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Title 27Chapter ISubchapter FPart 70Subpart D → Subject Group


Title 27: Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms
PART 70—PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION
Subpart D—Collection of Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax


Limitations

Limitations on Assessment and Collection

§70.221   Period of limitations upon assessment.

(a) The amount of any tax imposed by the Internal Revenue Code (other than a tax collected by means of stamps) shall be assessed within 3 years after the return was filed. For rules applicable in cases where the return is filed prior to the due date thereof, see section 6501(b) of the Internal Revenue Code. In the case of taxes payable by stamps, assessment shall be made at any time after the tax becomes due and before the expiration of 3 years after the date on which any part of the tax was paid. For exceptions and additional rules, see subsections (b) and (c) of section 6501 of the Internal Revenue Code.

(b) No proceeding in court without assessment for the collection of any tax shall be begun after the expiration of the applicable period for the assessment of such tax.

(26 U.S.C. 6501)

[T.D. ATF-251, 52 FR 19314, May 22, 1987. Redesignated by T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47606, Nov. 14, 1990]

§70.222   Time return deemed filed for purposes of determining limitations.

(a) Early Return. Any return filed prior to the last day prescribed by law or regulations for the filing thereof (determined without regard to any extension of time for filing) shall be considered as filed on such last day.

(b) Returns executed by appropriate TTB officers. The execution of a return by an appropriate TTB officer under the authority of section 6020(b) of the Internal Revenue Code does not start the running of the statutory period of limitations on assessment and collection.

(26 U.S.C. 6501)

[T.D. ATF-251, 52 FR 19314, May 22, 1987. Redesignated by T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47606, Nov. 14, 1990; T.D. ATF-450, 66 FR 29028, May 29, 2001]

§70.223   Exceptions to general period of limitations on assessment and collection.

(a) False return. In the case of a false or fraudulent return with intent to evade any tax, the tax may be assessed, or a proceeding in court for the collection of such tax may be begun without assessment, at any time after such false or fraudulent return is filed.

(b) Willful attempt to evade tax. In the case of a willful attempt in any manner to defeat or evade any tax imposed by provisions of 26 U.S.C. enforced and administered by the Bureau, the tax may be assessed, or a proceeding in court for the collection of such tax may be begun without assessment, at any time.

(c) No return. In the case of a failure to file a return, the tax may be assessed, or a proceeding in court for the collection of such tax may be begun without assessment, at any time after the date prescribed for filing the return.

(d) Extension by agreement. The time prescribed by 26 U.S.C. 6501 for the assessment of any tax imposed by provisions of 26 U.S.C. enforced and administered by the Bureau may, prior to the expiration of such time, be extended for any period of time agreed upon in writing by the taxpayer and the appropriate TTB officer. The extension shall become effective when the agreement has been executed by both parties. The period agreed upon may be extended by subsequent agreements in writing made before the expiration of the period previously agreed upon.

(26 U.S.C. 6501)

[T.D. ATF-251, 52 FR 19314, May 22, 1987. Redesignated and amended by T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47606, 47641, Nov. 14, 1990; T.D. ATF-331, 57 FR 40328, Sept. 3, 1992]

§70.224   Collection after assessment.

(a) Length of period—(1) General rule. In any case in which a tax has been assessed within the statutory period of limitation properly applicable thereto, a proceeding in court to collect such tax may be begun, or levy for the collection of such tax may be made, within 10 years after the assessment thereof.

(2) Extension by agreement. (i) The 10-year period of limitation on collection after assessment of any tax may, prior to the expiration thereof, be extended for any period of time agreed upon in writing by the taxpayer and the appropriate TTB officer. Whenever necessary to protect the revenue, such officer may also execute a written agreement with the taxpayer to extend the period of limitation. The extension becomes effective upon execution of the agreement by both the taxpayer and such officer.

(ii) The period of limitation on collection after assessment of any tax (including any extension of such period) may be extended after the expiration thereof if there has been a levy on any part of the taxpayer's property prior to such expiration and if the extension is agreed upon in writing prior to a release of the levy under the provisions of 26 U.S.C. 6343. An extension under this paragraph has the same effect as an agreement made prior to the expiration of the period of limitation on collection after assessment, and during the period of the extension collection may be enforced as to all property or rights to property owned by the taxpayer whether or not seized under the levy which was released.

(iii) Any period agreed upon under the provisions of paragraph (a)(1) of this section may be extended by subsequent agreements in writing made before the expiration of the period previously agreed upon.

(3) If a timely proceeding in court for the collection of a tax is commenced, the period during which such tax may be collected by levy shall be extended and shall not expire until the liability for the tax (or a judgment against the taxpayer arising from such liability) is satisfied or becomes unenforceable.

(b) Date when levy is considered made. The date on which a levy on property or rights to property is made is the date on which the notice of seizure provided in 26 U.S.C. 6335(a) is given.

(26 U.S.C. 6502)

[T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47641, Nov. 14, 1990, as amended by T.D. ATF-450, 66 FR 29028, May 29, 2001]

§70.225   Suspension of running of period of limitation; assets of taxpayer in control or custody of court.

Where all or substantially all of the assets of a taxpayer are in the control or custody of the court in any proceeding before any court of the United States, or any State of the United States, or the District of Columbia, the period of limitations on collection after assessment prescribed in 26 U.S.C. 6502 is suspended with respect to the outstanding amount due on the assessment for the period such assets are in the control or custody of the court, and for 6 months thereafter.

(26 U.S.C. 6503)

[T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47642, Nov. 14, 1990]

§70.226   Suspension of running of period of limitation; taxpayer outside of United States.

The running of the period of limitations on collection after assessment prescribed in 26 U.S.C. 6502 (relating to collection after assessment) is suspended for the period during which the taxpayer is absent from the United States if such period is a continuous period of absence from the United States extending for 6 months or more. In a case where the running of the period of limitations has been suspended under the first sentence of this paragraph and at the time of the taxpayer's return to the United States the period of limitations would expire before the expiration of 6 months from the date of the taxpayer's return, the period of limitations shall not expire until after 6 months from the date of the taxpayer's return. The taxpayer will be deemed to be absent from the United States for purposes of this section if the taxpayer is generally and substantially absent from the United States, even though the taxpayer makes casual temporary visits during the period.

(26 U.S.C. 6503)

[T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47642, Nov. 14, 1990]

§70.227   Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party.

The running of the period of limitations on collection after assessment prescribed in 26 U.S.C. 6502 (relating to collection after assessment) shall be suspended for a period equal to a period beginning on the date property (including money) is wrongfully seized or received by an appropriate TTB officer and ending on the date 30 days after the date on which the appropriate TTB officer returns the property pursuant to 26 U.S.C. 6343(b) (relating to authority to return property) or the date 30 days after the date on which a judgment secured pursuant to 26 U.S.C. 7426 (relating to civil actions by persons other than taxpayers) with respect to such property becomes final. The running of the period of limitations on collection after assessment shall be suspended under this section only with respect to the amount of such assessment which is equal to the amount of money or the value of specific property returned.

(26 U.S.C. 6503)

[T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47642, Nov. 14, 1990, as amended by T.D. ATF-450, 66 FR 29028, May 29, 2001]

Limitations on Liens

Source: Sections 70.231 through 70.234 added by T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47642, Nov. 14, 1990, unless otherwise noted.

§70.231   Protection for certain interests even though notice filed.

(a) Securities. Even though a notice of a lien imposed by 26 U.S.C. 6321 is filed in accordance with §70.148 of this part, the lien is not valid with respect to a security (as defined in §70.143(d) of this part) against:

(1) A purchaser (as defined in §70.143(f) of this part) of the security who at the time of purchase did not have actual notice or knowledge (as defined in §70.144(a) of this part) of the existence of the lien;

(2) A holder of a security interest (as defined in §70.143(a) of this part) in the security who did not have actual notice or knowledge (as defined in §70.144(a) of this part) of the existence of the lien at the time the security interest came into existence or at the time such security interest was acquired from a previous holder for a consideration in money or money's worth (as defined in §70.143(a) of this part); or

(3) A transferee of an interest protected under paragraph (a) (1) or (2) of this section to the same extent the lien is invalid against the transferor to the transferee. For purposes of this paragraph, no person can improve that person's position with respect to the lien by reacquiring the interest from an intervening purchaser or holder of a security interest against whom the lien is invalid.

(b) Motor vehicles—(1) In general. Even though a notice of a lien imposed by 26 U.S.C. 6321 is filed in accordance with §70.148 of this part, the lien is not valid against a purchaser (as defined in §70.143(f) of this part) of a motor vehicle (as defined in §70.143(c) of this part) if:

(i) At the time of purchase, the purchaser did not have actual notice or knowledge (as defined in §70.144(a) of this part) of the existence of the lien, and

(ii) Before the purchaser obtains such notice or knowledge, the purchaser has acquired actual possession of the motor vehicle and has not thereafter relinquished actual possession to the seller or seller's agent.

(2) Cross reference. For provisions relating to additional circumstances in which the lien imposed by 26 U.S.C. 6321 may not be valid against the purchaser of tangible personal property (including a motor vehicle) purchased at retail, see paragraph (c) of this section.

(c) Personal property purchased at retail—(1) In general. Even though a notice of a lien imposed by 26 U.S.C. 6321 is filed (with respect to any tax imposed under the provisions of 26 U.S.C. enforced and administered by the Bureau) in accordance with §70.148 of this part, the lien is not valid against a purchaser (as defined in §70.143(f) of this part) of tangible personal property purchased at a retail sale (as defined in paragraph (c)(2) of this section) unless at the time of purchase the purchaser intends the purchase to (or knows that the purchase will) hinder, evade, or defeat the collection of any tax imposed by the provisions of 26 U.S.C. enforced and administered by the Bureau.

(2) Definition of retail sale. For purposes of paragraph (c) of this section, the term “retail sale” means a sale, made in the ordinary course of the seller's trade or business, of tangible personal property of which the seller is the owner. Such term includes a sale in customary retail quantities by a seller who is going out of business, but does not include a bulk sale or an auction sale in which goods are offered in quantities substantially greater than are customary in the ordinary course of the seller's trade or business or an auction sale of goods the owner of which is not in the business of selling such goods.

(d) Personal property purchased in casual sale—(1) In general. Even though a notice of a lien imposed by 26 U.S.C. 6321 is filed in accordance with §70.148 of this part, the lien is not valid against a purchaser (as defined in §70.143(f) of this part) of household goods, personal effects, or other tangible personal property of a type described in §70.241 of this part (which includes wearing apparel, school books, fuel, provisions, furniture, arms for personal use, livestock, and poultry (whether or not the seller is the head of a family); and books and tools of a trade, business, or profession (whether or not the trade, business, or profession of the seller)), purchased, other than for resale, in a casual sale for less than $250 (excluding interest and expenses described in §70.147 of this part). For purposes of this paragraph, a casual sale is a sale not made in the ordinary course of the seller's trade or business.

(2) Limitation. This paragraph applies only if the purchaser does not have actual notice or knowledge (as defined in §70.144(a) of this part):

(i) Of the existence of the tax lien, or

(ii) That the sale is one of a series of sales.

For purposes of paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section, a sale is one of a series of sales if the seller plans to dispose of, in separate transactions, substantially all of the seller's household goods, personal effects, and other tangible personal property described in §70.241 of this part.

(e) Personal property subject to possessory liens. Even though a notice of a lien imposed by 26 U.S.C. 6321 is filed in accordance with §70.148 of this part, the lien is not valid against a holder of a lien on tangible personal property which under local law secures the reasonable price of the repair or improvement of the property if the property is, and has been, continuously in the possession of the holder of the lien from the time the possessory lien arose. For example, if local law gives an automobile mechanic the right to retain possession of an automobile the mechanic has repaired as security for payment of the repair bill and the mechanic retains continuous possession of the automobile until such lien is satisfied, a tax lien filed in accordance with 26 U.S.C 6323(f)(1) which has attached to the automobile will not be valid to the extent of the reasonable price of the repairs. It is immaterial that the notice of tax lien was filed before the mechanic undertook the work or that the mechanic knew of the lien before undertaking the work.

(f) Real property tax and special assessment liens. Even though a notice of a lien imposed by 26 U.S.C. 6321 is filed in accordance with §70.148 of this part, the lien is not valid against the holder of another lien upon the real property (regardless of when such other lien arises), if such other lien is entitled under local law to priority over security interests in real property which are prior in time and if such other lien on real property secures payment of:

(1) A tax of general application levied by any taxing authority based upon the value of the property, or

(2) A special assessment imposed directly upon the property by any taxing authority, if the assessment is imposed for the purpose of defraying the cost of any public improvement; or

(3) Charges for utilities or public services furnished to the property by the United States, a State or political subdivision thereof, or an instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing.

(g) Residential property subject to a mechanic's lien for certain repairs and improvements. Even though a notice of lien imposed by 26 U.S.C. 6321 is filed in accordance with §70.148 of this part, the lien is not valid against a mechanic's lienor (as defined in §70.143(b) of this part) who holds a lien for the repair or improvement of a personal residence if:

(1) The residence is occupied by the owner and contains no more than four dwelling units, and

(2) The contract price on the prime contract with the owner for the repair or improvement (excluding interest and expenses described in §70.147 of this part) is not more than $1,000. For purposes of this paragraph, the amounts of subcontracts under the prime contract with the owner are not to be taken into consideration for purposes of computing the $1,000 prime contract price. It is immaterial that the notice of tax lien was filed before the contractor undertakes the work or that the contractor knew of the lien before undertaking the work.

(h) Attorney's liens—(1) In general. Even though notice of a lien imposed by 26 U.S.C. 6321 is filed in accordance with §70.148 of this part, the lien is not valid against an attorney who, under local law, holds a lien upon, or a contract enforceable against, a judgment or other amount in settlement of a claim or of a cause of action. The priority afforded an attorney's lien under this paragraph shall not exceed the amount of the attorney's reasonable compensation for obtaining the judgment or procuring the settlement. For purposes of this paragraph, reasonable compensation means the amount customarily allowed under local law for an attorney's service for litigating or settling a similar case or administrative claim. However, reasonable compensation shall be determined on the basis of the facts and circumstances of each individual case. It is immaterial that the notice of tax lien is filed before the attorney undertakes the work or that the attorney knows of the tax lien before undertaking the work. This paragraph does not apply to an attorney's lien which may arise from the defense of a claim or cause of action against a taxpayer except to the extent such lien is held upon a judgment or other amount arising from the adjudication or settlement of a counterclaim in favor of the taxpayer. In case of suits against the taxpayer, see §70.150(d)(2) of this part for rules relating to the subordination of the tax lien to facilitate tax collection.

(2) Claim or cause of action against the United States. Paragraph (h)(1) of this section does not apply to an attorney's lien with respect to:

(i) Any judgment or other fund resulting from the successful litigation or settlement of an administrative claim or cause of action against the United States to the extent that the United States, under any legal or equitable right, offsets its liability under the judgment or settlement against any liability of the taxpayer to the United States, or

(ii) Any amount credited against any liability of the taxpayer in accordance with 26 U.S.C. 6402.

(i) Certain insurance contracts. Even though a notice of a lien imposed by 26 U.S.C. 6321 (with respect to any tax imposed under the provisions of 26 U.S.C. enforced and administered by the Bureau) is filed in accordance with §70.148 of this part, the lien is not valid with respect to a life insurance, endowment, or annuity contract, against an organization which is the insurer under the contract, at any time:

(1) Before the insuring organization has actual notice or knowledge (as defined in §70.144(a) of this part) of the existence of the tax lien.

(2) After the insuring organization has actual notice or knowledge of the lien (as defined in §70.144(a) of this part) with respect to advances (including contractual interest thereon as provided in §70.147(a) of this part) required to be made automatically to maintain the contract in force under an agreement entered into before the insuring organization had such actual notice or knowledge, or

(3) After the satisfaction of a levy pursuant to 26 U.S.C. 6332(b), unless and until the appropriate TTB officer delivers to the insuring organization a notice (for example, another notice of levy, a letter, etc.), executed after the date of such satisfaction, that the lien exists.

Delivery of the notice described in paragraph (i)(3) of this section may be made by any means, including regular mail, and delivery of the notice shall be effective only from the time of actual receipt of the notification by the insuring organization. The provisions of this paragraph are applicable to matured as well as unmatured insurance contracts.

(j) Passbook loans—(1) In general. Even though a notice of a lien imposed by 26 U.S.C. 6321 is filed in accordance with §70.148 of this part, the lien is not valid against an institution described in 26 U.S.C. 581 or 591 to the extent of any loan made by the institution which is secured by a savings deposit, share, or other account evidenced by a passbook (as defined in paragraph (j)(2) of this section) if the institution has been continuously in possession of the passbook from the time the loan is made. This paragraph applies only to a loan made without actual notice or knowledge (as defined in §70.144(a) of this part) of the existence of the lien. Even though an original passbook loan is made without actual notice or knowledge of the existence of the lien, this paragraph does not apply to any additional loan made after knowledge of the lien is acquired by the institution even if it continues to retain the passbook from the time the original passbook loan is made.

(2) Definition of passbook. For purposes of paragraph (j) of this section, the term “passbook” includes:

(i) Any tangible evidence of a savings deposit, share, or other account which, when in the possession of the bank or other savings institution, will prevent a withdrawal from the account to the extent of the loan balance, and

(ii) Any procedure or system, such as an automatic data processing system, the use of which by the bank or other savings institution will prevent a withdrawal from the account to the extent of the loan balance.

(26 U.S.C. 6323)

§70.232   Protection for commercial transactions financing agreements.

(a) In general. Even though a notice of a lien imposed by 26 U.S.C. 6321 is filed in accordance with §70.148 of this part, the lien is not valid with respect to a security interest which:

(1) Comes into existence after the tax lien filing.

(2) Is in qualified property covered by the terms of a commercial transactions financing agreement entered into before the tax lien filing, and

(3) Is protected under local law against a judgment lien arising, as of the time of the tax lien filing, out of an unsecured obligation.

See §70.143 (a) and (e) of this part for definitions of the terms “security interest” and “tax lien filing,” respectively. For purposes of this section, a judgment lien is a lien held by a judgment lien creditor as defined in §70.143(g) of this part.

(b) Commercial transactions financing agreement. For purposes of this section, the term “commercial transactions financing agreement” means a written agreement entered into by a person in the course of such person's trade or business:

(1) To make loans to the taxpayer (whether or not at the option of the person agreeing to make such loans) to be secured by commercial financing security acquired by the taxpayer in the ordinary course of the taxpayer's trade or business, or

(2) To purchase commercial financing security, other than inventory, acquired by the taxpayer in the ordinary course of the taxpayer's trade or business.

Such an agreement qualifies as a commercial transactions financing agreement only with respect to loans or purchases made under the agreement before the 46th day after the date of tax lien filing or the time when the lender or purchaser has actual notice or knowledge (as defined in §70.144(a) of this part) of the tax lien filing, if earlier. For purposes of this paragraph, a loan or purchase is considered to have been made in the course of the lender's or purchaser's trade or business if such person is in the business of financing commercial transactions (such as a bank or commercial factor) or if the agreement is incidental to the conduct of such person's trade or business. For example, if a manufacturer finances the accounts receivable of one of its customers, the manufacturer is considered to engage in such financing in the course of its trade or business. The extent of the priority of the lender or purchaser over the tax lien is the amount of the disbursement made before the 46th day after the date the notice of tax lien is filed, or made before the day (before such 46th day) on which the lender or purchaser has actual notice or knowledge of the filing of the notice of the tax lien.

(c) Commercial financing security—(1) In general. The term “commercial financing security” means:

(i) Paper of a kind ordinarily arising in commercial transactions,

(ii) Accounts receivable (as defined in paragraph (c)(2) of this section),

(iii) Mortgages on real property, and

(iv) Inventory.

For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “paper of a kind ordinarily arising in commercial transactions” in general includes any written document customarily used in commercial transactions. For example, such written documents include paper giving contract rights (as defined in paragraph (c)(2) of this section), chattel paper, documents of title to personal property, and negotiable instruments or securities. The term “commercial financing security” does not include general intangibles such as patents or copyrights. A mortgage on real estate (including a deed of trust, contract for sale, and similar instrument) may be commercial financing security if the taxpayer has an interest in the mortgage as a mortgagee or assignee. The term “commercial financing security” does not include a mortgage when the taxpayer is the mortgagor of realty owned by the taxpayer. For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “inventory” includes raw materials and goods in process as well as property held by the taxpayer primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of the taxpayer's trade or business.

(2) Definitions. For purposes of §§70.143 and 70.146 of this part, and this section:

(i) A contract right is any right to payment under a contract not yet earned by performance and not evidenced by an instrument or chattel paper, and

(ii) An account receivable is any right to payment for goods sold or leased or for services rendered which is not evidenced by an instrument or chattel paper.

(d) Qualified property. For purposes of paragraph (a) of this section, qualified property consists solely of commercial financing security acquired by the taxpayer-debtor before the 46th day after the date of tax lien filing. Commercial financing security acquired before such day may be qualified property even though it is acquired by the taxpayer after the lender received actual notice or knowledge of the filing of the tax lien. For example, although the receipt of actual notice or knowledge of the filing of the notice of the tax lien has the effect of ending the period within which protected disbursements may be made to the taxpayer, property which is acquired by the taxpayer after the lender receives actual notice or knowledge of such filing and before such 46th day, which otherwise qualifies as commercial financing security, becomes commercial financing security to which the priority of the lender extends for loans made before the lender received the actual notice or knowledge. An account receivable (as defined in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section) is acquired by a taxpayer at the time, and to the extent, a right to payment is earned by performance. Chattel paper, documents of title, negotiable instruments, securities, and mortgages on real estate are acquired by a taxpayer when the taxpayer obtains rights in the paper or mortgage. Inventory is acquired by the taxpayer when title passes to the taxpayer. A contract right (as defined in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section) is acquired by a taxpayer when the contract is made. Indentifiable proceeds, which arise from the collection or disposition of qualified property by the taxpayer, are considered to be acquired at the time such qualified property is acquired if the secured party has a continuously perfected security interest in the proceeds under local law. The term “proceeds” includes whatever is received when collateral is sold, exchanged, or collected. For purposes of this paragraph, the term “identifiable proceeds” does not include money, checks and the like which have been commingled with other cash proceeds. Property acquired by the taxpayer after the 45th day following tax lien filing, by the expenditure of proceeds, is not qualified property.

(e) Purchaser treated as acquiring security interest. A person who purchases commercial financing security, other than inventory, pursuant to a commercial transactions financing agreement is treated, for purposes of this section, as having acquired a security interest in the commercial financing security. In the case of a bona fide purchase at a discount, a purchaser of commercial financing security who satisfies the requirements of this section has priority over the tax lien to the full extent of the security.

(26 U.S.C. 6323)

§70.233   Protection for real property construction or improvement financing agreements.

(a) In general. Even though a notice of a lien imposed by 26 U.S.C. 6321 is filed in accordance with §70.148 of this part, the lien is not valid with respect to a security interest which:

(1) Comes into existence after the tax lien filing,

(2) Is on qualified property covered by the terms of a real property construction or improvement financing agreement entered into before the tax lien filing, and

(3) Is protected under local law against a judgment lien arising, as of the time of tax lien filing, out of an unsecured obligation.

For purposes of this section, it is immaterial that the holder of the security interest had actual notice or knowledge of the lien at the time disbursements are made pursuant to such an agreement. See §70.143 (a) and (e) of this part for general definitions of the terms “security interest” and “tax lien filing.” For purposes of this section, a judgment lien is a lien held by a judgment lien creditor as defined in §70.143(g) of this part.

(b) Real property construction or improvement financing agreement. For purposes of this section, the term “real property construction or improvement financing agreement” means any written agreement to make cash disbursements (whether or not at the option of the party agreeing to make such disbursements):

(1) To finance the construction, improvement, or demolition of real property if the agreement provides for a security interest in the real property with respect to which the construction, improvement, or demolition has been or is to be made;

(2) To finance a contract to construct or improve, or demolish real property if the agreement provides for a security interest in the proceeds of the contract; or

(3) To finance the raising or harvesting of a farm crop or the raising of livestock or other animals if the agreement provides for a security interest in any property subject to the lien imposed by 26 U.S.C. 6321 at the time of tax lien filing, in the crop raised or harvested, or in the livestock or other animals raised.

For purposes of paragraphs (b) (1) and (2) of this section, construction or improvement may include demolition. For purposes of any agreement described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, the furnishing of goods and services is treated as the disbursement of cash.

(c) Qualified property. For purposes of this section, the term “qualified property” includes only:

(1) In the case of an agreement described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the real property with respect to which the construction or improvement has been or is to be made;

(2) In the case of an agreement described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, the proceeds of the contract to construct or improve real property; or

(3) In the case of an agreement described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, property subject to the lien imposed by 26 U.S.C. 6321 at the time of tax lien filing, the farm crop raised or harvested, or the livestock or other animals raised.

(26 U.S.C. 6323)

§70.234   Protection for obligatory disbursement agreements.

(a) In general. Even though a notice of a lien imposed by 26 U.S.C. 6321 is filed in accordance with §70.148 of this part, the lien is not valid with respect to security interest which:

(1) Comes into existence after the tax lien filing,

(2) Is in qualified property covered by the terms of an obligatory disbursement agreement entered into before the tax lien filing, and

(3) Is protected under local law against a judgment lien arising, as of the time of tax lien filing, out of an unsecured obligation.

See §70.143 (a) and (e) of this part for definitions of the terms “security interest” and “tax lien filing.” For purposes of this section, a judgment lien creditor as defined in §70.143(g) of this part.

(b) Obligatory disbursement agreement. For purposes of this section, the term “obligatory disbursement agreement” means a written agreement, entered into by a person in the course of the person's trade or business, to make disbursements. An agreement is treated as an obligatory disbursement agreement only with respect to disbursements which are required to be made by reason of the intervention of the rights of a person other than the taxpayer. The obligation to pay must be conditioned upon an event beyond the control of the obligor. For example, the provisions of this section are applicable where an issuing bank obligates itself to honor drafts or other demands for payment on a letter of credit and a bank, in good faith, relies upon that letter of credit in making advances. The provisions of this section are also applicable, for example, where a bonding company obligates itself to make payments to indemnify against loss or liability and, under the terms of the bond, makes a payment with respect to a loss. The priority described in this section is not applicable, for example, in the case of an accommodation endorsement by an endorser who assumes the obligation other than in the course of the endorser's trade or business.

(c) Qualified property. Except as provided under paragraph (d) of this section, the term “qualified property,” for purposes of this section, means property subject to the lien imposed by 26 U.S.C. 6321 at the time of tax lien filing and, to the extent that the acquisition is directly traceable to the obligatory disbursement, property acquired by the taxpayer after tax lien filing.

(d) Special rule for surety agreements. Where the obligatory disbursement agreement is an agreement insuring the performance of a contract of the taxpayer and another person, the term “qualified property” shall be treated as also including:

(1) The proceeds of the contract the performance of which was insured, and

(2) If the contract the performance of which was insured is a contract to construct or improve real property, to produce goods, or to furnish services, any tangible personal property used by the taxpayer in the performance of the insured contract.

For example, a surety company which holds a security interest, arising from cash disbursements made after tax lien filing under a payment or performance bond on a real estate construction project, has priority over the tax lien with respect to the proceeds of the construction contract and, in addition, with respect to any tangible personal property used by the taxpayer in the construction project if its security interest in the tangible personal property is protected under local law against a judgment lien arising, as of the time the tax lien was filed, out of an unsecured obligation.

(26 U.S.C. 6323)

Limitations on Levies

Source: Sections 70.241 through 70.245 added by T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47646, Nov. 14, 1990, unless otherwise noted.

§70.241   Property exempt from levy.

(a) Enumeration. There shall be exempt from levy:

(1) Wearing apparel and school books. Such items of wearing apparel and such school books as are necessary for the taxpayer or for members of the taxpayer's family. Expensive items of wearing apparel, such as furs, which are luxuries and are not necessary for the taxpayer or for members of the taxpayer's family, are not exempt from levy.

(2) Fuel, provisions, furniture, and personal effects. If the taxpayer is the head of a family, so much of the fuel, provisions, furniture, and personal effects in the taxpayer's household, and of the arms for personal use, livestock, and poultry of the taxpayer, as does not exceed $1,650 in value. For purposes of this provision, an individual who is the only remaining member of a family and who lives alone is not the head of a family.

(3) Books and tools of a trade, business or profession. So many of the books and tools necessary for the trade, business, or profession of an individual taxpayer as do not exceed in the aggregate $1,100 in value.

(4) Unemployment benefits. Any amount payable to an individual with respect to that individual's unemployment (including any portion thereof payable with respect to dependents) under an unemployment compensation law of the United States, of any State, or of the District of Columbia or of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

(5) Undelivered mail. Mail, addressed to any person, which has not been delivered to the addressee.

(6) Certain annuity and pension payments. Annuity or pension payments under the Railroad Retirement Act (45 U.S.C. chapter 9), benefits under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act (45 U.S.C. chapter 11), special pension payments received by a person whose name has been entered on the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard Medal of Honor roll (38 U.S.C. 562), and annuities based on retired or retainer pay under 10 U.S.C. chapter 73.

(7) Workmen's compensation. Any amount payable to an individual as workmen's compensation (including any portion thereof payable with respect to dependents) under a workmen's compensation law of the United States, any State, the District of Columbia, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

(8) Judgments for support of minor children. If the taxpayer is required under any type of order or decree (including an interlocutory decree or a decree of support pendente lite) of a court of competent jurisdiction, entered prior to the day of levy, to contribute to the support of such taxpayer's minor children, so much of the taxpayer's salary, wages, or other income as is necessary to comply with such order or decree. The taxpayer must establish the amount necessary to comply with the order or decree. The appropriate TTB officer is not required to release a levy until such time as that officer is satisfied that the amount to be released from levy will actually be applied in satisfaction of the support obligation. The appropriate TTB officer may make arrangements with a delinquent taxpayer to establish a specific amount of such taxpayer's salary, wage, or other income for each pay period which shall be exempt from levy. Any request for such an arrangement shall be directed to the appropriate TTB officer. Where the taxpayer has more than one source of income sufficient to satisfy the support obligation imposed by the order or decree, the amount exempt from levy may at the discretion of the appropriate TTB officer be allocated entirely to one salary, wage, or source of other income or be apportioned between the several salaries, wages, or other sources of income.

(9) Minimum exemption for wages, salary, and other income. Amounts payable to or received by the taxpayer as wages or salary for personal services, or as other income, to the extent provided in §§70.242 through 70.245 of this part.

(10) Certain service-connected disability payments. Any amount payable to an individual as a service-connected (within the meaning of 38 U.S.C. 101(16)) disability benefit under:

(i) 38 U.S.C. chapter 11, subchapter II, III, IV, V, or VI, or

(ii) 38 U.S.C. chapter 13, 21, 23, 31, 32, 34, 35, 37, or 39 shall be exempt from levy.

(11) Certain public assistance payments. Any amount payable to an individual as a recipient of public assistance under:

(i) Title 42 U.S.C. subchapter IV (relating to aid to families with dependent children) or 42 U.S.C. subchapter XVI (relating to supplemental security income for the aged, blind, and disabled), or

(ii) State or local government public assistance or public welfare programs for which eligibility is determined by a needs or income test shall be exempt from levy.

(12) Assistance under job training partnership act. Any amount payable to a participant under the Job Training Partnership Act (29 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.) from funds appropriated pursuant to such Act shall be exempt from levy.

(13) Principal residence exempt in absence of certain approval or jeopardy. Except to the extent provided in §70.166 of this part, the principal residence of the taxpayer (within the meaning of 26 U.S.C. 1034) is exempt from levy.

(b) Appraisal. The TTB officer seizing property of the type described in 26 U.S.C. 6334(a) shall appraise and set aside to the owner the amount of such property declared to be exempt. If the taxpayer objects at the time of the seizure to the valuation fixed by the officer making the seizure, such officer shall summon three disinterested individuals who shall make the valuation.

(c) Other property. No other property or rights to property are exempt from levy except the property specifically exempted by 26 U.S.C. 6334(a). No provisions of a State law may exempt property or rights to property from levy for the collection of any Federal tax. Thus, property exempt from execution under State personal or homestead exemption laws is, nevertheless, subject to levy by the United States for collection of its taxes.

(26 U.S.C. 6334)

§70.242   Wages, salary and other income.

(a) In general. Under 26 U.S.C. 6334(a)(9) and (d) certain amounts payable to or received by a taxpayer as wages, salary or other income are exempt from levy. This section described the income of a taxpayer that is eligible for the exemption from levy (paragraph (b) of this section) and how exempt amounts are to be paid to the taxpayer (paragraph (c) of this section). Section 70.243 of this part describes the sum which will be exempt from levy for each of the taxpayer's payroll periods. Payroll periods are described in §70.244 of this part. Amounts exempt from levy are determined in part by the number of persons claimed by the taxpayer as dependents. Section 70.245 of this part describes the manner in which the taxpayer is to claim any dependent exemptions and the manner in which the employer is to compute the exempt amount and pay the balance to the appropriate TTB officer.

(b) Eligible taxpayer income. Only wages, salary or other income payable to the taxpayer after the levy is made on the payor may be exempt from levy under 26 U.S.C. 6334 (a)(9). No amount of wages, salary or other income which is paid to the taxpayer before levy is made on the payor will be so exempt from levy.

(c) Payment of exempt amounts to taxpayer—(1) From wages, salary or other income not subject to levy. In the case of a taxpayer who has more than one source of wages, salary or other income, the appropriate TTB officer may elect to levy on only one or more such source while leaving other sources of salary or other income free from levy. If those wages, salary or other income which the appropriate TTB officer leaves free from levy equal or exceed the amount to which the taxpayer is entitled as an exemption from levy under 26 U.S.C. 6334(a)(9) and (d) and §70.243 of this part (and ar not otherwise exempt), then no amount of the taxpayer's wages, salary or other income on which the appropriate TTB officer elects to levy is exempt from levy. The appropriate TTB officer shall notify the employer or other person subject to levy that no amount of the taxpayer's wages, salary or other income is exempt from levy.

(2) From wages, salary or other income subject to levy. If the taxpayer's income upon which the appropriate TTB officer does not levy is less than that amount to which the taxpayer is entitled as an exemption, then an amount determined pursuant to §70.243 of this part is to be paid to the taxpayer from those wages, salary or other income which are subject to levy. The appropriate TTB officer will designate those wages, salary or other income subject to levy from which such amount will be paid to the taxpayer. The appropriate TTB officer will generally make this designation by delivering to the employer, or other person levied upon, the form upon which the taxpayer is to claim any dependent exemption. The form will acompany the notice of levy. The person receiving the form from the appropriate TTB officer must promptly deliver it to the taxpayer. In the case of some employers having a large number of employees, however, the appropriate TTB officer will send the form upon which an employee is to claim any dependent exemption diretly to the employee. In such a case, the notice of levy will indicate that the form for claiming dependent exemptions has been sent to the taxpayer. If a notice of levy is not accompanied by the form for claiming dependent exemptions and does not indicate that the form was sent directly to the taxpayer, then the person levied upon must make payment to the appropriate TTB officer without regard to amounts prescribed by §70.243 of this part as exempt from levy. If a notice of levy is accompanied by the form for claiming dependent exemptions or indicates that the form was sent directly to the taxpayer, then the person levied upon is to pay over to the taxpayer, amounts determined to be exempt from levy pursuant to §70.243 and §70.245 (b) and (c) of this part (relating to the requirement that the taxpayer submit a claim for any dependent exemption). Amounts not exempt from levy are to be paid to the appropriate TTB officer in accordance with the terms of the levy.

(26 U.S.C. 6334)

§70.243   Exempt amount.

Amount payable to the taxpayer as wages, salary, or other income for each payroll period described in §70.244 of this part are exempt from levy as follows:

(a) If the payroll period is weekly, an amount equal to:

(1) The sum of:

(i) The standard deduction, and

(ii) The aggregate amount of the deductions for personal exemption allowed the taxpayer under 26 U.S.C. 151 in the taxable year in which such levy occurs, divided by

(2) 52.

(b) If the payroll period is not weekly, the amount exempt from levy shall be an amount which as nearly as possible will result in the same total exemption from levy for such individual over a period of time as such individual would have under paragraph (a) of this section if (during such period of time) the individual were paid or received such wages, salary or other income on a regular weekly basis.

(26 U.S.C. 6334)

§70.244   Payroll period.

For purpose of determining the amount of wages, salary or other income exempt from levy under 26 U.S.C. 6334(a)(9):

(a) Regularly used calendar periods. In the case of wages, salary or other income paid to the taxpayer on the basis of an established calendar period regularly used by the employer or other person levied upon for payroll or payment purpose (e.g., daily, weekly, biweekly, semimonthly, or monthly), that period is the taxpayer's payroll period.

(b) Amounts paid on recurrent but irregular basis. In the case of wages, salary, or other income paid to the taxpayer on a recurrent but irregular basis, the first day of the taxpayer's payroll period is that day following the day upon which the wages, salary, or other income were last paid to the taxpayer. The last day of the payroll period is that day upon which the current payment becomes payable to him or her. However, in any case in which:

(1) Amounts are paid to the taxpayer on a recurrent but irregular basis, and

(2) The last payment was paid to the taxpayer more than 60 days before the current payment becomes payable, the current payment will be deemed a one-time payment (see paragraph (c) of this section).

(c) Nonrecurrent payments. In the case of wages, salary or other income paid to the taxpayer on a one-time basis, the taxpayer's payroll period is deemed to be weekly (i.e., the 1-week period ending on the day of payment).

(26 U.S.C. 6334)

§70.245   Computation of exempt amount and payment of amounts not exempt from levy to the appropriate TTB officer.

(a) General. Unless advised by the appropriate TTB officer that no part of the money due to the taxpayer is exempt from levy, the employer or other person levied upon will compute the exempt amount, using the formula in §70.243 of this part and the taxpayer's statement of exemptions and filing status described in paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) Statement of exemptions and filing status. Unless the taxpayer submits a statement of exemptions and filing status to the employer or other person levied upon, the exempt amount will be applied as if the taxpayer were a married individual filing a separate return with only 1 personal exemption. A statement of exemptions and filing status shall be made by either:

(1) Completion of the form provided for this purpose by the Bureau, or

(2) A written statement that:

(i) Gives the taxpayer's filing status for income tax purposes,

(ii) Shows any additional standard deduction if the taxpayer or the taxpayer's spouse is at least 65 and/or blind,

(iii) Identified by name and by relationship to the taxpayer each person for whom a dependent exemption is claimed,

(iv) Is signed by the taxpayer, and

(v) Contains a declaration that it is made under the penalties of perjury.

(c) Time for submission of statement. The taxpayer must submit the statement of exemptions and filing status to the employer or other person levied upon no later than the later of:

(1) The third day before the last day of the payroll period for which the exemption is claimed (that is, the third day before payday), or

(2) If the appropriate TTB officer delivers the forms for the statement of exemption and filing status to the employer or other person levied upon (see §70.242(c)(2) of this part), the second day after the date the taxpayer receives the form.

For purposes of paragraphs (c) (1) and (2) of this section, the term “day” does not include Saturdays, Sunday or a legal holiday within the meaning of 26 U.S.C. 7503. Failure on the part of the taxpayer to submit a timely statement of exemptions and filing status will result in the computation of the exempt amount as if the taxpayer were a married individual filing a separate return with only 1 personal exemption for the applicable pay period, except that the employer or other person levied upon may accept a statement of exemptions and filing status not timely submitted in accordance with this paragraph, and may prepare a disbursement to the taxpayer based upon the information properly verified therein, if payment to the appropriate TTB officer in accordance with the levy is not thereby delayed.

(d) Payment of amounts not exempt form levy to the appropriate TTB officer—(1) In General. Wages, Salary, or other income the subject of a levy are payable to the appropriate TTB officer on the date the payor is otherwise obligated to pay the taxpayer (see §70.242(c) of this part).

(2) Delayed payment in certain cases. If, however, as described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, the taxpayer may submit a statement of exemptions and filing status after the third day before payday, amounts payable to the taxpayer on that payday, to the extent not exempt from levy, are payable to the appropriate TTB officer on the third day following the date on which the taxpayer may timely submit the statement of exemptions and filing status under paragraph (c)(2) of this section. For purposes of this rule, the term “day” does not include Saturday, Sunday or a legal holiday within the meaning of 26 U.S.C. 7503.

(26 U.S.C. 6334)

Periods of Limitation in Judicial Proceedings

§70.251   Periods of limitation on suits by taxpayers.

(a) No suit or proceeding under section 7422(a) of the Internal Revenue Code for the recovery of any internal revenue tax, penalty, or other sum shall be begun until whichever of the following first occurs:

(1) The expiration of 6 months from the date of the filing of the claim for credit or refund, or

(2) A decision is rendered on such claim prior to the expiration of 6 months after the filing thereof. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, no suit or proceeding for the recovery of any tax, penalty, or other sum imposed under the provision of 26 U.S.C. enforced and administered by the Bureau may be brought after the expiration of 2 years from the date of mailing, by either registered or certified mail, by an appropriate TTB officer, to a taxpayer of a statutory notice of disallowance of the part of the claim to which the suit or proceeding relates.

(b) The 2-year period described in paragraph (a) of this section may be extended if an agreement to extend the running of the period of limitations is executed. The agreement must be signed by the taxpayer or by an attorney, agent, trustee, or other fiduciary on behalf of the taxpayer. If the agreement is signed by a person other than the taxpayer, it shall be accompanied by an authenticated copy of the power of attorney or other legal evidence of the authority of such person to act on behalf of the taxpayer. If the taxpayer is a corporation, the agreement should be signed with the corporate name followed by the signature of a duly authorized officer of the corporation. The agreement will not be effective until signed by an appropriate officer.

(c) The taxpayer may sign a waiver of the requirement that the taxpayer be mailed a notice of disallowance. Such waiver is irrevocable and will commence the running of the 2-year period described in paragraph (a) of this section on the date the waiver is filed. The waiver shall set forth:

(1) The type of tax and the taxable period covered by the taxpayer's claim for refund;

(2) The amount of the claim;

(3) The amount of the claim disallowed;

(4) A statement that the taxpayer agrees the filing of the waiver will commence the running of the 2-year period provided for in section 6532(a)(1) as if a notice of disallowance had been sent the taxpayer by either registered or certified mail.

The filing of such a waiver prior to the expiration of 6 monthes from the date the claim was filed does not permit the filing of a suit for refund prior to the time specified in section 6532(a)(1) and paragraph (a) of this section.

(d) Any consideration, reconsideration, or other action with respect to a claim after the mailing, by either registered or certified mail, of a notice of disallowance or after the execution of a waiver referred to in paragraph (c) of this section, shall not extend the period for bringing suit or other proceeding under section 7422(a) of the Internal Revenue Code.

(26 U.S.C. 6532)

[T.D. ATF-251, 52 FR 19314, May 22, 1987. Redesignated and amended by T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47606, 47648, Nov. 14, 1990]

§70.252   Periods of limitation on suits by the United States.

The United States may not recover any erroneous refund by civil action under section 7405 of the Internal Revenue Code unless such action is begun within 2 years after the making of such refund. However, if any part of the refund was induced by fraud or misrepresentation of a material fact, the action to recover the erroneous refund may be brought at any time within 5 years from the date the refund was made.

(26 U.S.C. 6532)

[T.D. ATF-251, 52 FR 19314, May 22, 1987. Redesignated by T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47606, Nov. 14, 1990]

§70.253   Periods of limitation on suits by persons other than taxpayers.

(a) General rule. No suit or proceeding, except as otherwise provided in 26 U.S.C. 6532(c)(2) and paragraph (b) of this section, under 26 U.S.C. 7426 and §70.207 of this part relating to civil actions by persons other than taxpayers, shall be begun after the expiration of 9 months from the date of levy or agreement under 26 U.S.C. 6325(b)(3) giving rise to such action.

(b) Period when claim is filed. The 9-month period described in 26 U.S.C. 6532(c)(1) and paragraph (a) of this section shall be extended to the shorter of

(1) 12 months from the date of filing by a third party of a written request under §70.167(b)(2) of this part for the return of property wrongfully levied upon, or

(2) 6 months from the date of mailing by registered or certified mail by the appropriate TTB officer to the party claimant of a notice of disallowance of the part of the request to which the action relates. A request which, under §70.167(b)(3) of this part, is not considered adequate does not extend the 9-month period described in paragraph (a) of this section.

(26 U.S.C. 6532)

[T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47648, Nov. 14, 1990, as amended by T.D. ATF-450, 66 FR 29028, May 29, 2001]

Limitations on Credit or Refund

§70.261   Period of limitation on filing claim.

(a) In the case of any tax (other than a tax payable by stamp):

(1) If a return is filed, a claim for credit or refund of an overpayment must be filed by the taxpayer within 3 years from the time the return was filed or within 2 years from the time the tax was paid, whichever of such periods expires the later.

(2) If no return is filed, the claim for credit or refund of an overpayment must be filed by the taxpayer within 2 years from the time the tax was paid.

(b) In the case of any tax payable by means of a stamp, a claim for credit or refund of an overpayment of such tax must be filed by the taxpayer within 3 years from the time the tax was paid. For provisions relating to redemption of unused stamps, see section 6805 of the Internal Revenue Code.

(c) For limitations on allowance of credit or refund, special rules, and exceptions, see subsections (b) and (c) of section 6511 of the Internal Revenue Code. For rules as to time return is deemed filed and tax considered paid, see section 6513 of the Internal Revenue Code.

(26 U.S.C. 6511)

[T.D. ATF-251, 52 FR 19314, May 22, 1987. Redesignated by T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47606, Nov. 14, 1990]

§70.262   Limitations on allowance of credits and refunds.

(a) Effect of filing claim. Unless a claim for credit or refund of an overpayment is filed within the period of limitation prescribed in section 6511(a), no credit or refund shall be allowed or made after the expiration of such period.

(b) Limit on amount to be credited or refunded. In the case of any tax (other than a tax payable by stamp):

(1) If a return was filed, and a claim is filed within 3 years from the time the return was filed, the amount of the credit or refund shall not exceed the portion of the tax paid within the period, immediately preceding the filing of the claim, equal to 3 years plus the period of any extension of time for filing the return.

(2) If a return was filed, and a claim is filed after the 3 year period described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, but within 2 years from the time the tax was paid, the amount of the credit or refund shall not exceed the portion of the tax paid within the 2 years immediately preceding the filing of the claim.

(3) If no return was filed, but a claim is filed, the amount of the credit or refund shall not exceed the portion of the tax paid within the 2 years immediately preceding the filing of the claim.

(4) If no claim is filed, the amount of the credit or refund allowed or made shall not exceed the amount that would have been allowable under the preceding subparagraphs if a claim had been filed on the date the credit or refund is allowed.

(c) In the case of a tax payable by stamp. (1) If a claim is filed, the amount of the credit or refund shall not exceed the portion of the tax paid within the 3 years immediately preceding the filing of the claim.

(2) If no claim is filed, the amount of the credit or refund allowed or made shall not exceed the portion of the tax paid within the 3 years immediately preceding the allowance of the credit or refund. For provisions relating to redemption of unused stamps, see section 6805 of the Internal Revenue Code.

(26 U.S.C. 6511)

[T.D. ATF-251, 52 FR 19314, May 22, 1987. Redesignated and amended by T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47606, 47648, Nov. 14, 1990; T.D. ATF-450, 66 FR 29028, May 29, 2001]

§70.263   Special rules applicable in case of extension of time by agreement.

(a) Scope. If, within the period prescribed in section 6511(a) of the Internal Revenue Code for the filing of a claim for credit or refund, an agreement extending the period for assessment of a tax has been made in accordance with the provisions of section 6501(c)(4) of the Internal Revenue Code, the special rules provided in this section become applicable. This section shall not apply to any claim filed, or credit or refund allowed if no claim is filed, either (1) prior to the execution of an agreement extending the period in which assessment may be made, or (2) more than 6 months after the expiration of the period within which an assessment may be made pursuant to the agreement or any extension thereof.

(b) Period in which claim may be filed. Claim for credit or refund of an overpayment may be filed, or credit or refund may be allowed if no claim is filed, at any time within which an assessment may be made pursuant to an agreement, or any extension thereof, under section 6501(c)(4), and for 6 months thereafter.

(c) Limit on amount to be credited or refunded. (1) If a claim is filed within the time prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section, the amount of the credit or refund allowed or made shall not exceed the portion of the tax paid after the execution of the agreement and before the filing of the claim, plus the amount that could have been properly credited or refunded under the provisions of section 6511(b)(2) if a claim had been filed on the date of the execution of the agreement.

(2) If no claim is filed, the amount of credit or refund allowed or made within the time prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section shall not exceed the portion of the tax paid after the execution of the agreement and before the making of the credit or refund, plus the amount that could have been properly credited or refunded under the provisions of section 6511(b)(2) if a claim had been filed on the date of the execution of the agreement.

(d) Effective date of agreement. The agreement referred to in this section shall become effective when signed by the taxpayer and the appropriate TTB officer.

(26 U.S.C. 6511)

[T.D. ATF-251, 52 FR 19314, May 22, 1987. Redesignated by T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47606, Nov. 14, 1990]

§70.264   Time return deemed filed and tax considered paid.

For purposes of section 6511 of the Internal Revenue Code, a return filed before the last day prescribed by law or regulations for the filing thereof shall be considered as filed on such last day. For purposes of section 6511(b) (2) and (c), payment of any portion of the tax made before the last day prescribed for payment shall be considered made on such last day. An extension of time for filing a return or for paying any tax shall not be given any effect in determining under this section the last day prescribed for filing a return or paying any tax.

(26 U.S.C. 6513)

[T.D. ATF-251, 52 FR 19314, May 22, 1987. Redesignated by T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47606, Nov. 14, 1990]

§70.265   Credits or refunds after period of limitation.

(a) A refund of any portion of any internal revenue tax (or any interest, additional amount, addition to the tax, or assessable penalty) shall be considered erroneous and a credit of any such portion shall be considered void:

(1) If made after the expiration of the period of limitation prescribed by section 6511 of the Internal Revenue Code for filing claim therefor, unless prior to the expiration of such period claim was filed, or

(2) In the case of a timely claim, if the credit or refund was made after the expiration of the period of limitation prescribed by section 6532(a) for the filing of suit, unless prior to the expiration of such period, suit was begun.

(b) For procedure by the United States to recover erroneous refunds, see sections 6532(b) and 7405 of the Internal Revenue Code.

(26 U.S.C. 6514)

[T.D. ATF-251, 52 FR 19314, May 22, 1987. Redesignated by T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47606, Nov. 14, 1990]

§70.266   Credit against barred liability.

Any credit against a liability in respect of any taxable year shall be void if the collection of such liability would be barred by the applicable statute of limitations at the time such credit is made.

(26 U.S.C. 6514)

[T.D. ATF-251, 52 FR 19314, May 22, 1987. Redesignated by T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47606, Nov. 14, 1990]

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