected, or not accounted for and paid over. The penalty imposed by section 6672 of the Internal Revenue Code applies only to the collection, accounting for, or payment over of taxes imposed on a person other than the person who is required to collect, account for, and pay over such taxes. No penalty under section 6653 of the Internal Revenue Code, relating to failure to pay tax, shall be imposed for any offense to which this section is applicable.

(26 U.S.C. 6672)

[T.D. ATF-251, 52 FR 19314, May 22, 1987. Redesignated by T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47606, Nov. 14, 1990]

§70.113   Penalty for failure to supply taxpayer identification number.

(a) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, any person who is required by the regulations under section 6109 of the Internal Revenue Code to include the taxpayer identification number in any return, statement, or other document, fails to comply with such requirement at the time prescribed by such regulations, such person shall pay a penalty of $50 for each such failure, except that the total amount imposed on such person for all such failures during any calendar year shall not exceed $100,000. For returns having a due date (determined without regard to extensions) after December 31, 1986, the total amount imposed on such person for all such failures during any calendar year shall not exceed $100,000. Such penalty shall be paid in the same manner as tax upon the issuance of a notice and demand therefor.

(b) Reasonable cause. If any person who is required by the regulations under section 6109 of the Internal Revenue Code to supply a taxpayer identification number fails to comply with such requirement at the time prescribed by such regulations, but establishes to the satisfaction of the appropriate TTB officer that such failure was due to reasonable cause, the penalty set forth in paragraph (a) of this section shall not apply.

(c) Persons required to supply taxpayer identification numbers. For regulations under section 6109 of the Internal Revenue Code relating to persons required to supply an identifying number, see the regulations relating to the particular tax.

(26 U.S.C. 6723)

[T.D. ATF-251, 52 FR 19314, May 22, 1987. Redesignated and amended by T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47606, 47615, Nov. 14, 1990]

§70.114   Penalties for aiding and abetting understatement of tax liability.

(a) Imposition of penalty. Any person—(1) Who aids or assists in, procures, or advises with respect to, the preparation or presentation of any portion of a return, affidavit, claim, or other document in connection with any matter arising under the internal revenue laws,

(2) Who knows that such portion will be used in connection with any material matter arising under the internal revenue laws, and

(3) Who knows that such portion (if so used) will result in an understatement of the liability for tax of another person, shall pay a penalty with respect to each such document in the amount determined under paragraph (b).

(b) Amount of penalty—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, the amount of the penalty imposed by paragraph (a) of this section shall be $1,000.

(2) Corporations. If the return, affidavit, claim, or other document relates to the tax liability of a corporation, the amount of the penalty imposed by paragraph (a) of this section shall be $10,000.

(3) Only one penalty per person per period. If any person is subject to a penalty under paragraph (a) of this section with respect to any document relating to any taxpayer for any taxable period (or where there is no taxable period, any taxable event), such person shall not be subject to a penalty under paragraph (a) of this section with respect to any other document relating to such taxpayer for such taxable period (or event).

(c) Activities of subordinates—(1) General. For purpose of paragraph (a) of this section, the term “procures” includes,

(i) Ordering (or otherwise causing) a subordinate to do an act, and

(ii) Knowing of, and not attempting to prevent, participation by a subordinate in an act.

(2) For purposes of paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the term “subordinate” means any other person (whether or not a director, officer, employee, or agent of the taxpayer involved) over whose activities the person has direction, supervision, or control.

(d) Taxpayer not required to have knowledge. Paragraph (a) shall apply whether or not the understatement is with the knowledge or consent of the persons authorized or required to present the return, affidavit, claim, or other document.

(e) Certain actions not treated as aid or assistance. For purposes of paragraph (a)(1) of this section, a person furnishing typing, reproducing, or other mechanical assistance with respect to a document shall not be treated as having aided or assisted in the preparation of such document by reason of such assistance.

(f) Penalty in addition to other penalties. The penalty imposed by this section shall be in addition to any other penalty provided by law.

(26 U.S.C. 6701)

[T.D. ATF-251, 52 FR 19314, May 22, 1987. Redesignated by T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47606, Nov. 14, 1990]

Need assistance?