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Title 27Chapter ISubchapter FPart 70Subpart D → Subject Group


Title 27: Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms
PART 70—PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION
Subpart D—Collection of Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax


Judicial Proceedings

Civil Action by the United States

Source: Sections 70.191 through 70.193 added by T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47633, Nov. 14, 1990.

§70.191   Authorization.

(a) In general. A civil action for the collection or recovery of taxes, or of any fine, penalty, or forfeiture (with respect to the provisions of 26 U.S.C. enforced and administered by the Bureau) will be commenced when the appropriate TTB officer, directs that the action be commenced.

(b) Property held by banks. The appropriate TTB officer shall not authorize or sanction any civil action for the collection or recovery of taxes, or of any fine, penalty, or forfeiture, from any deposits held in a foreign office of a bank engaged in the banking business in the United States or a possession of the United States unless the appropriate TTB officer believes:

(1) That the taxpayer is within the jurisdiction of a U.S. court at the time the civil action is authorized or sanctioned and that the bank is in possession of (or obligated with respect to) deposits of the taxpayer in an office of the bank outside the United States or a possession of the United States; or

(2) That the taxpayer is not within the jurisdiction of a U.S. court at the time the civil action is authorized or sanctioned, that the bank is in possession of (or obligated with respect to) deposits of the taxpayer in an office of the bank outside the United States or a possession of the United States, and that such deposits consist, in whole or in part, of funds transferred from the United States or a possession of the United States in order to hinder or delay the collection of a tax imposed by the provisions of 26 U.S.C. enforced and administered by the Bureau.

(26 U.S.C. 7401)

[T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47633, Nov. 14, 1990, as amended by 66 FR 29027, May 29, 2001]

§70.192   Action to enforce lien or to subject property to payment of tax.

(a) Civil actions. In any case where there has been a refusal or neglect to pay any tax (with respect to the provisions of 26 U.S.C. enforced and administered by the Bureau) or to discharge any liability in respect thereof, whether or not levy has been made, the Attorney General or designated delegate at the request of the appropriate TTB officer, may direct a civil action to be filed in any court of the United States to enforce the lien of the United States under the Internal Revenue Code with respect to such tax or liability or to subject any property, of whatever nature, of the delinquent, or in which the delinquent has any right, title or interest, to the payment of such tax or liability. In any such proceeding, at the instance of the United States, the court may appoint a receiver to enforce the lien, or, upon certification by the appropriate TTB officer during the pendency of such proceedings that it is in the public interest, may appoint a receiver with all the powers of a receiver in equity.

(b) Bid by the United States. If property is sold to satisfy a first lien held by the United States, the United States may bid at the sale a sum which does not exceed the amount of its lien and the expenses of the sale. See also 31 U.S.C. 3715.

(26 U.S.C. 7403)

[T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47633, Nov. 14, 1990, as amended by 66 FR 29027, May 29, 2001]

§70.193   Disposition of judgments and moneys recovered.

All judgments and moneys recovered or received for taxes, costs, forfeitures, and penalties (with respect to the provisions of 26 U.S.C. enforced and administered by the Bureau) shall be paid to the Bureau as collections of taxes imposed under the provisions of 26 U.S.C. enforced and administered by the Bureau.

(26 U.S.C. 7406)

Proceedings by Taxpayers and Third Parties

Source: Sections 70.202 through 70.213 added by T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47634, Nov. 14, 1990, unless otherwise noted.

§70.202   Intervention.

If the United States is not a party to a civil action or suit, the United States may intervene in such action or suit to assert any lien arising under provisions of 26 U.S.C. enforced and administered by the Bureau on the property which is the subject of such action or suit. The provisions of 28 U.S.C. 2410 (except subsection (b)) and of 28 U.S.C. 1444 shall apply in any case in which the United States intervenes as if the United States had originally been named a defendant in such action or suit. If the application of the United States to intervene is denied, the adjudication in such civil action or suit shall have no effect upon such lien.

(26 U.S.C. 7424)

§70.203   Discharge of liens; scope and application; judicial proceedings.

(a) In general. A tax lien of the United States, or a title derived from the enforcement of a tax lien of the United States, may be discharged or divested under local law only in the manner prescribed in 28 U.S.C. 2410 or in the manner prescribed in 26 U.S.C. 7425. Title 26 U.S.C. 7425(a) contains provisions relating to the discharge of a lien when the United States is not joined as a party in the judicial proceedings described in subsection (a) of 28 U.S.C. 2410. These judicial proceedings are plenary in nature and proceed on formal pleadings. Title 26 U.S.C. 7425(b) contains provisions relating to the discharge of a lien or a title derived from the enforcement of a lien in the event of a nonjudicial sale with respect to the property involved. Title 26 U.S.C. 7425(c) contains special rules relating to the notice of sale requirements contained in 26 U.S.C. 7425(b).

(b) Judicial proceedings—(1) In general. Title 26 U.S.C. 7425(a) provides rules, where the United States is not joined as a party, to determine the effect of a judgment in any civil action or suit described in subsection (a) of 28 U.S.C. 2410 (relating to joinder of the United States in certain proceedings), or a judicial sale pursuant to such a judgment, with respect to property on which the United States has or claims a lien under the provisions of 26 U.S.C. If the United States is improperly named as a party to a judicial proceeding, the effect is the same as if the United States were not joined.

(2) Notice of lien filed when the proceeding is commenced. Where the United States is not properly joined as a party in the court proceeding and a notice of lien has been filed in accordance with 26 U.S.C. 6323(f) or (g) in the place provided by law for such filing at the time the action or suit is commenced, a judgment or judicial sale pursuant to such a judgment shall be made subject to and without disturbing the lien of the United States.

(3) Notice of lien not filed when the proceeding is commenced. Where the United States is not joined as a party in the court proceeding and either a notice of lien has not been filed in accordance with 26 U.S.C. 6323(f) or (g) in the palce provided by law for such filing at the time the action or suit is commenced, or the law makes no provision for that filing, a judgment or judicial sale pursuant to such a judgment shall have the same effect with respect to the discharge or divestment of the lien of the United States as may be provided with respect to these matters by the local law of the place where the property is situated.

(4) Proceeds of a judicial sale. If a judicial sale of property pursuant to a judgment in any civil action or suit to which the United States is not a party discharges a lien of the United States arising under the provisions of 26 U.S.C., the United States may claim the proceeds of the sale (exclusive of costs) prior to the time that distribution of the proceeds is ordered. The claim of the United States in such a case is treated as having the same priority with respect to the proceeds as the lien had with respect to the property which was discharged from the lien by the judicial sale.

(26 U.S.C. 7425(a))

§70.204   Discharge of liens; nonjudicial sales.

(a) In general. Title 26 U.S.C. 7425(b) contains provisions with respect to the effect on the interest of the United States in property in which the United States has or claims a lien, or a title derived from the enforcement of a lien, of a sale made pursuant to:

(1) An instrument creating a lien on the property sold.

(2) A confession of judgment on the obligation secured by an instrument creating a lien on the property sold, or

(3) A statutory lien on the property sold.

For purposes of this section, such a sale is referred to as a “nonjudicial sale.” The term “nonjudicial sale” includes, but is not limited to, the divestment of the taxpayer's interest in property which occurs by operation of law, by public or private sale, by forfeiture, or by termination under provisions contained in a contract for a deed or a conditional sales contract. Under 26 U.S.C. 7425(b)(1), if a notice of lien is filed in accordance with 26 U.S.C. 6323(f) or (g), or the title derived from the enforcement of a lien is recorded as provided by local law, more than 30 days before the date of sale and the appropriate TTB officer is not given notice of the sale (in the manner prescribed in §70.205 of this part), the sale shall be made subject to and without disturbing the lien or title of the United States. Under 26 U.S.C. 7425(b)(2)(C), in any case in which notice of the sale is given to the appropriate TTB officer not less than 25 days prior to the date of sale (in the manner prescribed in 26 U.S.C. 7425(c)(1)), the sale shall have the same effect with respect to the discharge or divestment of the lien or title as may be provided by local law with respect to other junior liens or other titles derived from the enforcement of junior liens. A nonjudicial sale pursuant to a lien which is junior to a tax lien does not divest the tax lien, even though notice of the nonjudicial sale is given to the appropriate TTB officer. However, under the provisions of 26 U.S.C. 6325(b) and §70.150 of this part, designated officers may discharge the property from a tax lien, including a tax lien which is senior to another lien upon the property.

(b) Date of sale. In the case of a nonjudicial sale subject to the provisions of 26 U.S.C. 7425(b), in order to compute any period of time determined with reference to the date of sale, the date of sale shall be determined in accordance with the following rules:

(1) In the case of divestment of junior liens on property resulting directly from a public sale, the date of sale is deemed to be the date the public sale is held, regardless of the date under local law on which junior liens on the property are divested or the title to the property is transferred.

(2) In the case of divestment of junior liens on property resulting directly from a private sale, the date of sale is deemed to be the date title to the property is transferred, regardless of the date junior liens on the property are divested under local law, and

(3) In the case of divestment of junior liens on property not resulting directly from a public or private sale, the date of sale is deemed to be the date on which junior liens on the property are divested under local law. For provisions relating to the right of redemption of the United States, see 26 U.S.C. 7425(d) and §70.206 of this part.

(26 U.S.C. 7425(b))

§70.205   Discharge of liens; special rules.

(a) Notice of sale requirements—(1) In general. Except in the case of the sale of perishable goods described in paragraph (c) of this section, a notice (as described in paragraph (d) of this section) of a nonjudicial sale shall be given, in writing by registered or certified mail or by personal service, not less than 25 days prior to the date of sale (determined under the provisions of §70.204(b) of this part), to the appropriate TTB officer. The provisions of 26 U.S.C. 7502 (relating to timely mailing treated as timely filing) and 7503 (relating to time for performance of acts where the last day falls on Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday) apply in the case of notices required to be made under this paragraph.

(2) Postponement of scheduled sale—(i) Where notice of sale is given. In the event that notice of a sale is given in accordance with paragraph (a)(1) of this section, with respect to a scheduled sale which is postponed to a later time or date, the seller of the property is required to give notice of the postponement to the appropriate TTB officer, in the same manner as is required under local law with respect to other secured creditors. For example, assume that in State M local law requires that in the event of a postponement of a scheduled forclosure sale of real property, an oral announcement of the postponement at the place and time of the scheduled sale constitutes sufficient notice to secured creditors of the postponement. Accordingly, if at the place and time of a scheduled sale in State M an oral announcement of the postponement is made, the Bureau is considered to have notice of the postponement for the purpose of this paragraph (a)(2).

(ii) Where noitce of sale is not given. In the event that:

(A) Notice of a nonjudicial sale would not be required under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, if the sale were held on the originally scheduled date,

(B) Because of a postponement of the scheduled sale, more than 30 days elapse between the originally scheduled date of the sale and the date of the sale, and

(C) A notice of lien with respect to the property to be sold is filed more than 30 days before the date of the sale, notice of the sale is required to be given to the appropriate TTB officer in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (a)(1) of this section. In any case in which notice of sale is required to be given with respect to a scheduled sale, and notice of the sale is not given, any postponement of the scheduled sale does not affect the rights of the United States under 26 U.S.C. 7425(b).

(b) Consent to sale—(1) In general. Notwithstanding the notice of sale provisions of paragraph (a) of this section a nonjudicial sale of property shall discharge or divest the property of the lien or title of the United States if the appropriate TTB officer consents to the sale of the property free of the lien or title. Pursuant to 26 U.S.C. 7425(c)(2), where adequate protection is afforded the lien or title of the United States, the appropriate TTB officer may, in that officer's discretion, consent with respect to the sale of property in appropriate cases. Such consent shall be effective only if given in writing and shall be subject to such limitations and conditions as the appropriate TTB officer may require. However, the appropriate TTB officer may not consent to a sale of property under this section after the date of sale, as determined under §70.204(b) of this part. For provisions relating to releasing a lien or discharging property subject to a tax lien, see 26 U.S.C. 6325 and §70.150 of this part.

(2) Application for consent. Any person desiring the appropriate TTB officer's consent to sell property free of a tax lien or a title derived from the enforcement of a tax lien of the United States in the property shall submit to the appropriate TTB officer a written application, in triplicate, declaring that it is made under penalties of perjury, and requesting that such consent be given. The application shall contain the information required in the case of a noitice of sale, as set forth in paragraph (d)(1) of this section, and, in addition, shall contain a statement of the reasons why the consent is desired.

(c) Sale of perishable goods—(1) In general. A notice (as described in paragraph (d) of this section) of a nonjudicial sale of perishable goods (as defined in paragraph (c)(2) of this section) shall be given in writing, by registered or certified mail or delivered by personal service, at any time before the sale, to the appropriate TTB officer. If a notice of a nonjudicial sale is timely given in the manner described in this paragraph the nonjudicial sale shall discharge or divest the tax lien, or a title derived from the enforcement of a tax lien, of the United States in the property. The provisions of 26 U.S.C. 7502 (relating to timely mailing treated as timely filing) and 7503 (relating to time for performance of acts where the last days falls on Saturday, Sunday, or a legal holiday) apply in the case of notices required to be made under this paragraph. The seller of the perishable goods shall hold the proceeds (exclusive of costs) of the sale as a fund, for not less than 30 days after the date of the sale, subject to the liens and claims of the United States, in the same manner and with the same priority as the liens and claims of the United States had with respect to the property sold. If the seller fails to hold the proceeds of the sale in accordance with the provisions of this paragraph and if the appropriate TTB officer asserts a claim to the proceeds within 30 days after the date of sale, the seller shall be personally liable to the United States for an amount equal to the value of the interest of the United States in the fund. However, even if the proceeds of the sale are not so held by the seller, but all the other provisions of this paragraph are satisfied, the buyer of the property at the sale takes the property free of the liens and claims of the United States. In the event of a postponement of the scheduled sale of perishable goods, the seller is not required to notify the appropriate TTB officer of the postponement. For provisions relating to releasing a lien or discharging property subject to a tax lien, see 26 U.S.C. 6325 and §70.150 of this part.

(2) Definition of perishable goods. For the purpose of this paragraph, the term “perishable goods” means any tangible personal property which, in the reasonable view of the person selling the property, is liable to perish or become greatly reduced in price or value by keeping, or cannot be kept without great expense.

(d) Forfeiture of land sales contract. For purposes of paragraph (a) of this section, a nonjudicial sale of property includes any forfeiture of a land sales contract.

(e) Content of notice of sale—(1) In general. With respect to a noitice of sale described in paragraph (a) or (c) of this section, the notice will be considered adequate if it contains the information described in paragraph (d)(1) (i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of this section.

(i) The name and address of the person submitting the notice of sale;

(ii) A copy of each Notice of Federal Tax Lien (TTB Form 5651.2) affecting the property to be sold, or the following information as shown on each such Notice of Federal Tax Lien:

(A) The initiating office named thereon,

(B) The name and address of the taxpayer, and

(C) The date and place of filing of the notice;

(iii) With respect to the property to be sold the following information:

(A) A detailed description, including location of the property affected by the notice (in the case of real property, the street address, city, and State and the legal description contained in the title or deed to the property and, if available, a copy of the abstract of title),

(B) The date, time, place, and terms of proposed sale of the property, and

(C) In case of a sale of perishable property described in paragraph (c) of this section, a statement of the reasons why the property is believed to be perishable; and

(iv) The approximate amount of the principal obligation, including interest, secured by the lien sought to be enforced and a description of the other expenses (such as legal expenses, selling costs, etc.) which may be charged against the sale proceeds.

(2) Inadequate notice. Except as otherwise provided in this subparagraph, a notice of sale described in paragraph (a) of this section which does not contain the information described in paragraph (d)(1) of this section shall be considered inadequate by the appropriate TTB officer. If the appropriate TTB officer determines that the notice is inadequate, that officer will give written notification of the items of information which are inadequate to the person who submitted the notice. A notice of sale which does not contain the name and address of the person submitting such notice shall be considered to be inadequate for all purposes without notification of any specific inadequacy. In any case where a notice of sale, does not contain the information required under paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section with respect to a Notice of Federal Tax Lien, the appropriate TTB officer may give written notification of such omission without specification of any other inadequacy and such notice of sale shall be considered inadequate for all purposes. In the event the appropriate TTB officer gives notification that the notice of sale is inadequate, a notice complying with the provisions of this section (including the requirement that the notice be given not less than 25 days prior to the sale in the case of a notice described in paragraph (a) of this section) must be given. However, in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (b)(1) of this section, in such a case the appropriate TTB officer may, in that officer's discretion, consent to the sale of the property free of the lien or title of the United States even though notice of the sale is given less than 25 days prior to the sale. In any case where the person who submitted a timely notice which indicates the person's name and address does not receive, more than 5 days prior to the date of the sale, written notification from the appropriate TTB officer that the notice is inadequate, the notice shall be considered adequate for purposes of this section.

(3) Acknowledgment of notice. If a notice of sale described in paragraph (a) or (c) of this section is submitted in duplicate to the appropriate TTB officer with a written request that receipt of the notice be acknowledged and returned to the person giving the notice, this request will be honored by the appropriate TTB officer. The acknowledgment by the appropriate TTB officer will indicate the date and time of the receipt of the notice.

(4) Disclosure of adequacy of notice. The appropriate TTB officer is authorized to disclose, to any person who has a proper interest, whether an adequate notice of sale was given under paragraph (d)(1) of tis section insofar as disclosure is authorized under 26 U.S.C. 6103. Any person desiring this information should submit to the appropriate TTB officer a written request which clearly describes the property sold or to be sold, identifies the applicable notice of lien, gives the reasons for requesting the information, and states the name and address of the person making the request.

(26 U.S.C. 7425(c))

[T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47634, Nov. 14, 1990, as amended by T.D. ATF-450, 66 FR 29027, May 29, 2001]

§70.206   Discharge of liens; redemption by United States.

(a) Right to redeem—(1) In general. In the case of a nonjudicial sale of real property to satisfy a lien prior to the tax lien or a title derived from the enforcement of a tax lien, the appropriate TTB officer may redeem the property within the redemption period (as described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section). The right of redemption of the United States exists under 26 U.S.C. 7425(d) even though a consent to the sale has been made under 26 U.S.C. 7425(c)(2) and §70.205(b) of this part. For purposes of this section, the term “nonjudicial sale” shall have the same meaning as used in §70.204(a) of this part.

(2) Redemption period. For purposes of this section, the redemption period shall be:

(i) The period beginning with the date of the sale (as determined under §70.204(b)) and ending with the 120th day after such date, or

(ii) The period for redemption of real property allowable with respect to other secured creditors, under the local law of the place where the real property is located, whichever expires later.

Which ever period is applicable, 26 U.S.C. 7425 and this section shall govern the amount to be paid and the procedure to be followed.

(3) Limitations. In the event a sale does not ultimately discharge the property from tax lien (whether by reason of local law or the provisions of 26 U.S.C. 7425(b)), the provisions of this section do not apply because the tax lien will continue to attach to the property after the sale. In a case in which the Bureau is not entitled to a notice of sale under 26 U.S.C. 7425(b) and §70.205 of this part, the United States does not have a right of redemption under 26 U.S.C. 7425(d). However, in such a case, if a tax lien has attached to the property at the time of sale, the United States has the same right of redemption, if any, which is afforded similar creditors under the local law of the place in which the property is situated.

(b) Amount to be paid—(1) In general. In any case in which an appropriate TTB officer exercises the right to redeem real property under 26 U.S.C. 7425(d), the amount to be paid is the sum of the following amounts:

(i) The actual amount paid for the property (as determined under paragraph (b)(2) of this section) being redeemed (which, in the case of a purchaser who is the holder of the lien being foreclosed, shall include the amount of the obligation secured by such lien to the extent legally satisfied by reason of the sale);

(ii) Interest on the amount paid (described in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section) at the sale by the purchaser of the real property computed at the rate of 6 percent per annum for the period from the date of the sale (as determined under §70.204(b) of this part) to the date of redemption;

(iii) The amount, if any, equal to the excess of the expenses necessarily incurred to maintain such property (as determined under paragraph (b)(3) of this section) by the purchaser (and the purchaser's successor in interest, if any) over the income from such property realized by the purchaser (and the purchaser's successor in interest, if any) plus a reasonable rental value of such property (to the extent the property is used by or with the consent of the purchaser or the purchaser's successor in interest or is rented at less than its reasonable rental value); and

(iv) The amounts, if any, of a payment made by the purchaser or the purchaser's successor in interest after the foreclosure sale to a holder of a senior lien (to the extent provided under paragraph (b)(4) of this section).

(2) Actual amount paid. (i) The actual amount paid for property by a purchaser, other than holder of the lien being foreclosed, is the amount paid by the purchaser at the sale. For purposes of this paragraph, the amount paid by the purchaser at the sale includes deferred payments upon the bid price. The actual amount paid does not include costs and expenses incurred prior to the foreclosure sale by the purchaser except to the extent such expenses are included in the amount bid and paid for the property. For example, the actual amount paid does not normally include the expenses of the purchaser such as title searches, professional fees, or interest on debt incurred to obtain funds to purchase the property.

(ii) In the case of a purchaser who is the holder of the lien being foreclosed, the actual amount paid is the sum of:

(A) The amount of the obligation secured by such lien to the extent legally satisfied by reason of the sale and

(B) Any additional amount bid and paid at the sale.

For purposes of this section, a purchaser who acquires title as a result of a nonjudicial foreclosure sale is treated as the holder of the lien being foreclosed if a lien (or any interest reserved, created, or conveyed as security for the payment of a debt or fulfillment of other obligation) held by the purchaser is partially or fully satisfied by reason of the foreclosure sale. For example, a person whose title is derived from a tax deed issued under local law shall be treated as a purchaser who is the holder of the lien foreclosed in a case where a tax certificate, evidencing a lien on the property arising from the payment of property taxes, ripens into title. The amount paid by a purchaser at the sale includes deferred payments upon any portion of the bid price which is in excess of the amount of the lien being foreclosed. The actual amount paid does not include costs and expenses incurred prior to the foreclosure sale by the purchaser except to the extent such expenses are included in the amount of the lien being foreclosed which is legally satisfied by reason of the sale or in the amount bid and paid at the sale. Where the lien being foreclosed attaches to other property not subject to the foreclosure sale, the amount legally satisfied by reason of the sale does not include the amount of such lien that attaches to the other property. However, for purposes of the preceding sentences, the amount of the lien that attaches to the other property shall be considered to be equal to the amount by which the value of the other property exceeds the amount of any other senior lien on that property. Where, after the sale, the holder of the lien being foreclosed has the right to the unpaid balance of the amount due the holder, the amount legally satisfied by reason of the sale does not include the amount of such lien to the extent a deficiency judgment may be obtained therefor. However, for purposes of the preceding sentence, an amount, with respect to which the holder of the lien being foreclosed would otherwise have a right to a deficiency judgment, shall be considered to be legally satisfied by reason of the foreclosure sale to the extent that the holder has waived the holder's right to a deficiency judgment prior to the foreclosure sale. For this purpose, the waiver must be in writing and legally binding upon the foreclosing lienholder as of the time the sale is concluded. If, prior to the foreclosure, payments have been made by the foreclosing lienholder to a holder of a superior lien, the payments are included in the actual amount paid to the extent they give rise to an interest which is legally satisfied by reason of the foreclosure sale.

(3) Excess expenses incurred by purchaser. (i) Expenses necessarily incurred in connection with the property after the foreclosure sale and before redemption by the United States are taken into account in determining if there are excess expenses payable under paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section. Expenses incurred by the purchaser prior to the foreclosure sale are not considered under paragraph (b)(3) of this section. (See paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section for circumstances under which such expenses may be included in the amount to be paid.) Expenses necessarily incurred in connection with the property include, for example, rental agent commissions, repair and maintenance expenses, utilities expenses, legal fees incurred after the foreclosure sale and prior to redemption in defending the title acquired through the foreclosure sale, and a proportionate amount of casualty insurance premiums and ad valorem taxes. Improvements made to the property are not considered as an expense unless the amounts incurred for such improvements are necessarily incurred to maintain the property.

(ii) At any time prior to the expiration of the redemption period applicable under paragraph (a)(2) of this section, the appropriate TTB officer may, by certified or registered mail or hand delivery, request a written itemized statement of the amount claimed by the purchaser or the purchaser's successor in interest to be payable under paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section. Unless the purchaser or the purchaser's successor in interest furnishes the written itemized statement within 15 days after the request is made by the appropriate TTB officer, it shall be presumed that no amount is payable for expenses in excess of income and the Bureau shall tender only the amount otherwise payable under paragraph (b)(1) of this section. If a purchaser or the purchaser's successor in interest has failed to furnish the written itemized statement within 15 days after the request therefor is made by the appropriate TTB officer, or there is a disagreement as to the amount properly payable under paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section, a payment for excess expenses shall be made after the redemption within a reasonable time following the verification by the appropriate TTB officer of a written itemized statement submitted by the purchaser or the purchaser's successor in interest or the resolution of the disagreement as to the amount properly payable for excess expenses.

(4) Payments made by purchaser or the purchaser's successor in interest to a senior lienor. (i) The amount to be paid upon a redemption by the United States shall include the amount of a payment made by the purchaser or the purchaser's successor in interest to a holder of a senior lien to the extent a request for the reimbursement thereof (made in accordance with paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section) is approved as provided under paragraph (b)(4)(iii) of this section. This paragraph applies only to a payment made after the foreclosure sale and before the redemption to a holder of a lien that was, immediately prior to the foreclosure sale, superior to the lien foreclosed. A payment of principal or interest to a senior lienor shall be taken into account. Generally, the portion, if any, of a payment which is to be held in escrow for the payment of an expense, such as hazard insurance or real property taxes, is not considered under this paragraph. However, a payment by the escrow agent of a real property tax or special assessment lien, which was senior to the lien foreclosed, shall be considered to be a payment made by the purchaser or the purchaser's successor in interest for purposes of this paragraph. With respect to real property taxes assessed after the foreclosure sale, see paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section, relating to excess expenses incurred by the purchaser.

(ii) Before the expiration of the redemption period applicable under paragraph (a)(2) of this section, the appropriate TTB officer shall, in any case where a redemption is contemplated, send notice to the purchaser (or the purchaser's successor in interest of record) by certified or registered mail or hand delivery of the right under paragraph (b)(4) of this section to request reimbursement (payable in the event the right to redeem under 26 U.S.C. 7425(d) is exercised) for a payment made to a senior lienor. No later than 15 days after the notice from the appropriate TTB officer is sent, the request for reimbursement shall be mailed or delivered to the office specified in such notice and shall consist of:

(A) A written itemized statement, signed by the claimant, of the amount claimed with respect to a payment made to a senior lienor, together with the supporting evidence requested in the notice from the appropriate TTB officer, and

(B) A waiver or other document that will be effective upon redemption by the United States to discharge the property from, or transfer to the United States, any interest in or lien on the property that may arise under local law with respect to the payment made to a senior lienor.

Upon a showing of reasonable cause, an appropriate TTB officer may, in that official's discretion and at any time before the expiration of the applicable period for redemption, grant an extension for a reasonable period of time to submit, amend, or supplement a request for reimbursement. Unless a request for reimbursement is timely submitted (determined with regard to any extension of time granted), no amount shall be payable to the purchaser or the purchaser's successor in interest on account of a payment made to a senior lienor if the right to redeem under 26 U.S.C. 7425(d) is exercised. A waiver or other document submitted pursuant to paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section shall be treated as effective only to the extent of the amount included in the redemption price under this paragraph. If the right to redeem is not exercised or a request for reimbursement is withdrawn, the appropriate TTB officer shall, by certified or registered mail or hand delivery, return to the purchaser or the purchaser's successor any waiver or other document submitted pursuant to paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section as soon as is practicable.

(iii) A request for reimbursement submitted in accordance with paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section shall be considered to be approved for the total amount claimed by the purchaser, and payable in the event the right to redeem is exercised, unless the appropriate TTB officer sends notice to the claimant, by certified or registered mail or hand delivery, of the denial of the amount claimed within 30 days after receipt of the request of 15 days before expiration of the applicable period for redemption, whichever is later. The notification of denial shall state the grounds for denial. If such notice of denial is given, the request for reimbursement for a payment made to a senior lienor shall be treated as having been withdrawn by the purchaser or the purchaser's successor and the Bureau shall tender only the amount otherwise payable under paragraph (b)(1) of this section. If a request for reimbursement is treated as having been withdrawn under the preceding sentence, payment for amounts described in paragraph (b)(4) of this section may, in the discretion of the appropriate TTB officer, be made after the redemption upon the resolution of the disagreement as to the amount properly payable under paragraph (b)(1)(iv) of this section.

(c) Certificate of redemption—(1) In general. If an appropriate TTB officer exercises the right of redemption of the United States described in paragraph (a) of this section, the appropriate TTB officer shall apply to the officer designated by local law, if any, for the documents necessary to evidence the fact of redemption and to record title to the redeemed property in the name of the United States. If no such officer has been designated by local law, or if the officer designated by local law fails to issue the necessary documents, the appropriate TTB officer is authorized to issue a certificate of redemption for the property redeemed by the United States.

(2) Filing. The appropriate TTB officer shall, without delay, cause either the documents issued by the local officer or the certificate of redemption executed by the appropriate TTB officer to be filed with the local office where certificates of redemption are generally filed. If a certificate of redemption is issued by the appropriate TTB officer and if the State in which the real property redeemed by the United States is situated has no office with which certificates of redemption may be filed, the appropriate TTB officer shall file the certificate of redemption in the office of the clerk of the United States district court for the judicial district in which the redeemed property is situated.

(3) Effect of certificate of redemption. A certificate of redemption executed pursuant to paragraph (c)(1) of this section, shall constitute prima facie evidence of the regularity of the redemption. When a certificate of redemption is recorded, it shall transfer to the United States all the rights, title, and interest in and to the redeemed property acquired by the person, from whom the appropriate TTB officer redeemed the property, by virtue of the sale of the property. Therefore, if under local law the purchaser takes title free of liens junior to the lien of the foreclosing lienholder, the United States takes the title free of such junior liens upon redemption of the property. If a certificate of redemption has been erroneously prepared and filed because the redemption was not effective, the appropriate TTB officer shall issue a document revoking such certificate of redemption and such document shall be conclusively binding upon the United States against a purchaser of the property or a holder of a lien upon the property.

(4) Application for release of right of redemption. Upon application of a party with a proper interest in the real property sold in a nonjudicial sale described in 26 U.S.C. 7425(b) and §70.204 of this part, which real property is subject to the right of redemption of the United States described in this section, the appropriate TTB officer may, in that officer's discretion, release the right of redemption with respect to the property. The application for the release must be submitted in writing to an appropriate TTB officer and must contain such information as the appropriate TTB officer may require. If the appropriate TTB officer determines that the right of redemption of the United States is without value, no amount shall be required to be paid with respect to the release of the right of redemption.

(26 U.S.C. 7425(d))

[T.D. ATF-301, 55 FR 47634, Nov. 14, 1990, as amended by T.D. ATF-450, 66 FR 29027, May 29, 2001]

§70.207   Civil actions by persons other than taxpayers.

(a) Actions permitted—(1) Wrongful levy. If a levy has been made on property, or property has been sold pursuant to a levy, any person (other than the person against whom is assessed the tax out of which such levy arose) may bring a civil action against the United States in a district court of the United States based upon such person's claim:

(i) That the person has an interest in, or a lien on, such property which is senior to the interest of the United States; and

(ii) That such property was wrongfully levied upon.

No action is permitted under 26 U.S.C. 7426(a)(1) unless there has been a levy upon the property claimed.

(2) Surplus proceeds. If property has been sold pursuant to levy, any person (other than the person against whom is assessed the tax out of which such levy arose) may bring a civil action against the United States in a district court of the United States based upon the claim that the person:

(i) Has an interest in or lien on such property junior to that of the United States; and

(ii) Is entitled to the surplus proceeds of such sale.

(3) Substituted sale proceeds. Any person who claims to be legally entitled to all or any part of the amount which is held as a fund from the sale of property pursuant to an agreement described in 26 U.S.C. 6325(b)(3) may bring a civil action against the United States in a district court of the United States to obtain the relief provided by 26 U.S.C. 7426(b)(4). It is not necessary that the claimant be a party to the agreement which provides for the substitution of the sale proceeds for the property subject to the lien.

(b) Adjudication—(1) Wrongful levy. If the court determines that property has been wrongfully levied upon, the court may:

(i) Grant an injunction to prohibit the enforcement of such levy or to prohibit a sale of such property if such sale would irreparably injure rights in the property which are superior to the rights of the United States in such property; or

(ii) Order the return of specific property if the United States is in possession of such property; or

(iii) Grant a judgment for the amount of money levied upon, with interest thereon at the overpayment rate established under 26 U.S.C. 6621 from the date that the officer who made the levy receives the money wrongfully levied upon to the date of payment of such judgment, or

(iv) Grant a judgment for an amount not exceeding the amount received by the United States from the sale of such property (which, in the case of property declared purchased by the United States at a sale, shall be the greater of the minimum amount determined pursuant to 26 U.S.C. 6335(e) or the amount received by the United States from the resale of such property), or the fair market value of such property immediately before the levy, with interest thereon at the overpayment rate established under 26 U.S.C. 6621 from the date of the sale of the property to the date of payment of such judgment.

For purposes of paragraph (b)(1) of this section, a levy is wrongful against a person (other than the taxpayer against whom the assessment giving rise to the levy is made), if the levy is upon property exempt from levy under 26 U.S.C. 6334, or the levy is upon property in which the taxpayer had no interest at the time the lien arose or thereafter, or the levy is upon property with respect to which such person is a purchaser against whom the lien is invalid under 26 U.S.C. 6323 or 6324(a)(2) or (b), or the levy or sale pursuant to levy will or does effectively destroy or otherwise irreparably injure such person's interest in the property which is senior to the Federal tax lien. A levy may be wrongful against a holder of a senior lien upon the taxpayer's property under certain circumstances although legal rights to enforce the holder's interest survive the levy procedure. For example, the levy may be wrongful against such a person if the property is an obligation which is collected pursuant to the levy rather than sold and nothing thereafter remains for the senior lienholder, or the property levied upon is of such a nature that when it is sold at a public sale the property subject to the senior lien is not available for the senior lienholder as a realistic source for the enforcement of the holder's interest. Some of the factors which should be taken into account in determining whether property remains or will remain a realistic source from which the senior lienholder may realize collection are: The nature of the property, the number of purchasers, the value of each unit sold or to be sold, whether, as a direct result of the distraint sale, the costs of realizing collection from the security have or will be so substantially increased as to render the security substantially valueless as a source of collection, and whether the property subject to the distraint sale constitutes substantially all of the property available as security for the payment of the indebtedness to the senior lienholder.

(2) Surplus proceeds. If the court determines that the interest or lien of any party to an action under 26 U.S.C. 7426 was transferred to the proceeds of a sale of the property, the court may grant a judgment in an amount equal to all or any part of the amount of the surplus proceeds of such sale. The term “surplus proceeds” means property remaining after application of the provisions of 26 U.S.C. 6342(a).

(3) Substituted sale proceeds. If the court determines that a party has an interest in or lien on the amount held as a fund pursuant to an agreement described in 26 U.S.C. 6325(b)(3), the court may grant a judgment in an amount equal to all or any part of the amount of such fund.

(26 U.S.C. 7426)

§70.208   Review of jeopardy assessment or jeopardy levy procedures; information to taxpayer.

Not later than 5 days after the day on which an assessment is made under 26 U.S.C. 6862 or when a levy is made less than 30 days after the notice and demand described in 26 U.S.C 6331(a), the officer who authorized the assessment or levy shall provide the taxpayer a written statement setting forth the information upon which that official relies in authorizing such assessment or levy.

(26 U.S.C. 7429(a)(1))

§70.209   Review of jeopardy assessment or levy procedures; administrative review.

(a) Request for administrative review. Any request for the review of a jeopardy assessment or levy provided for by 26 U.S.C. 7429(a)(2) shall be filed with the officer who authorized the assessment or levy, within 30 days after the statement described in §70.208 of this part is given to the taxpayer. However, if no statement is given within the 5-day period described in §70.208, any request for review of the jeopardy assessment shall be filed within 35 days after the date the assessment is made. Such request shall be in writing, shall state fully the reasons for the request, and shall be supported by such evidence as will enable the reviewing officer to make the redetermination described in 26 U.S.C. 7429(a)(3).

(b) Administrative review. In determining whether the assessment or levy is reasonable and the amount assessed appropriate, the reviewing officer shall take into account not only information available at the time the assessment is made but also information which subsequenbtly becomes available.

(26 U.S.C. 7429(a)(2))

§70.210   Review of jeopardy assessment or levy procedures; judicial action.

(a) Time for bringing judicial action. An action for judicial review described in 26 U.S.C. 7429(b) may be instituted by the taxpayer during the period beginning on the earlier of:

(1) The date of the reviewing officer notifies the taxpayer of the determination described in 26 U.S.C. 7429(a)(3); or

(2) The 16th day after the request described in 26 U.S.C. 7429(a)(2) was made by the taxpayer; and ending on the 90th day thereafter.

(b) Extension of the period for judicial review. The U.S. Government may not seek an extension of the 20-day period described in 26 U.S.C. 7429(b)(2), but it may join with the taxpayer in seeking such an extension.

(26 U.S.C. 7429)

§70.213   Repayments to officers or employees.

The appropriate TTB officer is authorized to repay to any officer or employee of the Bureau the full amount of such sums of money as may be recovered against such officer or employee in any court for any taxes imposed under provisions of 26 U.S.C. enforced and administered by the Bureau collected by such officer or employee with the cost and expense of suit, and all damages and costs recovered against any officer or employee of the Bureau in any suit brought against such officer or employee by reason of anything done in the official performance of duties under the provisions of 26 U.S.C. enforced and administered by the Bureau.

(26 U.S.C. 7423)

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