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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of June 4, 2020

Title 26Chapter ISubchapter APart 1 → Subject Group


Title 26: Internal Revenue
PART 1—INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED)


tax returns or statements

§1.6011-1   General requirement of return, statement, or list.

(a) General rule. Every person subject to any tax, or required to collect any tax, under Subtitle A of the Code, shall make such returns or statements as are required by the regulations in this chapter. The return or statement shall include therein the information required by the applicable regulations or forms.

(b) Use of prescribed forms. Copies of the prescribed return forms will so far as possible be furnished taxpayers by district directors. A taxpayer will not be excused from making a return, however, by the fact that no return form has been furnished to him. Taxpayers not supplied with the proper forms should make application therefor to the district director in ample time to have their returns prepared, verified, and filed on or before the due date with the internal revenue office where such returns are required to be filed. Each taxpayer should carefully prepare his return and set forth fully and clearly the information required to be included therein. Returns which have not been so prepared will not be accepted as meeting the requirements of the Code. In the absence of a prescribed form, a statement made by a taxpayer disclosing his gross income and the deductions therefrom may be accepted as a tentative return, and, if filed within the prescribed time, the statement so made will relieve the taxpayer from liability for the addition to tax imposed for the delinquent filing of the return, provided that without unnecessary delay such a tentative return is supplemented by a return made on the proper form.

(c) Tax withheld on nonresident aliens and foreign corporations. For requirements respecting the return of the tax required to be withheld under chapter 3 of the Code on nonresident aliens and foreign corporations and tax-free covenant bonds, see §1.1461-2.

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 12108, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 6922, 32 FR 8713, June 17, 1967]

§1.6011-2   Returns, etc., of DISC's and former DISC's.

(a) Records and information. Every DISC and former DISC (as defined in section 992(a)) must comply with section 6001 and the regulations thereunder, relating to required records, statements, and special returns. Thus, for example, a DISC is required to maintain the books of account or records described in §1.6001-1(a). In addition, every DISC must furnish to each of its shareholders on or before the last day of the second month following the close of the taxable year of the DISC a copy of Schedule K (Form 1120-DISC) disclosing the amounts of actual distributions and deemed distributions from the DISC to such shareholder for the taxable year of the DISC. In the case of a deficiency distribution to meet qualification requirements, see §1.992-3(a)(4) for requirements that distribution be designated in the form of a communication sent to a shareholder and service center at the time of distribution.

(b) Returns—(1) Requirement of return. Every DISC (as defined in section 992(a)(1)) shall make a return of income. A former DISC (as defined in section 992(a)(3)) shall also make a return of income in addition to any other return required. The return required of a DISC or former DISC under this section shall be made on Form 1120-DISC. The provisions of §1.6011-1 shall apply with respect to a DISC and former DISC. A former DISC should indicate clearly on Form 1120-DISC that it is making a return of income as a former DISC (for example, by labeling at the top of the Form 1120-DISC “Former DISC”). In the case of a former DISC, those items on the form which pertain to the computation of taxable income shall not be completed, but Schedules J, K, L, and M must be completed. Except as otherwise specifically provided in the Code or regulations, the return of a DISC or former DISC is considered to be an income tax return.

(2) Existence of DISC. A corporation which is a DISC and which is in existence during any portion of a taxable year is required to make a return for that fractional part of its taxable year during which it was in existence.

[T.D. 7533, 43 FR 6603, Feb. 15, 1978]

§1.6011-3   Requirement of statement from payees of certain gambling winnings.

(a) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, any person receiving a payment with respect to a wager in a sweepstakes, wagering pool, lottery, or other wagering transaction (including a parimutuel pool with respect to horse races, dog races, or jai alai) shall make a statement to the payer of such winnings upon the payer's demand. Such statements shall accompany the payer's return made with respect to the payment as required pursuant to section 3402(q) or 6041, as the case may be.

(b) Contents of statement. The statement referred to in paragraph (a) shall contain information (in addition to that required under section 6041(c)) as to the amount, if any, of winnings from identical wagers to which the recipient is entitled. If any person other than the recipient is entitled to all or a portion of the payment, the statement shall also include information as to the amount, if any, of winnings from identical wagers to which each such person is entitled. The statement shall be provided on Form W-2G or, if persons other than the recipient are entitled to all or a portion of such payment, on Form 5754.

(c) Exception. The requirement of paragraph (a) of this section does not apply with respect to any payment of winnings—

(1) From a slot machine play, or a bingo or keno game,

(2) Which is subject to withholding under section 3402(q) without regard to the existence of winnings from identical wagers, or

(3) For which no return of information under section 6041 is required of the payer.

(d) Meaning of terms, For purposes of this section, the terms “sweepstakes”, “wagering pool”, “lottery”, “other wagering transaction” and “identical wagers” shall have the same meanings as ascribed to them under §31.3402(q)-1.

[T.D. 7919, 48 FR 46297, Oct. 12, 1983]

§1.6011-4   Requirement of statement disclosing participation in certain transactions by taxpayers.

(a) In general. Every taxpayer that has participated, as described in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, in a reportable transaction within the meaning of paragraph (b) of this section and who is required to file a tax return must file within the time prescribed in paragraph (e) of this section a disclosure statement in the form prescribed by paragraph (d) of this section. The fact that a transaction is a reportable transaction shall not affect the legal determination of whether the taxpayer's treatment of the transaction is proper.

(b) Reportable transactions—(1) In general. A reportable transaction is a transaction described in any of the paragraphs (b)(2) through (7) of this section. The term transaction includes all of the factual elements relevant to the expected tax treatment of any investment, entity, plan, or arrangement, and includes any series of steps carried out as part of a plan.

(2) Listed transactions. A listed transaction is a transaction that is the same as or substantially similar to one of the types of transactions that the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) has determined to be a tax avoidance transaction and identified by notice, regulation, or other form of published guidance as a listed transaction.

(3) Confidential transactions—(i) In general. A confidential transaction is a transaction that is offered to a taxpayer under conditions of confidentiality and for which the taxpayer has paid an advisor a minimum fee.

(ii) Conditions of confidentiality. A transaction is considered to be offered to a taxpayer under conditions of confidentiality if the advisor who is paid the minimum fee places a limitation on disclosure by the taxpayer of the tax treatment or tax structure of the transaction and the limitation on disclosure protects the confidentiality of that advisor's tax strategies. A transaction is treated as confidential even if the conditions of confidentiality are not legally binding on the taxpayer. A claim that a transaction is proprietary or exclusive is not treated as a limitation on disclosure if the advisor confirms to the taxpayer that there is no limitation on disclosure of the tax treatment or tax structure of the transaction.

(iii) Minimum fee. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(3), the minimum fee is—

(A) $250,000 for a transaction if the taxpayer is a corporation;

(B) $50,000 for all other transactions unless the taxpayer is a partnership or trust, all of the owners or beneficiaries of which are corporations (looking through any partners or beneficiaries that are themselves partnerships or trusts), in which case the minimum fee is $250,000.

(iv) Determination of minimum fee. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(3), in determining the minimum fee, all fees for a tax strategy or for services for advice (whether or not tax advice) or for the implementation of a transaction are taken into account. Fees include consideration in whatever form paid, whether in cash or in kind, for services to analyze the transaction (whether or not related to the tax consequences of the transaction), for services to implement the transaction, for services to document the transaction, and for services to prepare tax returns to the extent return preparation fees are unreasonable in light of the facts and circumstances. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(3), a taxpayer also is treated as paying fees to an advisor if the taxpayer knows or should know that the amount it pays will be paid indirectly to the advisor, such as through a referral fee or fee-sharing arrangement. A fee does not include amounts paid to a person, including an advisor, in that person's capacity as a party to the transaction. For example, a fee does not include reasonable charges for the use of capital or the sale or use of property. The IRS will scrutinize carefully all of the facts and circumstances in determining whether consideration received in connection with a confidential transaction constitutes fees.

(v) Related parties. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(3), persons who bear a relationship to each other as described in section 267(b) or 707(b) will be treated as the same person.

(4) Transactions with contractual protection—(i) In general. A transaction with contractual protection is a transaction for which the taxpayer or a related party (as described in section 267(b) or 707(b)) has the right to a full or partial refund of fees (as described in paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section) if all or part of the intended tax consequences from the transaction are not sustained. A transaction with contractual protection also is a transaction for which fees (as described in paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section) are contingent on the taxpayer's realization of tax benefits from the transaction. All the facts and circumstances relating to the transaction will be considered when determining whether a fee is refundable or contingent, including the right to reimbursements of amounts that the parties to the transaction have not designated as fees or any agreement to provide services without reasonable compensation.

(ii) Fees. Paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section only applies with respect to fees paid by or on behalf of the taxpayer or a related party to any person who makes or provides a statement, oral or written, to the taxpayer or related party (or for whose benefit a statement is made or provided to the taxpayer or related party) as to the potential tax consequences that may result from the transaction.

(iii) Exceptions—(A) Termination of transaction. A transaction is not considered to have contractual protection solely because a party to the transaction has the right to terminate the transaction upon the happening of an event affecting the taxation of one or more parties to the transaction.

(B) Previously reported transaction. If a person makes or provides a statement to a taxpayer as to the potential tax consequences that may result from a transaction only after the taxpayer has entered into the transaction and reported the consequences of the transaction on a filed tax return, and the person has not previously received fees from the taxpayer relating to the transaction, then any refundable or contingent fees are not taken into account in determining whether the transaction has contractual protection. This paragraph (b)(4) does not provide any substantive rules regarding when a person may charge refundable or contingent fees with respect to a transaction. See Circular 230, 31 CFR part 10, for the regulations governing practice before the IRS.

(5) Loss transactions—(i) In general. A loss transaction is any transaction resulting in the taxpayer claiming a loss under section 165 of at least—

(A) $10 million in any single taxable year or $20 million in any combination of taxable years for corporations;

(B) $10 million in any single taxable year or $20 million in any combination of taxable years for partnerships that have only corporations as partners (looking through any partners that are themselves partnerships), whether or not any losses flow through to one or more partners; or

(C) $2 million in any single taxable year or $4 million in any combination of taxable years for all other partnerships, whether or not any losses flow through to one or more partners;

(D) $2 million in any single taxable year or $4 million in any combination of taxable years for individuals, S corporations, or trusts, whether or not any losses flow through to one or more shareholders or beneficiaries; or

(E) $50,000 in any single taxable year for individuals or trusts, whether or not the loss flows through from an S corporation or partnership, if the loss arises with respect to a section 988 transaction (as defined in section 988(c)(1) relating to foreign currency transactions).

(ii) Cumulative losses. In determining whether a transaction results in a taxpayer claiming a loss that meets the threshold amounts over a combination of taxable years as described in paragraph (b)(5)(i) of this section, only losses claimed in the taxable year that the transaction is entered into and the five succeeding taxable years are combined.

(iii) Section 165 loss—(A) For purposes of this section, in determining the thresholds in paragraph (b)(5)(i) of this section, the amount of a section 165 loss is adjusted for any salvage value and for any insurance or other compensation received. See §1.165-1(c)(4). However, a section 165 loss does not take into account offsetting gains, or other income or limitations. For example, a section 165 loss does not take into account the limitation in section 165(d) (relating to wagering losses) or the limitations in sections 165(f), 1211, and 1212 (relating to capital losses). The full amount of a section 165 loss is taken into account for the year in which the loss is sustained, regardless of whether all or part of the loss enters into the computation of a net operating loss under section 172 or a net capital loss under section 1212 that is a carryback or carryover to another year. A section 165 loss does not include any portion of a loss, attributable to a capital loss carryback or carryover from another year, that is treated as a deemed capital loss under section 1212.

(B) For purposes of this section, a section 165 loss includes an amount deductible pursuant to a provision that treats a transaction as a sale or other disposition, or otherwise results in a deduction under section 165. A section 165 loss includes, for example, a loss resulting from a sale or exchange of a partnership interest under section 741 and a loss resulting from a section 988 transaction.

(6) Transactions of interest. A transaction of interest is a transaction that is the same as or substantially similar to one of the types of transactions that the IRS has identified by notice, regulation, or other form of published guidance as a transaction of interest.

(7) [Reserved]

(8) Exceptions—(i) In general. A transaction will not be considered a reportable transaction, or will be excluded from any individual category of reportable transaction under paragraphs (b)(3) through (7) of this section, if the Commissioner makes a determination by published guidance that the transaction is not subject to the reporting requirements of this section. The Commissioner may make a determination by individual letter ruling under paragraph (f) of this section that an individual letter ruling request on a specific transaction satisfies the reporting requirements of this section with regard to that transaction for the taxpayer who requests the individual letter ruling.

(ii) Special rule for RICs. For purposes of this section, a regulated investment company (RIC) as defined in section 851 or an investment vehicle that is owned 95 percent or more by one or more RICs at all times during the course of the transaction is not required to disclose a transaction that is described in any of paragraphs (b)(3) through (5) and (b)(7) of this section unless the transaction is also a listed transaction or a transaction of interest.

(c) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply:

(1) Taxpayer. The term taxpayer means any person described in section 7701(a)(1), including S corporations. Except as otherwise specifically provided in this section, the term taxpayer also includes an affiliated group of corporations that joins in the filing of a consolidated return under section 1501.

(2) Corporation. When used specifically in this section, the term corporation means an entity that is required to file a return for a taxable year on any 1120 series form, or successor form, excluding S corporations.

(3) Participation—(i) In general—(A) Listed transactions. A taxpayer has participated in a listed transaction if the taxpayer's tax return reflects tax consequences or a tax strategy described in the published guidance that lists the transaction under paragraph (b)(2) of this section. A taxpayer also has participated in a listed transaction if the taxpayer knows or has reason to know that the taxpayer's tax benefits are derived directly or indirectly from tax consequences or a tax strategy described in published guidance that lists a transaction under paragraph (b)(2) of this section. Published guidance may identify other types or classes of persons that will be treated as participants in a listed transaction. Published guidance also may identify types or classes of persons that will not be treated as participants in a listed transaction.

(B) Confidential transactions. A taxpayer has participated in a confidential transaction if the taxpayer's tax return reflects a tax benefit from the transaction and the taxpayer's disclosure of the tax treatment or tax structure of the transaction is limited in the manner described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section. If a partnership's, S corporation's or trust's disclosure is limited, and the partner's, shareholder's, or beneficiary's disclosure is not limited, then the partnership, S corporation, or trust, and not the partner, shareholder, or beneficiary, has participated in the confidential transaction.

(C) Transactions with contractual protection. A taxpayer has participated in a transaction with contractual protection if the taxpayer's tax return reflects a tax benefit from the transaction and, as described in paragraph (b)(4) of this section, the taxpayer has the right to the full or partial refund of fees or the fees are contingent. If a partnership, S corporation, or trust has the right to a full or partial refund of fees or has a contingent fee arrangement, and the partner, shareholder, or beneficiary does not individually have the right to the refund of fees or a contingent fee arrangement, then the partnership, S corporation, or trust, and not the partner, shareholder, or beneficiary, has participated in the transaction with contractual protection.

(D) Loss transactions. A taxpayer has participated in a loss transaction if the taxpayer's tax return reflects a section 165 loss and the amount of the section 165 loss equals or exceeds the threshold amount applicable to the taxpayer as described in paragraph (b)(5)(i) of this section. If a taxpayer is a partner in a partnership, shareholder in an S corporation, or beneficiary of a trust and a section 165 loss as described in paragraph (b)(5) of this section flows through the entity to the taxpayer (disregarding netting at the entity level), the taxpayer has participated in a loss transaction if the taxpayer's tax return reflects a section 165 loss and the amount of the section 165 loss that flows through to the taxpayer equals or exceeds the threshold amounts applicable to the taxpayer as described in paragraph (b)(5)(i) of this section. For this purpose, a tax return is deemed to reflect the full amount of a section 165 loss described in paragraph (b)(5) of this section allocable to the taxpayer under this paragraph (c)(3)(i)(D), regardless of whether all or part of the loss enters into the computation of a net operating loss under section 172 or net capital loss under section 1212 that the taxpayer may carry back or carry over to another year.

(E) Transactions of interest. A taxpayer has participated in a transaction of interest if the taxpayer is one of the types or classes of persons identified as participants in the transaction in the published guidance describing the transaction of interest.

(F) [Reserved]

(G) Shareholders of foreign corporations—(1) In general. A reporting shareholder of a foreign corporation participates in a transaction described in paragraphs (b)(2) through (5) and (b)(7) of this section if the foreign corporation would be considered to participate in the transaction under the rules of this paragraph (c)(3) if it were a domestic corporation filing a tax return that reflects the items from the transaction. A reporting shareholder of a foreign corporation participates in a transaction described in paragraph (b)(6) of this section only if the published guidance identifying the transaction includes the reporting shareholder among the types or classes of persons identified as participants. A reporting shareholder (and any successor in interest) is considered to participate in a transaction under this paragraph (c)(3)(i)(G) only for its first taxable year with or within which ends the first taxable year of the foreign corporation in which the foreign corporation participates in the transaction, and for the reporting shareholder's five succeeding taxable years.

(2) Reporting shareholder. The term reporting shareholder means a United States shareholder (as defined in section 951(b)) in a controlled foreign corporation (as defined in section 957) or a 10 percent shareholder (by vote or value) of a qualified electing fund (as defined in section 1295).

(ii) Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section:

Example 1. Notice 2003-55 (2003-2 CB 395), which modified and superseded Notice 95-53 (1995-2 CB 334) (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter), describes a lease stripping transaction in which one party (the transferor) assigns the right to receive future payments under a lease of tangible property and treats the amount realized from the assignment as its current income. The transferor later transfers the property subject to the lease in a transaction intended to qualify as a transferred basis transaction, for example, a transaction described in section 351. The transferee corporation claims the deductions associated with the high basis property subject to the lease. The transferor's and transferee corporation's tax returns reflect tax positions described in Notice 2003-55. Therefore, the transferor and transferee corporation have participated in the listed transaction. In the section 351 transaction, the transferor will have received stock with low value and high basis from the transferee corporation. If the transferor subsequently transfers the high basis/low value stock to a taxpayer in another transaction intended to qualify as a transferred basis transaction and the taxpayer uses the stock to generate a loss, and if the taxpayer knows or has reason to know that the tax loss claimed was derived indirectly from the lease stripping transaction, then the taxpayer has participated in the listed transaction. Accordingly, the taxpayer must disclose the transaction and the manner of the taxpayer's participation in the transaction under the rules of this section. For purposes of this example, if a bank lends money to the transferor, transferee corporation, or taxpayer for use in their transactions, the bank has not participated in the listed transaction because the bank's tax return does not reflect tax consequences or a tax strategy described in the listing notice (nor does the bank's tax return reflect a tax benefit derived from tax consequences or a tax strategy described in the listing notice) nor is the bank described as a participant in the listing notice.

Example 2. XYZ is a limited liability company treated as a partnership for tax purposes. X, Y, and Z are members of XYZ. X is an individual, Y is an S corporation, and Z is a partnership. XYZ enters into a confidential transaction under paragraph (b)(3) of this section. XYZ and X are bound by the confidentiality agreement, but Y and Z are not bound by the agreement. As a result of the transaction, XYZ, X, Y, and Z all reflect a tax benefit on their tax returns. Because XYZ's and X's disclosure of the tax treatment and tax structure are limited in the manner described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section and their tax returns reflect a tax benefit from the transaction, both XYZ and X have participated in the confidential transaction. Neither Y nor Z has participated in the confidential transaction because they are not subject to the confidentiality agreement.

Example 3. P, a corporation, has an 80% partnership interest in PS, and S, an individual, has a 20% partnership interest in PS. P, S, and PS are calendar year taxpayers. In 2006, PS enters into a transaction and incurs a section 165 loss (that does not meet any of the exceptions to a section 165 loss identified in published guidance) of $12 million and offsetting gain of $3 million. On PS' 2006 tax return, PS includes the section 165 loss and the corresponding gain. PS must disclose the transaction under this section because PS' section 165 loss of $12 million is equal to or greater than $2 million. P is allocated $9.6 million of the section 165 loss and $2.4 million of the offsetting gain. P does not have to disclose the transaction under this section because P's section 165 loss of $9.6 million is not equal to or greater than $10 million. S is allocated $2.4 million of the section 165 loss and $600,000 of the offsetting gain. S must disclose the transaction under this section because S's section 165 loss of $2.4 million is equal to or greater than $2 million.

(4) Substantially similar. The term substantially similar includes any transaction that is expected to obtain the same or similar types of tax consequences and that is either factually similar or based on the same or similar tax strategy. Receipt of an opinion regarding the tax consequences of the transaction is not relevant to the determination of whether the transaction is the same as or substantially similar to another transaction. Further, the term substantially similar must be broadly construed in favor of disclosure. For example, a transaction may be substantially similar to a listed transaction even though it involves different entities or uses different Internal Revenue Code provisions. (See for example, Notice 2003-54 (2003-2 CB 363), describing a transaction substantially similar to the transactions in Notice 2002-50 (2002-2 CB 98), and Notice 2002-65 (2002-2 CB 690).) The following examples illustrate situations where a transaction is the same as or substantially similar to a listed transaction under paragraph (b)(2) of this section. (Such transactions may also be reportable transactions under paragraphs (b)(3) through (7) of this section.) See §601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter. The following examples illustrate the provisions of this paragraph (c)(4):

Example 1. Notice 2000-44 (2000-2 CB 255) (see §601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter), sets forth a listed transaction involving offsetting options transferred to a partnership where the taxpayer claims basis in the partnership for the cost of the purchased options but does not adjust basis under section 752 as a result of the partnership's assumption of the taxpayer's obligation with respect to the options. Transactions using short sales, futures, derivatives or any other type of offsetting obligations to inflate basis in a partnership interest would be the same as or substantially similar to the transaction described in Notice 2000-44. Moreover, use of the inflated basis in the partnership interest to diminish gain that would otherwise be recognized on the transfer of a partnership asset would also be the same as or substantially similar to the transaction described in Notice 2000-44. See §601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b).

Example 2. Notice 2001-16 (2001-1 CB 730) (see §601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter), sets forth a listed transaction involving a seller (X) who desires to sell stock of a corporation (T), an intermediary corporation (M), and a buyer (Y) who desires to purchase the assets (and not the stock) of T. M agrees to facilitate the sale to prevent the recognition of the gain that T would otherwise report. Notice 2001-16 describes M as a member of a consolidated group that has a loss within the group or as a party not subject to tax. Transactions utilizing different intermediaries to prevent the recognition of gain would be the same as or substantially similar to the transaction described in Notice 2001-16. An example is a transaction in which M is a corporation that does not file a consolidated return but which buys T stock, liquidates T, sells assets of T to Y, and offsets the gain on the sale of those assets with currently generated losses. See §601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b).

(5) Tax. The term tax means Federal income tax.

(6) Tax benefit. A tax benefit includes deductions, exclusions from gross income, nonrecognition of gain, tax credits, adjustments (or the absence of adjustments) to the basis of property, status as an entity exempt from Federal income taxation, and any other tax consequences that may reduce a taxpayer's Federal income tax liability by affecting the amount, timing, character, or source of any item of income, gain, expense, loss, or credit.

(7) Tax return. The term tax return means a Federal income tax return and a Federal information return.

(8) Tax treatment. The tax treatment of a transaction is the purported or claimed Federal income tax treatment of the transaction.

(9) Tax structure. The tax structure of a transaction is any fact that may be relevant to understanding the purported or claimed Federal income tax treatment of the transaction.

(d) Form and content of disclosure statement. A taxpayer required to file a disclosure statement under this section must file a completed Form 8886, “Reportable Transaction Disclosure Statement” (or a successor form), in accordance with this paragraph (d) and the instructions to the form. The Form 8886 (or a successor form) is the disclosure statement required under this section. The form must be attached to the appropriate tax return(s) as provided in paragraph (e) of this section. If a copy of a disclosure statement is required to be sent to the Office of Tax Shelter Analysis (OTSA) under paragraph (e) of this section, it must be sent in accordance with the instructions to the form. To be considered complete, the information provided on the form must describe the expected tax treatment and all potential tax benefits expected to result from the transaction, describe any tax result protection (as defined in §301.6111-3(c)(12) of this chapter) with respect to the transaction, and identify and describe the transaction in sufficient detail for the IRS to be able to understand the tax structure of the reportable transaction and the identity of all parties involved in the transaction. An incomplete Form 8886 (or a successor form) containing a statement that information will be provided upon request is not considered a complete disclosure statement. If the form is not completed in accordance with the provisions in this paragraph (d) and the instructions to the form, the taxpayer will not be considered to have complied with the disclosure requirements of this section. If a taxpayer receives one or more reportable transaction numbers for a reportable transaction, the taxpayer must include the reportable transaction number(s) on the Form 8886 (or a successor form). See §301.6111-3(d)(2) of this chapter.

(e) Time of providing disclosure—(1) In general. The disclosure statement for a reportable transaction must be attached to the taxpayer's tax return for each taxable year for which a taxpayer participates in a reportable transaction. In addition, a disclosure statement for a reportable transaction must be attached to each amended return that reflects a taxpayer's participation in a reportable transaction. A copy of the disclosure statement must be sent to OTSA at the same time that any disclosure statement is first filed by the taxpayer pertaining to a particular reportable transaction. If a reportable transaction results in a loss which is carried back to a prior year, the disclosure statement for the reportable transaction must be attached to the taxpayer's application for tentative refund or amended tax return for that prior year. In the case of a taxpayer that is a partnership, an S corporation, or a trust, the disclosure statement for a reportable transaction must be attached to the partnership, S corporation, or trust's tax return for each taxable year in which the partnership, S corporation, or trust participates in the transaction under the rules of paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section. If a taxpayer who is a partner in a partnership, a shareholder in an S corporation, or a beneficiary of a trust receives a timely Schedule K-1 less than 10 calendar days before the due date of the taxpayer's return (including extensions) and, based on receipt of the timely Schedule K-1, the taxpayer determines that the taxpayer participated in a reportable transaction within the meaning of paragraph (c)(3) of this section, the disclosure statement will not be considered late if the taxpayer discloses the reportable transaction by filing a disclosure statement with OTSA within 60 calendar days after the due date of the taxpayer's return (including extensions). The Commissioner in his discretion may issue in published guidance other provisions for disclosure under §1.6011-4.

(2) Special rules—(i) Listed transactions and transactions of interest. In general, if a transaction becomes a listed transaction or a transaction of interest after the filing of a taxpayer's tax return (including an amended return) reflecting the taxpayer's participation in the listed transaction or transaction of interest and before the end of the period of limitations for assessment of tax for any taxable year in which the taxpayer participated in the listed transaction or transaction of interest, then a disclosure statement must be filed, regardless of whether the taxpayer participated in the transaction in the year the transaction became a listed transaction or a transaction of interest, with OTSA within 90 calendar days after the date on which the transaction became a listed transaction or a transaction of interest. The Commissioner also may determine the time for disclosure of listed transactions and transactions of interest in the published guidance identifying the transaction.

(ii) Loss transactions. If a transaction becomes a loss transaction because the losses equal or exceed the threshold amounts as described in paragraph (b)(5)(i) of this section, a disclosure statement must be filed as an attachment to the taxpayer's tax return for the first taxable year in which the threshold amount is reached and to any subsequent tax return that reflects any amount of section 165 loss from the transaction.

(3) Multiple disclosures. The taxpayer must disclose the transaction in the time and manner provided for under the provisions of this section regardless of whether the taxpayer also plans to disclose the transaction under other published guidance, for example, §1.6662-3(c)(2).

(4) Example. The following example illustrates the application of this paragraph (e):

Example. In January of 2008, F, a calendar year taxpayer, enters into a transaction that at the time is not a listed transaction and is not a transaction described in any of the paragraphs (b)(3) through (7) of this section. All the tax benefits from the transaction are reported on F's 2008 tax return filed timely in April 2009. On May 2, 2011, the IRS publishes a notice identifying the transaction as a listed transaction described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section. Upon issuance of the May 2, 2011 notice, the transaction becomes a reportable transaction described in paragraph (b) of this section. The period of limitations on assessment for F's 2008 taxable year is still open. F is required to file Form 8886 for the transaction with OTSA within 90 calendar days after May 2, 2011.

(f) Rulings and protective disclosures—(1) Rulings. If a taxpayer requests a ruling on the merits of a specific transaction on or before the date that disclosure would otherwise be required under this section, and receives a favorable ruling as to the transaction, the disclosure rules under this section will be deemed to have been satisfied by that taxpayer with regard to that transaction, so long as the request fully discloses all relevant facts relating to the transaction which would otherwise be required to be disclosed under this section. If a taxpayer requests a ruling as to whether a specific transaction is a reportable transaction on or before the date that disclosure would otherwise be required under this section, the Commissioner in his discretion may determine that the submission satisfies the disclosure rules under this section for the taxpayer requesting the ruling for that transaction if the request fully discloses all relevant facts relating to the transaction which would otherwise be required to be disclosed under this section. The potential obligation of the taxpayer to disclose the transaction under this section will not be suspended during the period that the ruling request is pending.

(2) Protective disclosures. If a taxpayer is uncertain whether a transaction must be disclosed under this section, the taxpayer may disclose the transaction in accordance with the requirements of this section and comply with all the provisions of this section, and indicate on the disclosure statement that the disclosure statement is being filed on a protective basis. The IRS will not treat disclosure statements filed on a protective basis any differently than other disclosure statements filed under this section. For a protective disclosure to be effective, the taxpayer must comply with these disclosure regulations by providing to the IRS all information requested by the IRS under this section.

(g) Retention of documents. (1) In accordance with the instructions to Form 8886 (or a successor form), the taxpayer must retain a copy of all documents and other records related to a transaction subject to disclosure under this section that are material to an understanding of the tax treatment or tax structure of the transaction. The documents must be retained until the expiration of the statute of limitations applicable to the final taxable year for which disclosure of the transaction was required under this section. (This document retention requirement is in addition to any document retention requirements that section 6001 generally imposes on the taxpayer.) The documents may include the following:

(i) Marketing materials related to the transaction;

(ii) Written analyses used in decision-making related to the transaction;

(iii) Correspondence and agreements between the taxpayer and any advisor, lender, or other party to the reportable transaction that relate to the transaction;

(iv) Documents discussing, referring to, or demonstrating the purported or claimed tax benefits arising from the reportable transaction; and documents, if any, referring to the business purposes for the reportable transaction.

(2) A taxpayer is not required to retain earlier drafts of a document if the taxpayer retains a copy of the final document (or, if there is no final document, the most recent draft of the document) and the final document (or most recent draft) contains all the information in the earlier drafts of the document that is material to an understanding of the purported tax treatment or tax structure of the transaction.

(h) Effective/applicability date—(1) In general. This section applies to transactions entered into on or after August 3, 2007. However, this section applies to transactions of interest entered into on or after November 2, 2006. Paragraph (f)(1) of this section applies to ruling requests received on or after November 1, 2006. Otherwise, the rules that apply with respect to transactions entered into before August 3, 2007, are contained in §1.6011-4 in effect prior to August 3, 2007 (see 26 CFR part 1 revised as of April 1, 2007).

(2) [Reserved]

[T.D. 9350, 72 FR 43149, Aug. 3, 2007, as amended at 75 FR 26061, May 11, 2010]

§1.6011-5   Required use of magnetic media for corporate income tax returns.

The return of a corporation that is required to be filed on magnetic media under §301.6011-5 of this chapter must be filed in accordance with Internal Revenue Service revenue procedures, publications, forms, or instructions, including those posted electronically. (See §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter).

[T.D. 9364, 72 FR 63810, Nov. 13, 2007]

§1.6011-6   [Reserved]

§1.6011-7   Specified tax return preparers required to file individual income tax returns using magnetic media.

Individual income tax returns that are required to be filed on magnetic media by tax return preparers under section 6011(e)(3) and §301.6011-7 of this chapter must be filed in accordance with Internal Revenue Service regulations, revenue procedures, revenue rulings, publications, forms or instructions, including those posted electronically.

[T.D. 9518, 76 FR 17528, Mar. 30, 2011]

§1.6011-8   Requirement of income tax return for taxpayers who claim the premium tax credit under section 36B.

(a) Requirement of return. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (a), a taxpayer who receives the benefit of advance payments of the premium tax credit under section 36B must file an income tax return for that taxable year on or before the due date for the return (including extensions of time for filing) and reconcile the advance credit payments. However, if advance credit payments are made for coverage of an individual for whom no taxpayer claims a personal exemption deduction, the taxpayer who attests to the Exchange to the intention to claim a personal exemption deduction for the individual as part of the determination that the taxpayer is eligible for advance credit payments must file a tax return and reconcile the advance credit payments.

(b) Effective/applicability date. Except as otherwise provided, this section applies for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2016. Paragraph (a) of §1.6011-8 as contained in 26 CFR part I edition revised as of April 1, 2016, applies to taxable years ending after December 31, 2013, and beginning before January 1, 2017.

[T.D. 9804, 81 FR 91768, Dec. 19, 2016]

§1.6012-1   Individuals required to make returns of income.

(a) Individual citizen or resident—(1) In general. Except as provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, an income tax return must be filed by every individual for each taxable year beginning before January 1, 1973, during which he receives $600 or more of gross income, and for each taxable year beginning after December 31, 1972, during which he receives $750 or more of gross income, if such individual is:

(i) A citizen of the United States, whether residing at home or abroad,

(ii) A resident of the United States even though not a citizen thereof, or

(iii) An alien bona fide resident of Puerto Rico or any section 931 possession, as defined in §1.931-1(c)(1), during the entire taxable year

(2) Special rules. (i) For taxable years beginning before January 1, 1970, an individual who is described in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph and who has attained the age of 65 before the close of his taxable year must file an income tax return only if he receives $1,200 or more of gross income during his taxable year.

(ii) For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969, and before January 1, 1973, an individual described in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph (other than an individual referred to in section 142(b)):

(a) Who is not married (as determined by applying section 143(a) and the regulations thereunder) must file an income tax return only if he receives $1,700 or more of gross income during his taxable year, except that if such an individual has attained the age of 65 before the close of his taxable year an income tax return must be filed by such individual only if he receives $2,300 or more of gross income during his taxable year.

(b) Who is entitled to make a joint return under section 6013 and the regulations thereunder must file an income tax return only if his gross income received during his taxable year, when combined with the gross income of his spouse received during his taxable year, is $2,300 or more. However, if such individual or his spouse has attained the age of 65 before the close of the taxable year an income tax return must be filed by such individual only if their combined gross income is $2,900 or more. If both the individual and his spouse have attained the age of 65 before the close of the taxable year such return must be filed only if their combined gross income is $3,500 or more. However, this subdivision (ii)(b) shall not apply if the individual and his spouse did not have the same household as their home at the close of their taxable year, if such spouse files a separate return for a taxable year which includes any part of such individual's taxable year, or if any other taxpayer is entitled to an exemption for such individual or his spouse under section 151(e) for such other taxpayer's taxable year beginning in the calendar year in which such individual's taxable year begins. For example, a married student more than half of whose support is furnished by his father must file an income tax return if he receives $600 or more of gross income during his taxable year.

(iii) For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1972, an individual described in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph (other than an individual referred to in section 142(b)):

(a) Who is not married (as determined by applying section 143(a) and the regulations thereunder) must file an income tax return only if he receives $1,750 or more of gross income during his taxable year, except that if such an individual has attained the age of 65 before the close of his taxable year an income tax return must be filed by such individual only if he receives $2,500 or more of gross income during his taxable year.

(b) Who is entitled to make a joint return under section 6013 and the regulations thereunder must file an income tax return only if his gross income received during his taxable year, when combined with the gross income of his spouse received during his taxable year, is $2,500 or more. However, if such individual or his spouse has attained the age of 65 before the close of the taxable year an income tax return must be filed by such individual only if their combined gross income is $3,250 or more. If both the individual and his spouse attain the age of 65 before the close of the taxable year such return must be filed only if their combined gross income is $4,000 or more. However, this subdivision (iii)(b) shall not apply if the individual and his spouse did not have the same household as their home at the close of their taxable year, if such spouse files a separate return for a taxable year which includes any part of such individual's taxable year, or if any other taxpayer is entitled to an exemption for the taxpayer or his spouse under section 151(e) for such other taxpayer's taxable year beginning in the calendar year in which such individual's taxable year begins. For example, a married student more than half of whose support is furnished by his father must file an income tax return if he receives $750 or more of gross income during the taxable year.

(iv) For purposes of section 6012(a)(1)(A)(ii) and subdivisions (ii)(b) and (iii)(b) of this subparagraph, an individual and his spouse are considered to have the same household as their home at the close of a taxable year if the same household constituted the principal place of abode of both the individual and his spouse at the close of such taxable year (or on the date of death, if the individual or his spouse died within the taxable year). The individual and his spouse will be considered to have the same household as their home at the close of the taxable year notwithstanding a temporary absence from the household due to special circumstances, as, for example, in the case of a nonpermanent failure on the part of the individual and his spouse to have a common abode by reason of illness, education, business, vacation, or military service. For example, A, a calendar-year individual under 65 years of age, is married to B, also under 65 years of age, and is a member of the Armed Forces of the United States. During 1970 A is transferred to an overseas base. A and B give up their home, which they had jointly occupied until that time; B moves to the home of her parents for the duration of A's absence. They fully intend to set up a new joint household upon A's return. Neither A nor B must file a return for 1970 if their combined gross income for the year is less than $2,300 and if no other taxpayer is entitled to a dependency exemption for A or B under section 151(e).

(v) In the case of a short taxable year referred to in section 443(a)(1), an individual described in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph shall file an income tax return if his gross income received during such short taxable year equals or exceeds his own personal exemption allowed by section 151(b) (prorated as provided in section 443(c)) and, when applicable, his additional exemption for age 65 or more allowed by section 151(c)(1) (prorated as provided in section 443(c)).

(vi) For rules relating to returns required to be made by every individual who is liable for one or more qualified State individual income taxes, as defined in section 6362, for a taxable year, see paragraph (b) of §301.6361-1 of this chapter (Regulations on Procedure and Administration).

(vii) For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978, an individual who receives payments during the calendar year in which the taxable year begins under section 3507 (relating to advance payment of earned income credit) must file an income tax return.

(viii) For rules relating to returns required of taxpayers who receive advance payments of the premium tax credit under section 36B, see §1.6011-8(a).

(3) Earned income from without the United States and gain from sale of residence. For the purpose of determining whether an income tax return must be filed for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1957, gross income shall be computed without regard to the exclusion provided for in section 911 (relating to earned income from sources without the United States). For the purpose of determining whether an income tax return must be filed for any taxable year ending after December 31, 1963, gross income shall be computed without regard to the exclusion provided for in section 121 (relating to sale of residence by individual who has attained age 65). In the case of an individual claiming an exclusion under section 121, he shall attach Form 2119 to the return required under this paragraph and in the case of an individual claiming an exclusion under section 911, he shall attach Form 2555 to the return required under this paragraph.

(4) Return of income of minor. A minor is subject to the same requirements and elections for making returns of income as are other individuals. Thus, for example, for a taxable year beginning after December 31, 1972, a return must be made by or for a minor who has an aggregate of $1,750 of gross income from funds held in trust for him and from his personal services, regardless of the amount of his taxable income. The return of a minor must be made by the minor himself or must be made for him by his guardian or other person charged with the care of the minor's person or property. See paragraph (b)(3) of §1.6012-3. See §1.73-1 for inclusion in the minor's gross income of amounts received for his personal services. For the amount of tax which is considered to have been properly assessed against the parent, if not paid by the child, see section 6201(c) and paragraph (c) of §301.6201-1 of this chapter (Regulations on Procedure and Administration).

(5) Returns made by agents. The return of income may be made by an agent if, by reason of disease or injury, the person liable for the making of the return is unable to make it. The return may also be made by an agent if the taxpayer is unable to make the return by reason of continuous absence from the United States (including Puerto Rico as if a part of the United States) for a period of at least 60 days prior to the date prescribed by law for making the return. In addition, a return may be made by an agent if the taxpayer requests permission, in writing, of the district director for the internal revenue district in which is located the legal residence or principal place of business of the person liable for the making of the return, and such district director determines that good cause exists for permitting the return to be so made. However, assistance in the preparation of the return may be rendered under any circumstances. Whenever a return is made by an agent it must be accompanied by a power of attorney (or copy thereof) authorizing him to represent his principal in making, executing, or filing the return. A form 2848, when properly completed, is sufficient. In addition, where one spouse is physically unable by reason of disease or injury to sign a joint return, the other spouse may, with the oral consent of the one who is incapacitated, sign the incapacitated spouse's name in the proper place on the return followed by the words “By __________ Husband (or Wife),” and by the signature of the signing spouse in his own right, provided that a dated statement signed by the spouse who is signing the return is attached to and made a part of the return stating:

(i) The name of the return being filed,

(ii) The taxable year,

(iii) The reason for the inability of the spouse who is incapacitated to sign the return, and

(iv) That the spouse who is incapacitated consented to the signing of the return.

The taxpayer and his agent, if any, are responsible for the return as made and incur liability for the penalties provided for erroneous, false, or fraudulent returns.

(6) Form of return. Form 1040 is prescribed for general use in making the return required under this paragraph. Form 1040A is an optional short form which, in accordance with paragraph (a)(7) of this section, may be used by certain taxpayers. A taxpayer otherwise entitled to use Form 1040A as his return for any taxable year may not make his return on such form if he elects not to take the standard deduction provided in section 141, and in such case he must make his return on Form 1040. For taxable years beginning before January 1, 1970, a taxpayer entitled under section 6014 and §1.6014-1 to elect not to show his tax on his return must, if he desires to exercise such election, make his return on Form 1040A. Form 1040W is an optional short form which, in accordance with paragraph (a)(8) of this section, may be used only with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1958, and ending before December 31, 1961.

(7)(i) Use of Form 1040A. Form 1040A may be filed only by those individuals entitled to use such form as provided by and in accordance with the instructions for such form.

(ii) Computation and payment of tax. Unless a taxpayer is entitled to elect under section 6014 and §1.6014-1 not to show the tax on Form 1040A and does so elect, he shall compute and show on his return on Form 1040A the amount of the tax imposed by subtitle A of the Code and shall, without notice and demand therefor, pay any unpaid balance of such tax not later than the date fixed for filing the return.

(iii) Change of election to use Form 1040A. A taxpayer who has elected to make his return on Form 1040A may change such election. Such change of election shall be within the time and subject to the conditions prescribed in section 144(b) and §1.144-2 relating to change of election to take, or not to take the standard deduction.

(8) Use of Form 1040W for certain taxable years—(i) In general. An individual may use Form 1040W as his return for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1958, and ending before December 31, 1961, in which the gross income of the individual, regardless of the amount thereof:

(a) Consists entirely of remuneration for personal services performed as an employee (whether or not such remuneration constitutes wages as defined in section 3401(a)), dividends, or interest, and

(b) Does not include more than $200 from dividends and interest.

For purposes of determining whether gross income from dividends and interest exceeds $200, dividends from domestic corporations are taken into account to the extent that they are includible in gross income. For purposes of this subparagraph, any reference to Form 1040 in §§1.4-2, 1.142-1, and 1.144-1 and this section shall also be deemed a reference to Form 1040W.

(ii) Change of election to use Form 1040W. A taxpayer who has elected to make his return on Form 1040W may change such election. Such change of election shall be within the time and subject to the conditions prescribed in section 144(b) and §1.144-2, relating to change of election to take, or not to take, the standard deduction.

(iii) Joint return of husband and wife on Form 1040W. A husband and wife, eligible under section 6013 and the regulations thereunder to file a joint return for the taxable year, may, subject to the provisions of this subparagraph, make a joint return on Form 1040W for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1958, and ending before December 31, 1961, in which the aggregate gross income of the spouses (regardless of amount) consists entirely of remuneration for personal services performed as an employee (whether or not such remuneration constitutes wages as defined in section 3401(a)), dividends, or interest, and does not include more than $200 from dividends and interest. For purposes of determining whether gross income from sources to which the $200 limitation applies exceeds such amount in cases where both spouses receive dividends from domestic corporations, the amount of such dividends received by each spouse is taken into account to the extent that such dividends are includible in gross income. See section 116 and §§1.116-1 and 1.116-2. If a joint return is made by husband and wife on Form 1040W, the liability for the tax shall be joint and several.

(9) Items of tax preference. For a taxable year ending after December 31, 1969, an individual shall attach Form 4625 to the return required by this paragraph if during the year the individual:

(i) Has items of tax preference (described in section 57) in excess of its minimum tax exemption (determined under §1.58-1) or

(ii) Uses a net operating loss carryover from a prior taxable year in which it deferred minimum tax under section 56(b).

(b) Return of nonresident alien individual—(1) Requirement of return—(i) In general. Except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, every nonresident alien individual (other than one treated as a resident under section 6013 (g) or (h)) who is engaged in trade or business in the United States at any time during the taxable year or who has income which is subject to taxation under subtitle A of the Code shall make a return on Form 1040NR. For this purpose it is immaterial that the gross income for the taxable year is less than the minimum amount specified in section 6012(a) for making a return. Thus, a nonresident alien individual who is engaged in a trade or business in the United States at any time during the taxable year is required to file a return on Form 1040 NR even though (a) he has no income which is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States, (b) he has no income from sources within the United States, or (c) his income is exempt from income tax by reason of an income tax convention or any section of the Code. However, if the nonresident alien individual has no gross income for the taxable year, he is not required to complete the return schedules but must attach a statement to the return indicating the nature of any exclusions claimed and the amount of such exclusions to the extent such amounts are readily determinable.

(ii) Treaty income. If the gross income of a nonresident alien individual includes treaty income, as defined in paragraph (b)(1) of §1.871-12, a statement shall be attached to the return on Form 1040NR showing with respect to that income:

(a) The amounts of tax withheld,

(b) The names and post office addresses of withholding agents, and

(c) Such other information as may be required by the return form, or by the instructions issued with respect to the form, to show the taxpayer's entitlement to the reduced rate of tax under the tax convention.

(2) Exceptions—(i) Return not required when tax is fully paid at source. A nonresident alien individual (other than one treated as a resident under section 6013 (g) or (h)) who at no time during the taxable year is engaged in a trade or business in the United States is not required to make a return for the taxable year if his tax liability for the taxable year is fully satisfied by the withholding of tax at source under chapter 3 of the Code. This subdivision does not apply to a nonresident alien individual who has income for the taxable year which is treated under section 871 (c) or (d) and §1.871-9 (relating to students or trainees) or §1.871-10 (relating to real property income) as income which is effectively connected for the taxable year with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States by that individual, or to a nonresident alien individual making a claim under §301.6402-3 of this chapter (Procedure and Administration Regulations) for the refund of an overpayment of tax for the taxable year. In addition, this subdivision does not apply to a nonresident alien individual who has income for the taxable year that is treated under section 871(b)(1) as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States by reason of the operation of section 897. For purposes of this subdivision, some of the items of income from sources within the United States upon which the tax liability will not have been fully satisfied by the withholding of tax at source under chapter 3 of the Code are:

(a) Interest upon so-called tax-free covenant bonds upon which, in accordance with section 1451 and §1.1451-1, a tax of only 2 percent is required to be withheld at the source,

(b) In the case of bonds or other evidences of indebtedness issued after September 28, 1965, amounts described in section 871(a)(1)(C),

(c) Capital gains described in section 871(a)(2) and paragraph (d) of §1.871-7, and

(d) Accrued interest received in connection with the sale of bonds between interest dates, which, in accordance with paragraph (h) of §1.1441-4, is not subject to withholding of tax at the source.

(ii) Return of individual for taxable year of change of U.S. citizenship or residence—(a) If an alien individual becomes a citizen or resident of the United States during the taxable year and is a citizen or resident of the United States on the last day of such year, he must make a return on Form 1040 for the taxable year. However, a separate schedule is required to be attached to this return to show the income tax computation for the part of the taxable year during which the alien was neither a citizen nor resident of the United States, unless an election under section 6013 (g) or (h) is in effect for the alien. A Form 1040NR, clearly marked “Statement” across the top, may be used as such a separate schedule.

(b) If an individual abandons his U.S. citizenship or residence during the taxable year and is not a citizen or resident of the United States on the last day of such year, he must make a return on Form 1040NR for the taxable year, even if an election under section 6013(g) was in effect for the taxable year preceding the year of abandonment. However, a separate schedule is required to be attached to this return to show the income tax computation for the part of the taxable year during which the individual was a citizen or resident of the United States. A Form 1040, clearly marked “Statement” across the top, may be used as such a separate schedule.

(c) A return is required under this subdivision (ii) only if the individual is otherwise required to make a return for the taxable year.

(iii) Beneficiaries of estates or trusts. A nonresident alien individual who is a beneficiary of an estate or trust which is engaged in trade or business in the United States is not required to make a return for the taxable year merely because he is deemed to be engaged in trade or business within the United States under section 875(2). However, such nonresident alien beneficiary will be required to make a return if he otherwise satisfies the conditions of subparagraph (1)(i) of this paragraph for making a return.

(iv) Certain alien residents of Puerto Rico. This paragraph does not apply to a nonresident alien individual who is a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico during the taxable year. See section 876 and paragraph (a)(1)(iii) of this section.

(3) Representative or agent for nonresident alien individual—(i) Cases where power of attorney is not required. The responsible representative or agent within the United States of a nonresident alien individual shall make on behalf of his nonresident alien principal a return of, and shall pay the tax on, all income coming within his control as representative or agent which is subject to the income tax under subtitle A of the Code. The agency appointment will determine how completely the agent is substituted for the principal for tax purposes. Any person who collects interest or dividends on deposited securities of a nonresident alien individual, executes ownership certificates in connection therewith, or sells such securities under special instructions shall not be deemed merely by reason of such acts to be the responsible representative or agent of the nonresident alien individual. If the responsible representative or agent does not have a specific power of attorney from the nonresident alien individual to file a return in his behalf, the return shall be accompanied by a statement to the effect that the representative or agent does not possess specific power of attorney to file a return for such individual but that the return is being filed in accordance with the provisions of this subdivision.

(ii) Cases where power of attorney is required. Whenever a return of income of a nonresident alien individual is made by an agent acting under a duly authorized power of attorney for that purpose, the return shall be accompanied by the power of attorney in proper form, or a copy thereof, specifically authorizing him to represent his principal in making, executing, and filing the income tax return. Form 2848 may be used for this purpose. The agent, as well as the taxpayer, may incur liability for the penalties provided for erroneous, false, or fraudulent returns. For the requirements regarding signing of returns, see §1.6061-1. The rules of paragraph (e) of §601.504 of this chapter (Statement of Procedural Rules) shall apply under this subparagraph in determining whether a copy of a power of attorney must be certified.

(iii) Limitation. A return of income shall be required under this subparagraph only if the nonresident alien individual is otherwise required to make a return in accordance with this paragraph.

(4) Disallowance of deductions and credits. For provisions disallowing deductions and credits when a return of income has not been filed by or on behalf of a nonresident alien individual, see section 874(a) and the regulations thereunder.

(5) Effective date. This paragraph shall apply for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1966, except that it shall not be applied to require (i) the filing of a return for any taxable year ending before January 1, 1974, which, pursuant to instructions applicable to the return, is not required to be filed or (ii) the amendment of a return for such a taxable year which, pursuant to such instructions, is required to be filed. For corresponding rules applicable to taxable years beginning before January 1, 1967, see 26 CFR 1.6012-1(b) (Revised as of January 1, 1967).

(c) Cross reference. For returns by fiduciaries for individuals, estates, and trusts, see §1.6012-3.

(Sec. 1445 (98 Stat. 655; 26 U.S.C. 1445), sec. 6012 (68A Stat. 732; 26 U.S.C. 6012), and 7805 (68A Stat. 917; 26 U.S.C. 7805) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954)

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 12108, Nov. 26, 1960]

Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting §1.6012-1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.govinfo.gov.

§1.6012-2   Corporations required to make returns of income.

(a) In general—(1) Requirement of return. Except as provided in paragraphs (e) and (g)(1) of this section with respect to charitable and other organizations having unrelated business income and to certain foreign corporations, respectively, every corporation, as defined in section 7701(a)(3), subject to taxation under subtitle A of the Code shall make a return of income regardless of whether it has taxable income or regardless of the amount of its gross income.

(2) Existence of corporation. A corporation in existence during any portion of a taxable year is required to make a return. If a corporation was not in existence throughout an annual accounting period (either calendar year or fiscal year), the corporation is required to make a return for that fractional part of a year during which it was in existence. A corporation is not in existence after it ceases business and dissolves, retaining no assets, whether or not under State law it may thereafter be treated as continuing as a corporation for certain limited purposes connected with winding up its affairs, such as for the purpose of suing and being sued. If the corporation has valuable claims for which it will bring suit during this period, it has retained assets and therefore continues in existence. A corporation does not go out of existence if it is turned over to receivers or trustees who continue to operate it. If a corporation has received a charter but has never perfected its organization and has transacted no business and has no income from any source, it may upon presentation of the facts to the district director be relieved from the necessity of making a return. In the absence of a proper showing of such facts to the district director, a corporation will be required to make a return.

(3) Form of return. The return required of a corporation under this section shall be made on Form 1120 unless the corporation is a type for which a special form is prescribed. The special forms of returns and schedules required of particular types of corporations are set forth in paragraphs (b) to (g), inclusive, of this section.

(4) Disclosure of uncertain tax positions. A corporation required to make a return under this section shall attach Schedule UTP, Uncertain Tax Position Statement, or any successor form, to such return, in accordance with forms, instructions, or other appropriate guidance provided by the IRS.

(5) Effective/applicability date. Paragraph (a)(4) of this section applies to returns filed for tax years beginning on or after January 1, 2010.

(b) Personal holding companies. A personal holding company, as defined in section 542, including a foreign corporation within the definition of such section, shall attach Schedule PH, Computation of U.S. Personal Holding Company Tax, to the return required by paragraph (a) or (g), as the case may be, of this section.

(c) Insurance companies—(1) Domestic life insurance companies—(i) In general. A life insurance company subject to tax under section 801 shall make a return on Form 1120-L, “U.S. Life Insurance Company Income Tax Return.” Except as provided in paragraph (c)(4) of this section, such company shall file with its return—

(A) A copy of its annual statement which shows the reserves used by the company in computing the taxable income reported on its return; and

(B) A copy of Schedule A (real estate) and of Schedule D (bonds and stocks), or any successor thereto, of such annual statement.

(ii) Mutual savings banks. Mutual savings banks conducting life insurance business and meeting the requirements of section 594 are subject to partial tax computed on Form 1120, “U.S. Corporation Income Tax Return,” and partial tax computed on Form 1120-L. The Form 1120-L is attached as a schedule to Form 1120, together with the annual statement and schedules required to be filed with Form 1120-L.

(2) Domestic nonlife insurance companies. Every domestic insurance company other than a life insurance company shall make a return on Form 1120-PC, “U.S. Property and Casualty Insurance Company Income Tax Return.” This includes organizations described in section 501(m)(1) that provide commercial-type insurance and organizations described in section 833. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(4) of this section, such company shall file with its return a copy of its annual statement (or a pro forma annual statement), including the underwriting and investment exhibit (or any successor thereto) for the year covered by such return.

(3) Foreign insurance companies. The provisions of paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(2) of this section concerning the returns and statements of insurance companies subject to tax under section 801 or section 831 also apply to foreign insurance companies subject to tax under those sections, except that the copy of the annual statement required to be submitted with the return shall, in the case of a foreign insurance company that is not required to file an annual statement, be a copy of the pro forma annual statement relating to the United States business of such company.

(4) Exception for insurance companies filing their Federal income tax returns electronically. If an insurance company described in paragraph (c)(1), (c)(2), or (c)(3) of this section files its Federal income tax return electronically, it should not include on or with such return its annual statement (or pro forma annual statement), or any portion thereof. Such statement must be available at all times for inspection by authorized Internal Revenue Service officers or employees and retained for so long as such statements may be material in the administration of any internal revenue law. See §1.6001-1(e).

(5) Definition. For purposes of this section, the term annual statement means the annual statement, the form of which is approved by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC), which is filed by an insurance company for the year with the insurance departments of States, Territories, and the District of Columbia. The term annual statement also includes a pro forma annual statement if the insurance company is not required to file the NAIC annual statement.

(d) Affiliated groups. For the forms to be used by affiliated corporations filing a consolidated return, see §1.1502-75.

(e) Charitable and other organizations with unrelated business income. Every organization described in section 511(a)(2) which is subject to the tax imposed by section 511(a)(1) on its unrelated business taxable income shall make a return on Form 990-T for each taxable year if it has gross income, included in computing unrelated business taxable income for such taxable year, of $1,000 or more. The filing of a return of unrelated business income does not relieve the organization of the duty of filing other required returns.

(f) Subchapter T cooperatives—(1) In general. For taxable years ending on or after December 31, 2007, a cooperative organization described in section 1381 (including a farmers' cooperative exempt from tax under section 521) is required to make a return, whether or not it has taxable income and regardless of the amount of its gross income, on Form 1120-C, “U.S. Income Tax Return for Cooperative Associations,” or such other form as may be designated by the Commissioner.

(2) Farmers' cooperatives. For taxable years ending before December 31, 2007, a farmers' cooperative organization described in section 521(b)(1) (including a farmers' cooperative that is not exempt from tax under section 521) is required to make a return on Form 990-C, “Farmers' Cooperative Association Income Tax Return.”

(3) Effective/applicability date. This paragraph (f) is applicable on or after July 30, 2007.

(g) Returns by foreign corporations—(1) Requirement of return—(i) In general. Except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, every foreign corporation which is engaged in trade or business in the United States at any time during the taxable year or which has income which is subject to taxation under subtitle A of the Code (relating to income taxes) shall make a return on Form 1120-F. Thus, for example, a foreign corporation which is engaged in trade or business in the United States at any time during the taxable year is required to file a return on Form 1120-F even though (a) it has no income which is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States, (b) it has no income from sources within the United States, or (c) its income is exempt from income tax by reason of an income tax convention or any section of the Code. However, if the foreign corporation has no gross income for the taxable year, it is not required to complete the return schedules but must attach a statement to the return indicating the nature of any exclusions claimed and the amount of such exclusions to the extent such amounts are readily determinable.

(ii) Treaty income. If the gross income of a foreign corporation includes treaty income, as defined in paragraph (b)(1) of §1.871-12, a statement shall be attached to the return on Form 1120-F showing with respect to that income:

(a) The amounts of tax withheld,

(b) The names and post office addresses of withholding agents, and

(c) Such other information as may be required by the return form or by the instructions issued with respect to the form, to show the taxpayer's entitlement to the reduced rate of tax under the tax convention.

(iii) Balance sheet and reconciliation of income. At the election of the taxpayer, the balance sheets and reconciliation of income, as shown on Form 1120-F, may be limited to:

(a) The assets of the corporation located in the United States and to its other assets used in the trade or business conducted in the United States, and

(b) Its income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States and its other income from sources within the United States.

(2) Exceptions—(i) Return not required when tax is fully paid at source—(a) In general. A foreign corporation which at no time during the taxable year is engaged in a trade or business in the United States is not required to make a return for the taxable year if its tax liability for the taxable year is fully satisfied by the withholding of tax at source under chapter 3 of the Code. For purposes of this subdivision, some of the items of income from sources within the United States upon which the tax liability will not have been fully satisfied by the withholding of tax at source under chapter 3 of the Code are:

(1) Interest upon so-called tax-free covenant bonds upon which, in accordance with section 1451 and §1.1451-1, a tax of only 2 percent is required to be withheld at source,

(2) In the case of bonds or other evidence of indebtedness issued after September 25, 1965, amounts described in section 881(a)(3),

(3) Accrued interest received in connection with the sale of bonds between interest dates, which, in accordance with paragraph (h) of §1.1441-4, is not subject to withholding of tax at source.

(b) Corporations not included. This subdivision (i) shall not apply:

(1) To a foreign corporation which has income for the taxable year which is treated under section 882(d) or (e) and §1.882-2 as income which is effectively connected for the taxable year with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States by that corporation,

(2) To a foreign corporation making a claim under §301.6402-3 of this chapter (Procedure and Administration Regulations) for the refund of an overpayment of tax for the taxable year, or

(3) To a foreign corporation described in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of §1.532-1 whose accumulated taxable income for the taxable year is determined under paragraph (b)(2) of §1.535-1.

(ii) Beneficiaries of estates or trusts. A foreign corporation which is a beneficiary of an estate or trust which is engaged in trade or business in the United States is not required to make a return for the taxable year merely because it is deemed to be engaged in trade or business within the United States under section 875(2). However, such foreign corporation will be required to make a return if it otherwise satisfies the conditions of subparagraph (1)(i) of this paragraph for making a return.

(iii) Special returns and schedules. The provisions of paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section shall apply to a foreign corporation except that a foreign corporation which is an insurance company to which paragraph (c)(3) of this section applies shall make a return on Form 1120-F and not on Form 1120. If a foreign corporation which is an insurance company to which paragraph (c) (1) or (2) of this section applies has income for the taxable year from sources within the United States which is not effectively connected for that year with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States by that corporation, the corporation shall attach to its return on Form 1120L or 1120M, as the case may be, a separate schedule showing the nature and amount of the items of such income, the rate of tax applicable thereto, and the amount of tax withheld therefrom under chapter 3 of the Code.

(3) Representative or agent for foreign corporation—(i) Cases where power of attorney is not required. The responsible representative or agent within the United States of a foreign corporation shall make on behalf of his principal a return of, and shall pay the tax on, all income coming within his control as representative or agent which is subject to the income tax under subtitle A of the Code. The agency appointment will determine how completely the agent is substituted for the principal for tax purposes. Any person who collects interest or dividends on deposited securities of a foreign corporation, executes ownership certificates in connection therewith, or sells such securities under special instructions shall not be deemed merely by reason of such acts to be the responsible representative or agent of the foreign corporation. If the responsible representative or agent does not have a specific power of attorney from the foreign corporation to file a return in its behalf, the return shall be accompanied by a statement to the effect that the representative or agent does not possess specific power of attorney to file a return for such corporation but that the return is being filed in accordance with the provisions of this subdivision.

(ii) Cases where power of attorney is required. Whenever a return of income of a foreign corporation is made by an agent acting under a duly authorized power of attorney for that purpose, the return shall be accompanied by the power of attorney in proper form, or a copy thereof specifically authorizing him to represent his principal in making, executing, and filing the income tax return. Form 2848 may be used for this purpose. The agent, as well as the taxpayer, may incur liability for the penalties provided for erroneous, false, or fraudulent returns. For the requirements regarding signing of returns, see §1.6062-1. The rules of paragraph (e) of §601.504 of this chapter (Statement of Procedural Rules) shall apply under this subparagraph in determining whether a copy of a power of attorney must be certified.

(iii) Limitation. A return of income shall be required under this subparagraph only if the foreign corporation is otherwise required to make a return in accordance with this paragraph.

(4) Disallowance of deductions and credits. For provisions disallowing deductions and credits when a return of income has not been filed by or on behalf of a foreign corporation, see section 882(c)(2) and the regulations thereunder, and paragraph (b) (2) and (3) of §1.535-1.

(5) Effective date. This paragraph shall apply for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1966, except that it shall not be applied to require (i) the filing of a return for any taxable year ending before January 1, 1974, which, pursuant to instructions applicable to the return, is not required to be filed or (ii) the amendment of a return for such a taxable year which, pursuant to such instructions, is required to be filed. For corresponding rules applicable to taxable years beginning before January 1, 1967, see 26 CFR 1.6012-2(g) (Revised as of January 1, 1967).

(h) Electing small business corporations. An electing small business corporation, whether or not subject to the tax imposed by section 1378, shall make a return on Form 1120-S. See also section 6037 and the regulations thereunder.

(i) Hospital organizations with noncompliant hospital facilities. Every hospital organization (as defined in §1.501(r)-1(b)(18)) that is subject to the tax imposed by §1.501(r)-2(d) shall make a return on Form 990-T. The filing of a return to pay the tax described in §1.501(r)-2(d) does not relieve the organization of the duty of filing other required returns.

(j) Items of tax preference—(1) In general. Every corporation required to make a return under this section, and having items of tax preference (described in section 57 and the regulation thereunder) in an amount specified by Form 4626, shall file such form as part of its return.

(2) Organizations with unrelated business income and foreign corporations. Regardless of the provisions of paragraphs (e) and (g) of this section, any organization described in either such paragraph having items of tax preference (described in section 57 and the regulations thereunder) in any amount entering into the computation or unrelated business income is required to make a return on form 990-T or form 120F, respectively, and to attach the required form as part of such return.

(k) Other provisions. For returns by fiduciaries or corporations, see §1.6012-3. For information returns by corporations regarding payments of dividends, see §§1.6042-1 through 1.6042-3, inclusive; regarding corporate dissolutions or liquidations, see §1.6043-1; regarding distributions in liquidation, see §1.6043-2; regarding payments of patronage dividends, see §§1.6044-1 through 1.6044-4, inclusive; and regarding certain payments of interest, see §§1.6049-1 and 1.6049-1. For returns as to formation or reorganization of foreign corporations, see §§1.6046-1 through 1.6046-3, inclusive.

(l) Effective/applicability date. Paragraph (c) of this section applies to any taxable year beginning on or after May 30, 2006. However, taxpayers may apply paragraph (c) of this section to any original Federal income tax return (including any amended return filed on or before the due date (including extensions) of such original return) timely filed on or after May 30, 2006. For taxable years beginning before May 30, 2006, see §1.6012-2 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 in effect on April 1, 2006.

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 12108, Nov. 26, 1960]

Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting §1.6012-2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.govinfo.gov.

§1.6012-3   Returns by fiduciaries.

(a) For estates and trusts—(1) In general. Every fiduciary, or at least one of joint fiduciaries, must make a return of income on form 1041 (or by use of a composite return pursuant to §1.6012-5) and attach the required form if the estate or trust has items of tax preference (as defined in section 57 and the regulations thereunder) in any amount:

(i) For each estate for which he acts if the gross income of such estate for the taxable year is $600 or more;

(ii) For each trust for which he acts, except a trust exempt under section 501(a), if such trust has for the taxable year any taxable income, or has for the taxable year gross income of $600 or more regardless of the amount of taxable income; and

(iii) For each estate and each trust for which he acts, except a trust exempt under section 501(a), regardless of the amount of income for the taxable year, if any beneficiary of such estate or trust is a nonresident alien.

(iv) For each trust electing to be taxed as, or as part of, an estate under section 645 for which a trustee acts, and for each related estate joining in a section 645 election for which an executor acts, if the aggregate gross income of the electing trust(s) and related estate, if any, joining in the election for the taxable year is $600 or more. (For the respective filing requirements of the trustee of each electing trust and executor of any related estate, see §1.645-1).

(2) Wills and trust instruments. At the request of the Internal Revenue Service, a copy of the will or trust instrument (including any amendments), accompanied by a written declaration of the fiduciary under the penalties of perjury that it is a true and complete copy, shall be filed together with a statement by the fiduciary indicating the provisions of the will or trust instrument (including any amendments) which, in the fiduciary's opinion, determine the extent to which the income of the estate or trust is taxable to the estate or trust, the beneficiaries, or the grantor, respectively.

(3) Domiciliary and ancillary representatives. In the case of an estate required to file a return under subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, having both domiciliary and ancillary representatives, the domiciliary and ancillary representatives must each file a return on Form 1041. The domiciliary representative is required to include in the return rendered by him as such domiciliary representative the entire income of the estate. The return of the ancillary representative shall be filed with the district director for his internal revenue district and shall show the name and address of the domiciliary representative, the amount of gross income received by the ancillary representative, and the deductions to be claimed against such income, including any amount of income properly paid or credited by the ancillary representative to any legatee, heir, or other beneficiary. If the ancillary representative for the estate of a nonresident alien is a citizen or resident of the United States, and the domiciliary representative is a nonresident alien, such ancillary representative is required to render the return otherwise required of the domiciliary representative.

(4) Two or more trusts. A trustee of two or more trusts must make a separate return for each trust, even though such trusts were created by the same grantor for the same beneficiary or beneficiaries.

(5) Trusts with unrelated business income. Every fiduciary for a trust described in section 511(b)(2) which is subject to the tax imposed on its unrelated business taxable income by section 511(b)(1) shall make a return on Form 990-T for each taxable year if the trust has gross income, included in computing unrelated business taxable income for such taxable year, of $1,000 or more. The filing of a return of unrelated business income does not relieve the fiduciary of such trust from the duty of filing other required returns.

(6) Charitable remainder trusts. Every fiduciary for a charitable remainder annuity trust (as defined in §1.664-2) or a charitable remainder unitrust (as defined in §1.664-3) shall make a return on Form 1041-B for each taxable year of the trust even though it is nonexempt because it has unrelated business taxable income. The return on Form 1041-B shall be made in accordance with the instructions for the form and shall be filed with the designated Internal Revenue office on or before the 15th day of the fourth month following the close of the taxable year of the trust. A copy of the instrument governing the trust, accompanied by a written declaration of the fiduciary under the penalties of perjury that it is a true and complete copy, shall be attached to the return for the first taxable year of the trust.

(7) Certain trusts described in section 4947(a)(1). For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1980, in the case of a trust described in section 4947(a)(1) which has no taxable income for a taxable year, the filing requirements of section 6012 and this section shall be satisfied by the filing, pursuant to §53.6011-1 of this chapter (Foundation Excise Tax Regulations) and §1.6033-2(a), by the fiduciary of such trust of—

(i) Form 990-PF if such trust is treated as a private foundation, or

(ii) Form 990 if such trust is not treated as a private foundation.

When the provisions of this paragraph (a)(7) are met, the fiduciary shall not be required to file Form 1041.

(8) Estate and trusts liable for qualified tax. In the case of an estate or trust which is liable for one or more qualified State individual income taxes, as defined in section 6362, for a taxable year, see paragraph (b) of §301.6361-1 of this chapter (Regulations on Procedure and Administration) for rules relating to returns required to be made.

(9) A trust any portion of which is treated as owned by the grantor or another person pursuant to sections 671 through 678. In the case of a trust any portion of which is treated as owned by the grantor or another person under the provisions of subpart E (section 671 and following) part I, subchapter J, chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code see §1.671-4.

(10) Hospital organizations organized as trusts with noncompliant hospital facilities. Every fiduciary for a hospital organization (as defined in §1.501(r)-1(b)(18)) organized as a trust described in section 511(b)(2) that is subject to the tax imposed by §1.501(r)-2(d) shall make a return on Form 990-T. The filing of a return to pay the tax described in §1.501(r)-2(d) does not relieve the organization of the duty of filing other required returns.

(b) For other persons—(1) Decedents. The executor or administrator of the estate of a decedent, or other person charged with the property of a decedent, shall make the return of income required in respect of such decedent. For the decedent's taxable year which ends with the date of his death, the return shall cover the period during which he was alive. For the filing of returns of income for citizens and alien residents of the United States, and alien residents of Puerto Rico, see paragraph (a) of §1.6012-1. For the filing of a joint return after death of spouse, see paragraph (d) of §1.6013-1.

(2) Nonresident alien individuals—(i) In general. A resident or domestic fiduciary or other person charged with the care of the person or property of a nonresident alien individual shall make a return for that individual and pay the tax unless:

(a) The nonresident alien individual makes a return of, and pays the tax on, his income for the taxable year,

(b) A responsible representative or agent in the United States of the nonresident alien individual makes a return of, and pays the tax on, the income of such alien individual for the taxable year, or

(c) The nonresident alien individual has appointed a person in the United States to act as his agent for the purpose of making a return of income and, if such fiduciary is required to file a Form 1041 for an estate or trust of which such alien individual is a beneficiary, such fiduciary attaches a copy of the agency appointment to his return on Form 1041.

(ii) Income to be returned. A return of income shall be required under this subparagraph only if the nonresident alien individual is otherwise required to make a return in accordance with paragraph (b) of §1.6012-1. The provisions of that paragraph shall apply in determining the form of return to be used and the income to be returned.

(iii) Disallowance of deductions and credits. For provisions disallowing deductions and credits when a return of income has not been filed by or on behalf of a nonresident alien individual, see section 874 and the regulations thereunder.

(iv) Alien resident of Puerto Rico. This subparagraph shall not apply to the return of a nonresident alien individual who is a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico during the entire taxable year. See §1.876-1.

(v) Cross reference. For requirements of withholding tax at source on nonresident alien individuals and of returns with respect to such withheld taxes, see §§1.1441-1 to 1.1465-1, inclusive.

(3) Persons under a disability. A fiduciary acting as the guardian of a minor, or as the guardian or committee of an insane person, must make the return of income required in respect of such person unless, in the case of a minor, the minor himself makes the return or causes it to be made.

(4) Corporations. A receiver, trustee in dissolution, trustee in bankruptcy, or assignee, who, by order of a court of competent jurisdiction, by operation of law or otherwise, has possession of or holds title to all or substantially all the property or business of a corporation, shall make the return of income for such corporation in the same manner and form as corporations are required to make such returns. Such return shall be filed whether or not the receiver, trustee, or assignee is operating the property or business of the corporation. A receiver in charge of only a small part of the property of a corporation, such as a receiver in mortgage foreclosure proceedings involving merely a small portion of its property, need not make the return of income. See also §1.6041-1, relating to returns regarding information at source; §§1.6042-1 to 1.6042-3, inclusive, relating to returns regarding payments of dividends; §§1.6044-1 to 1.6044-4, inclusive, relating to returns regarding payments of patronage dividends; and §§1.6049-1 and 1.6049-2, relating to returns regarding certain payments of interest.

(5) Individuals in receivership. A receiver who stands in the place of an individual must make the return of income required in respect of such individual. A receiver of only part of the property of an individual need not file a return, and the individual must make his own return.

(c) Joint fiduciaries. In the case of joint fiduciaries, a return is required to be made by only one of such fiduciaries. A return made by one of joint fiduciaries shall contain a statement that the fiduciary has sufficient knowledge of the affairs of the person for whom the return is made to enable him to make the return, and that the return is, to the best of his knowledge and belief, true and correct.

(d) Other provisions. For the definition of the term “fiduciary”, see section 7701(a)(6) and the regulations thereunder. For information returns required to be made by fiduciaries under section 6041, see §1.6041-1. As to further duties and liabilities of fiduciaries, see section 6903 and §301.6903-1 of this chapter (Regulations on Procedure and Administration).

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 12108, Nov. 26, 1960]

Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting §1.6012-3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.govinfo.gov.

§1.6012-4   Miscellaneous returns.

For returns by regulated investment companies of tax on undistributed capital gain designated for special treatment under section 852(b)(3)(D), see §1.852-9. For returns with respect to tax withheld on nonresident aliens and foreign corporations and on tax-free covenant bonds, see §§1.1461-1 to 1.1465-1, inclusive. For the requirement of an annual report by persons completing a Government contract, see 26 CFR (1939) 17.16 (Treasury Decision 4906, approved June 23, 1939), and 26 CFR (1939) 16.15 (Treasury Decision 4909, approved June 28, 1939) , as made applicable to section 1471 of the 1954 Code by Treasury Decision 6091, approved August 16, 1954 (19 FR 5167, C.B. 1954-2, 47). See also §1.1471-1.

[T.D. 7332, 39 FR 44231, Dec. 23, 1974, as amended by T.D. 9849, 84 FR 9237, Mar. 14, 2019]

Editorial Note: For the convenience of the user §§16.15 and 17.16 of 26 CFR (1939) are set forth below:

§16.15  Annual reports for income taxable years.

(a) General requirements. Every contracting party completing a contract or subcontract within the contracting party's income-taxable year ending after April 3, 1939 shall file with the district director of internal revenue for the internal revenue district in which the contracting party's Federal income tax returns are required to be filed an annual report on the prescribed form of the profit and excess profit on all contracts and subcontracts coming within the scope of the act and the regulations in this part and completed within the particular income-taxable year. There shall be included as a part of such a report a statement, preferably in columnar form, showing separately for each such contract or subcontract completed by the contracting party within the income-taxable year the total contract price, the cost of performing the contract or subcontract and the resulting profit or loss on each contract or subcontract together with a summary statement showing in detail the computation of the net profit or net loss upon all contracts and subcontracts completed within the income-taxable year and the amount of the excess profit, if any, for the income-taxable year covered by the report. A copy of the report made to the Secretary of the Army (see §16.14) with respect to each contract or subcontract covered in the annual report, shall be filed as a part of such annual report. In case the income-taxable year of the contracting party is a period of less than twelve months (see §16.1), the report required by this section shall be made for such period and not for a full year.

(b) Time for filing annual reports. Annual reports of contracts and subcontracts coming within the scope of the act and the regulations in this part completed by a contracting party within an income-taxable year must be filed on or before the 15th day of the ninth month following the close of the contracting party's income-taxable year. It is important that the contracting party render on or before the due date an annual report as nearly complete and final as it is possible for the contracting party to prepare. An extension of time granted the contracting party for filing its Federal income tax return does not serve to extend the time for filing the annual report required by this section. Authority consistent with authorizations for granting extensions of time for filing Federal income tax returns is hereby delegated to the various collectors of internal revenue for granting extensions of time for filing the reports required by this section. Application for extensions of time for filing such reports should be addressed to the district director of internal revenue for the district in which the contracting party files its Federal income tax returns and must contain a full recital of the causes for the delay.

§17.16  Annual reports for income-taxable years.

(a) General requirements. Every contracting party completing a contract or subcontract within the contracting party's income-taxable year ending after April 3, 1939 shall file, with the district director of internal revenue for the internal revenue district in which the contracting party's Federal income tax return is required to be filed, annual reports on the prescribed forms of the profit and excess profit on all contracts and subcontracts coming within the scope of the act. If any contracts or subcontracts so completed by the contracting party were entered into for the construction or manufacture of any complete naval vessel or any portion thereof, the profit and excess profit on all such contracts and subcontracts completed within the income-taxable year ending after April 3, 1939 shall be computed in accordance with the provisions of §17.6. If any contracts or subcontracts so completed by the contracting party were entered into for the construction or manufacture of any complete naval aircraft or any portion thereof, the profit and excess profit on all such contracts and subcontracts completed within the income-taxable year ending after April 3, 1939 shall be computed in accordance with the provisions of §17.7. There shall be included as a part of the annual report a statement, preferably in columnar form, showing separately for each contract or subcontract completed by the contracting party within the income-taxable year and covered by the report, the total contract price, the cost of performing the contract or subcontract and resulting profit or loss on each contract or subcontract together with a summary statement showing in detail the computation of the net profit or net loss upon each group of contracts and subcontracts covered by the report and the amount of the excess profit, if any, with respect to each group of contracts and subcontracts covered by the report. A copy of the report made to the Secretary of the Navy (see §17.15) with respect to each contract or subcontract covered in the annual report, shall be filed as a part of such annual report. In case the income-taxable year of the contracting party is a period of less than twelve months (see §17.1), the reports required by this section shall be made for such period and not for a full year.

(b) Time for filing annual reports. Annual reports of contracts and subcontracts completed by a contracting party within an income-taxable year ending after April 3, 1939 shall be filed on or before the 15th day of the ninth month following the close of the contracting party's income-taxable year. It is important that the contracting party render on or before the due date annual reports as nearly complete and final as it is possible for the contracting party to prepare. An extension of time granted the contracting party for filing its Federal income tax return does not serve to extend the time for filing the annual reports required by this section. Authority consistent with authorizations for granting extensions of time for filing Federal income tax returns is hereby delegated to the various district directors of internal revenue for granting extensions of time for filing the reports required by this section. Application for extension of time for filing such reports should be addressed to the district director of internal revenue for the district in which the contracting party files its Federal income tax returns and must contain a full recital of the causes for the delay.

§1.6012-5   Composite return in lieu of specified form.

The Commissioner may authorize the use, at the option of a person required to make a return, of a composite return in lieu of any form specified in this part for use by such a person, subject to such conditions, limitations, and special rules governing the preparation, execution, filing, and correction thereof as the Commissioner may deem appropriate. Such composite return shall consist of a form prescribed by the Commissioner and an attachment or attachments of magnetic tape or other approved media. Notwithstanding any provisions in this part to the contrary, a single form and attachment may comprise the returns of more than one such person. To the extent that the use of a composite return has been authorized by the Commissioner, references in this part to a specific form for use by such a person shall be deemed to refer also to a composite return under this section.

[T.D. 7200, 37 FR 16544, Aug. 16, 1972]

§1.6012-6   Returns by political organizations.

(a) Requirement of return—(1) In general. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1974, every political organization described in section 527(e)(1), and every fund described in section 527(f)(3) or section 527(g), and every organization described in section 501(c) and exempt from taxation under section 501(a) shall, if a tax is imposed on such an organization or fund by section 527(b), make a return of income on or before the fifteenth day of the fourth month following the close of the taxable year.

(2) Taxable years beginning after December 31, 1971, and before January 1, 1975. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1971, and before January 1, 1975, any political organization which would be described in section 527(e)(1) if such section applied to such years shall not be required to make a return if such organization would not be required to make a return under paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(b) Form of return. The return required by an organization or fund upon which a tax is imposed by section 527(b) shall be made on Form 1120-POL.

(c) Applicability date. This section applies to returns filed on or after January 30, 2020. Section 1.6012-6T (as contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 2019) applies to returns filed before January 30, 2020.

[T.D. 7516, 42 FR 57312, Nov. 2, 1977; 43 FR 2721, Jan. 19, 1978; T.D. 9821, 82 FR 33444, July 20, 2017; T.D. 9892, 85 FR 5324, Jan. 30, 2020]

§1.6013-1   Joint returns.

(a) In general. (1) A husband and wife may elect to make a joint return under section 6013(a) even though one of the spouses has no gross income or deductions. For rules for determining whether individuals occupy the status of husband and wife for purposes of filing a joint return, see paragraph (a) of §1.6013-4. For any taxable year with respect to which a joint return has been filed, separate returns shall not be made by the spouses after the time for filing the return of either has expired. See, however, paragraph (d)(5) of this section for the right of an executor to file a late separate return for a deceased spouse and thereby disaffirm a timely joint return made by the surviving spouse.

(2) A joint return of a husband and wife (if not made by an agent of one or both spouses) shall be signed by both spouses. The provisions of paragraph (a)(5) of §1.6012-1, relating to returns made by agents, shall apply where one spouse signs a return as agent for the other, or where a third party signs a return as agent for one or both spouses.

(b) Nonresident alien. A joint return shall not be made if either the husband or wife at any time during the taxable year is a nonresident alien, unless an election is in effect for the taxable year under section 6013 (g) or (h) and the regulations thereunder.

(c) Different taxable years. Except as otherwise provided in this section, a husband and wife shall not file a joint return if they have different taxable years.

(d) Joint return after death. (1) Section 6013(a)(2) provides that a joint return may be made for the survivor and the deceased spouse or for both deceased spouses if the taxable years of such spouses begin on the same day and end on different days only because of the death of either or both. Thus, if a husband and wife make this return on a calendar year basis, and the wife dies on August 1, 1956, a joint return may be made with respect to the calendar year 1956 of the husband and the taxable year of the wife beginning on January 1, 1956, and ending with her death on August 1, 1956. Similarly, if husband and wife both make their returns on the basis of a fiscal year beginning on July 1 and the wife dies on October 1, 1956, a joint return may be made with respect to the fiscal year of the husband beginning on July 1, 1956, and ending on June 30, 1957, and with respect to the taxable year of the wife beginning on July 1, 1956, and ending with her death on October 1, 1956.

(2) The provision allowing a joint return to be made for the taxable year in which the death of either or both spouses occurs is subject to two limitations. The first limitation is that if the surviving spouse remarries before the close of his taxable year, he shall not make a joint return with the first spouse who died during the taxable year. In such a case, however, the surviving spouse may make a joint return with his new spouse provided the other requirements with respect to the filing of a joint return are met. The second limitation is that the surviving spouse shall not make a joint return with the deceased spouse if the taxable year of either spouse is a fractional part of a year under section 443(a)(1) resulting from a change of accounting period. For example, if a husband and wife make their returns on the calendar year basis and the wife dies on March 1, 1956, and thereafter the husband receives permission to change his annual accounting period to a fiscal year beginning July 1, 1956, no joint return shall be made for the short taxable year ending June 30, 1956. Similarly, if a husband and wife who make their returns on a calendar year basis receive permission to change to a fiscal year beginning July 1, 1956, and the wife dies on June 1, 1956, no joint return shall be made for the short taxable year ending June 30, 1956.

(3) Section 6013(a)(3) provides for the method of making a joint return in the case of the death of one spouse or both spouses. The general rule is that, in the case of the death of one spouse, or of both spouses, the joint return with respect to the decedent may be made only by his executor or administrator, as defined in paragraph (c) of §1.6013-4. An exception is made to this general rule whereby, in the case of the death of one spouse, the joint return may be made by the surviving spouse with respect to both him and the decedent if all the following conditions exist:

(i) No return has been made by the decedent for the taxable year in respect of which the joint return is made;

(ii) No executor or administrator has been appointed at or before the time of making such joint return; and

(iii) No executor or administrator is appointed before the last day prescribed by law for filing the return of the surviving spouse.

These conditions are to be applied with respect to the return for each of the taxable years of the decedent for which a joint return may be made if more than one such taxable year is involved. Thus, in the case of husband and wife on the calendar year basis, if the wife dies in February 1957, a joint return for the husband and wife for 1956 may be made if the conditions set forth in this subparagraph are satisfied with respect to such return. A joint return also may be made by the survivor for both himself and the deceased spouse for the calendar year 1957 if it is separately determined that the conditions set forth in this subparagraph are satisfied with respect to the return for such year. If, however, the deceased spouse should, prior to her death, make a return for 1956, the surviving spouse may not thereafter make a joint return for himself and the deceased spouse for 1956.

(4) If an executor or administrator is appointed at or before the time of making the joint return or before the last day prescribed by law for filing the return of the surviving spouse, the surviving spouse cannot make a joint return for himself and the deceased spouse whether or not a separate return for the deceased spouse is made by such executor or administrator. In such a case, any return made solely by the surviving spouse shall be treated as his separate return. The joint return, if one is to be made, must be made by both the surviving spouse and the executor or administrator. In determining whether an executor or administrator is appointed before the last day prescribed by law for filing the return of the surviving spouse, an extension of time for making the return is included.

(5) If the surviving spouse makes the joint return provided for in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph and thereafter an executor or administrator of the decedent is appointed, the executor or administrator may disaffirm such joint return. This disaffirmance, in order to be effective, must be made within one year after the last day prescribed by law for filing the return of the surviving spouse (including any extension of time for filing such return) and must be made in the form of a separate return for the taxable year of the decedent with respect to which the joint return was made. In the event of such proper disaffirmance the return made by the survivor shall constitute his separate return, that is, the joint return made by him shall be treated as his return and the tax thereon shall be computed by excluding all items properly includible in the return of the deceased spouse. The separate return made by the executor or administrator shall constitute the return of the deceased spouse for the taxable year.

(6) The time allowed the executor or administrator to disaffirm the joint return by the making of a separate return does not establish a new due date for the return of the deceased spouse. Accordingly, the provisions of sections 6651 and 6601, relating to delinquent returns and delinquency in payment of tax, are applicable to such return made by the executor in disaffirmance of the joint return.

(e) Return of surviving spouse treated as joint return. For provisions relating to the treatment of the return of a surviving spouse as a joint return for each of the next two taxable years following the year of the death of the spouse, see section 2 and §1.2-2.

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 12108, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 7274, 38 FR 11345, May 7, 1973; T.D. 7670, 45 FR 6929, Jan. 31, 1980]

§1.6013-2   Joint return after filing separate return.

(a) In general. (1) Where an individual has filed a separate return for a taxable year for which a joint return could have been made by him and his spouse under section 6013(a), and the time prescribed by law for filing the return for such taxable year has expired, such individual and his spouse may, under conditions hereinafter set forth, make a joint return for such taxable year. The joint return filed pursuant to section 6013(b) shall constitute the return of the husband and wife for such year, and all payments, credits, refunds, or other repayments, made or allowed with respect to the separate return of either spouse are to be taken into account in determining the extent to which the tax based on the joint return has been paid.

(2) If a joint return is made under section 6013(b), any election, other than the election to file a separate return, made by either spouse in his separate return for the taxable year with respect to the treatment of any income, deduction, or credit of such spouse shall not be changed in the making of the joint return where such election would have been irrevocable if the joint return had not been made. Thus, if one spouse has made an irrevocable election to adopt and use the last-in, first-out inventory method under section 472, this election may not be changed upon making the joint return under section 6013(b).

(3) A joint return made under section 6013(b) after the death of either spouse shall, with respect to the decedent, be made only by his executor or administrator. Thus, where no executor or administrator has been appointed, a joint return cannot be made under section 6013(b).

(4) A nonresidential alien treated as a resident under section 6013 (g) or (h) for any taxable year ending on or after December 31, 1975, and the alien's U.S. citizen or resident spouse may file a joint return for that taxable year, even though one or both of the spouses have previously filed separate returns for that taxable year. In this case, the rule in paragraph (a)(3) of this section does not apply.

(b) Limitations with respect to making of election. A joint return shall not be made under section 6013(b)(1) with respect to a taxable year:

(1) Beginning on or before July 30, 1996, unless there is paid in full at or before the time of the filing of the joint return the amount shown as tax upon such joint return; or

(2) After the expiration of three years from the last day prescribed by law for filing the return for such taxable year determined without regard to any extension of time granted to either spouse; or

(3) After there has been mailed to either spouse, with respect to such taxable year, a notice of deficiency under section 6212, if the spouse, as to such notice, files a petition with the Tax Court of the United States within the time prescribed in section 6213; or

(4) After either spouse has commenced a suit in any court for the recovery of any part of the tax for such taxable year; or

(5) After either spouse has entered into a closing agreement under section 7121 with respect to such taxable year, or after any civil or criminal case arising against either spouse with respect to such taxable year has been compromised under section 7122.

(c) When return deemed filed; assessment and collection; credit or refund. (1) For the purpose of section 6501, relating to the period of limitations upon assessment and collection, and section 6651, relating to delinquent returns, a joint return made under section 6013(b) shall be deemed to have been filed, giving due regard to any extension of time granted to either spouse, on the following date:

(i) Where both spouses filed separate returns, prior to making the joint return under section 6013(b), on the date the last separate return of either spouse was filed for the taxable year, but not earlier than the last date prescribed by law for the filing of the return of either spouse;

(ii) Where only one spouse was required and did file a return prior to the making of the joint return under section 6013(b), on the date of the filing of the separate return, but not earlier than the last day prescribed by law for the filing of such return; or

(iii) Where both spouses were required to file a return, but only one spouse did so file, on the date of the filing of the joint return under section 6013(b).

(2) For the purpose of section 6511, relating to refunds and credits, a joint return made under section 6013(b) shall be deemed to have been filed on the last date prescribed by law for filing the return for such taxable year, determined without regard to any extension of time granted to either spouse for filing the return or paying the tax.

(d) Additional time for assessment. In the case of a joint return made under section 6013(b), the period of limitations provided in sections 6501 and 6502 shall not be less than one year after the date of the actual filing of such joint return. The expiration of the one year is to be determined without regard to the rules provided in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, relating to the application of sections 6501 and 6651 with respect to a joint return made under section 6013(b).

(e) Additions to the tax and penalties. (1) Where the amount shown as the tax by the husband and wife on a joint return made under section 6013(b) exceeds the aggregate of the amounts shown as tax on the separate return of each spouse, and such excess is attributable to negligence, intentional disregard of rules and regulations, or fraud at the time of the making of such separate return, there shall be assessed, collected, and paid in the same manner as if it were a deficiency an additional amount as provided by the following:

(i) If any part of such excess is attributable to negligence, or intentional disregard of rules and regulations, at the time of the making of such separate return, but without any intent to defraud, this additional amount shall be 5 percent of the total amount of the excess.

(ii) If any part of such excess is attributable to fraud with intent to evade tax at the time of the making of such separate return, this additional amount shall be 50 percent of the total amount of the excess. The latter addition is in lieu of the 50 percent addition to the tax provided in section 6653(b).

(2) For purposes of section 7206 (1) and (2) and section 7207 (relating to criminal penalties in the case of fraudulent returns), the term “return” includes a separate return filed by a spouse with respect to a taxable year for which a joint return is made under section 6013(b) after the filing of a separate return.

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 12108, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 7670, 45 FR 6929, Jan. 31, 1980; T.D. 8725, 62 FR 39117, July 22, 1997]

§1.6013-3   Treatment of joint return after death of either spouse.

For purposes of section 21 (relating to change in rates during a taxable year), section 443 (relating to returns for a period of less than 12 months), and section 7851(a)(1)(A) (relating to the applicability of certain provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 and the Internal Revenue Code of 1939), where the husband and wife have different taxable years because of death of either spouse, the joint return shall be treated as if the taxable years of both ended on the date of the closing of the surviving spouse's taxable year. Thus, in cases where the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 otherwise would apply to the taxable year of the decedent spouse and the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 would apply to the taxable year of the surviving spouse, this provision makes the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 applicable to the taxable years of both spouses if a joint return is filed.

§1.6013-4   Applicable rules.

(a) Status as husband and wife. For the purpose of filing a joint return under section 6013, the status as husband and wife of two individuals having taxable years beginning on the same day shall be determined:

(1) If the taxable year of each individual is the same, as of the close of such year; and

(2) If the close of the taxable year is different by reason of the death of one spouse, as of the time of such death.

An individual legally separated from his spouse under a decree of divorce or of separate maintenance shall not be considered as married. However, the mere fact that spouses have not lived together during the course of the taxable year shall not prohibit them from making a joint return. A husband and wife who are separated under an interlocutory decree of divorce retain the relationship of husband and wife until the decree becomes final. The fact that the taxpayer and his spouse are divorced or legally separated at any time after the close of the taxable year shall not deprive them of their right to file a joint return for such taxable year under section 6013.

(b) Computation of income, deductions, and tax. If a joint return is made, the gross income and adjusted gross income of husband and wife on the joint return are computed in an aggregate amount and the deductions allowed and the taxable income are likewise computed on an aggregate basis. Deductions limited to a percentage of the adjusted gross income, such as the deduction for charitable, etc., contributions and gifts, under section 170, will be allowed with reference to such aggregate adjusted gross income. A similar rule is applied in the case of the limitation of section 1211(b) on the allowance of losses resulting from the sale or exchange of capital assets (see §1.1211-1). Although there are two taxpayers on a joint return, there is only one taxable income. The tax on the joint return shall be computed on the aggregate income and the liability with respect to the tax shall be joint and several. For computation of tax in the case of a joint return, see §1.2-1. For tax in the case of a joint return of husband and wife electing to pay the optional tax under section 3, see §1.3-1. For the election not to show on a joint return the amount of tax due in connection therewith, see paragraph (c) of §1.6014-1 and paragraph (d) of §1.6014-2. For separate computations of the self-employment tax of each spouse on a joint return, see paragraph (b) of §1.6017-1.

(c) Definition of executor or administrator. For purposes of section 6013 the term “executor or administrator” means the person who is actually appointed to such office and not a person who is merely in charge of the property of the decedent.

(d) Return signed under duress. If an individual asserts and establishes that he or she signed a return under duress, the return is not a joint return. The individual who signed such return under duress is not jointly and severally liable for the tax shown on the return or any deficiency in tax with respect to the return. The return is adjusted to reflect only the tax liability of the individual who voluntarily signed the return, and the liability is determined at the applicable rates in section 1(d) for married individuals filing separate returns. Section 6212 applies to the assessment of any deficiency in tax on such return.

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 12108, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 7102, 36 FR 5497, Mar. 24, 1971; T.D. 9003, 67 FR 47285, July 18, 2002]

§1.6013-6   Election to treat nonresident alien individual as resident of the United States.

(a) Election for special treatment—(1) In general. Two individuals who are husband and wife at the close of a taxable year ending on or after December 31, 1975, may make an election under this section for that taxable year if, at the close of that year, one spouse is a citizen or resident of the United States and the other spouse is a nonresident alien. The effect of the election is that each spouse is treated as a resident of the United States for purposes of chapters 1, 5, and 24 and sections 6012, 6013, 6072, and 6091 of the Code for the entire taxable year. An election made under this section is in effect for the taxable year for which made and for all subsequent years of the husband and wife, except:

(i) Any taxable year for which the election is suspended, as described in paragraph (a)(3) of this section, and

(ii) Any taxable year for which the election is terminated in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section and all subsequent taxable years.

A husband and wife may not make an election if an election previously made under this section by either spouse has been terminated under paragraph (b) of this section.

(2) Particular rules. (i) As used in paragraph (a)(3) of this section, the term “U.S. spouse” means any married individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States at any time during a taxable year.

(ii) An individual's residence is determined by application of the principles of §§301.7701(b)-1 through 301.7701(b)-9 of this chapter relating to what constitutes residence in the United States by an alien individual.

(iii) Whether two individuals are married at the close of a taxable year is determined by application of the rules in §1.6013-4(a).

(iv) The provisions of section 879 and the regulations thereunder shall not apply for any taxable year for which an election under this section is in effect.

(v) An individual who makes an election under this section may not, for United States income tax purposes, claim under any United States income tax treaty not to be a U.S. resident. The relationship of U.S. income tax treaties and the election under this section is illustrated by the following example.

Example. H, a U.S. citizen, is married to W, a nonresident alien of the United States and a domiciliary of country X. H and W maintain their only permanent home in country X. W receives both U.S. source and country X source interest during the taxable year. The interest is not effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base in any country. H and W make the section 6013 (g) election. Under article ii (1) of the United States—country X Income Tax Convention interest derived and beneficially owned by a resident of one contracting state is exempt from tax in the other contracting state. Article 4 (1) of the treaty provides that an individual is a resident of a contracting state if subject to tax in that country by reason of the individual's domicile, residence, or citizenship. Under article 4 (1) of the treaty, W is a resident of country X by virtue of her domicile in country X and also of the United States by virtue of the section 6013 (g) election. Article 4 (2) of the treaty provides that if an individual is a resident of both the United States and country X by reason of article 4 (1), the individual shall be deemed to be a resident of the contracting state in which he or she has a permanent home available. Because W's sole permanent home is in country X, under article 4 (2) of the treaty W is treated as a resident of country X for purposes of the treaty. Because W has elected under section 6013(g) to be treated as a U.S. resident (and thus to be taxed on worldwide income), W may not, for U.S. income tax purposes, claim under the treaty not to be a U.S. resident. W, therefore, is subject to U.S. income tax on the interest. For purposes of country X income tax, W is considered a resident of country X under the treaty.

(3) Suspension of election. (i) An election made under this section is suspended and is not in effect for a taxable year subsequent to the first taxable year for which made if neither spouse is a U.S. spouse during that subsequent taxable year. Thus, for example, the election is in suspense if both spouses are nonresident aliens for the entire taxable year.

(ii) If either spouse dies during any taxable year for which the election under this section is in effect, other than the first taxable year for which the election is to be in effect, the taxable year shall include, solely for purposes of this paragraph (a)(3), only those days during the taxable year on which both spouses are alive. Thus, for example, if the U.S. spouse dies during the taxable year, the election is not suspended for that year even if the surviving nonresident alien spouse never acquires U.S. citizenship or residency. Similarly, if the nonresident alien spouse dies during the taxable year, the election is not suspended for that year even if the surviving U.S. spouse subsequently abandons U.S. citizenship or residency. However, if neither spouse was a U.S. spouse at any time during the period of the taxable year when both spouses were alive, the election is suspended for that year even if the surviving spouse subsequently acquires U.S. citizenship or residency.

For the effect of the death of either spouse on the status of the election in subsequent taxable years, see paragraph (b)(2) of this section.

(4) Time and manner of making an election. (i) A husband and wife shall make the election under this section by attaching a statement to a joint return for the first taxable year for which the election is to be in effect. The election must be made before the expiration of the period prescribed by section 6511(a) (or section 6511(c) if the period is extended by agreement) for making a claim for credit or refund. If either or both spouses die after the close of the taxable year but before the joint return is filed, the election may be made by the executor, administrator, or other person charged with the property of the deceased spouse. If the election is made with a joint amended return, the amended return should be made on Form 1040 or 1040A, the word “Amended” should be written clearly on the front of the return, and an amended return also must be filed for each subsequent taxable year as to which a return previously has been filed by either spouse.

(ii) The statement must contain a declaration that the election is being made and that the requirements of paragraph (a)(1) of this section are met for the taxable year. The statement must also contain the name, address, and taxpayer identifying number of each spouse. If the election is being made on behalf of a deceased spouse, the statement must contain the name and address of the executor, administrator, or other person making the election on behalf of the decreased spouse. The statement must be signed by both persons making the election.

(b) Termination of election—(1) Revocation. (i) An election under this section shall terminate if either spouse revokes the election. An election that is revoked terminates as of the first taxable year for which the last day prescribed by section 6072(a) and 6081(a) for filing the return of tax has not yet occurred.

(ii) Revocation of the election is made by filing a statement of revocation in the following manner. If the spouse revoking the election is required to file a return under section 6012, the statement is filed by attaching it to the return for the first taxable year to which the revocation applies. If the spouse revoking the election is not required to file a return under section 6012, but files a claim for refund under section 6511, the statement is filed by attaching it to the claim for refund. If the spouse revoking the election is not required to file a return and does not file a claim for refund, the statement is filed by submitting it to the service center director with whom was filed the most recent joint return of the spouses. The revocation may, if the revoking spouse dies after the close of the first taxable year to which the revocation applies but before the return, claim for refund, or statement of revocation is filed, be made by the executor, administrator or other person charged with the property of the deceased spouse.

(iii) A revocation of the election is effective as of a particular taxable year if it is filed on or before the last day prescribed by section 6072(a) and 6081(a) for filing the return of tax for that taxable year. However, the revocation is not final until that last day.

(iv) The statement of revocation must contain a declaration that the election under this section is being revoked. The statement must also contain the name, address, and taxpayer identifying number of each spouse. If the revocation is being made on behalf of a deceased spouse, the statement must contain the name and address of the executor, administrator, or other person revoking the election on behalf of the deceased spouse. The statement must also include a list of the States, foreign countries, and possessions of the United States which have community property laws and in which:

(A) Each spouse is domiciled, or

(B) real property is located from which either of the spouses receives income.

The statement must be signed by the person revoking the election.

(2) Death. An election under this section shall terminate if either spouse dies. An election that terminates on account of death terminates as of the first taxable year of the surviving spouse following the taxable year in which the death occurred. However, if the surviving spouse is a citizen or resident of the United States who is entitled to the benefits of section 2, the election terminates as of the first taxable year following the last taxable year for which the surviving spouse is entitled to the benefits of section 2. If both spouses die within the same taxable year, the election terminates as of the first day after the close of the taxable year in which the deaths occurred.

(3) Legal separation. An election under this section terminates if the spouses legally separate under a degree of divorce or of separate maintenance. An election that terminates on account of legal separation terminates as of the close of the taxable year preceding the taxable year in which the separation occurs. The rules in §1.6013-4(a) are relevant in determining whether two spouses are legally separated.

(4) Inadequate records. An election under this section may be terminated by the Commissioner if it is determined that either spouse has failed to keep adequate records. An election that is terminated on account of inadequate records terminates as of the close of the taxable year preceding the taxable year for which the Commissioner determines that the election should be terminated. Adequate records are the books, records, and other information reasonably necessary to ascertain the amount of liability for taxes under chapters 1, 5, and 24 of the code of either spouse for the taxable year. Adequate records also includes the granting of access to the books and records.

(c) Illustrations. The application of this section is illustrated by the following examples. In each case the individual's taxable year is the calendar year and the spouses are not legally separated.

Example 1. W, a U.S. citizen for the entire taxable year 1979, is married to H, a nonresident alien individual. W and H may make the section 6013(g) election for 1979 by filing the statement of election with a joint return. If W and H make the election, income from sources within and without the United States received by W and H in 1979 and subsequent years must be included in gross income for each taxable year unless the election later is terminated or suspended. While W and H must file a joint return for 1979, joint or separate returns may be filed for subsequent years.

Example 2. H and W are husband and wife and are both nonresident alien individuals. In June 1980 H becomes a U.S. resident and remains a resident for the balance of the year. H and W may make the section 6013(g) election for 1980. If H and W make the election, income from sources within and without the United States received by H and W for the entire taxable year 1980 and subsequent years must be included in gross income for each taxable year, unless the election later is terminated or suspended.

Example 3. W, a U.S. resident on December 31, 1981, is married to H, a nonresident alien. W and H make the section 6013(g) election and file joint returns for 1981 and succeeding years. On January 10, 1987, W becomes a nonresident alien. H has remained a nonresident alien. W and H may file a joint return or separate returns for 1987. As neither W or H is a U.S. resident at any time during 1988, their election is suspended for 1988. If W and H have U.S. source or foreign source income effectively connected with the conduct of a U.S. trade or business in 1988, they must file separate returns as nonresident aliens. W becomes a U.S. resident again on January 5, 1990. Their election no longer is in suspense. Income from sources within and without the United States received by W or H in the years their election is not suspended must be included in gross income for each taxable year.

Example 4. H, a U.S. citizen for the entire taxable year 1979, is married to W, who is not a U.S. citizen. While W believes that she is a U.S. resident, H and W make the section 6013(g) election for 1979 to cover the possibility that later it would be determined that she is a nonresident alien during 1979. The election for 1979 will not be considered evidence that W was a nonresident alien in prior years. Income from sources within and without the United States received by H and W in 1979 and subsequent years must be included in gross income for each taxable year, unless the election later is terminated or suspended.

[T.D. 7670, 45 FR 6929, Jan. 31, 1980, as amended by T.D. 7842, 47 FR 49842, Nov. 3, 1982; T.D. 8411, 57 FR 15241, Apr. 27, 1992]

§1.6013-7   Joint return for year in which nonresident alien becomes resident of the United States.

(a) Election for special treatment—(1) In general. Two individuals who are husband and wife at the close of a taxable year ending on or after December 31, 1975, may make an election under this section for that taxable year if one spouse is a citizen or resident of the United States on the last day of that taxable year and the other spouse is a nonresident alien at the beginning of that taxable year and a citizen or resident of the United States at the close of that taxable year. Two married individuals who are nonresident aliens at the beginning of a taxable year and who are U.S. citizens or residents on the last day of that taxable year qualify for the election. The effect of the election is that each spouse is treated as a resident of the United States for purposes of chapters 1, 5, and 24 and sections 6012, 6013, 6072, and 6091 of the code for all of that taxable year. A husband and wife may not make an election if an election has previously been made under this section by either spouse.

(2) Particular rules. The rules in subdivisions (ii) through (v) of §1.6013-6(a)(2) are applicable to this section.

(3) Time and manner of making an election. A husband and wife shall make the election under this section in accordance with the rules in §1.6013-6(a)(4).

(b) Section 6013(g) election in effect. If an election under section 6013(g) is in effect for a year subsequent to the first taxable year for which made and during that subsequent year the husband and wife meet the requirements of section 6013(h) and paragraph (a)(1) of this section, then the election under section 6013(g) shall apply to that subsequent taxable year. A separate election under section 6013(h) is not required for that subsequent taxable year.

[T.D. 7670, 45 FR 6931, Jan. 31, 1980]

§1.6014-1   Tax not computed by taxpayer for taxable years beginning before January 1, 1970.

(a) In general. If an individual is entitled under paragraph (a)(7) of §1.6012-1 to use as his return Form 1040A, he may elect not to show thereon the amount of the tax due in connection with such return if his gross income is less than $5,000.

(b) Computation and payment of tax. A taxpayer who, in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, elects not to show the tax on Form 1040A is not required to pay the unpaid balance of such tax at the time he files the return. In such case, the tax will be computed for the taxpayer by the Internal Revenue Service, and a notice will be mailed to the taxpayer stating the amount of tax due. Where it is determined that a refund of tax is due, the Internal Revenue Service will send such refund to the taxpayer. See paragraph (c) of §301.6402-3 of this chapter (Regulations on Procedure and Administration).

(c) Joint return. (1) A husband and wife who, pursuant to paragraph (a)(7) of §1.6012-1, file a joint return on Form 1040A may elect not to show the tax on such return if their aggregate gross income for the taxable year is less than $5,000.

(2) The tax computed for the taxpayer who files Form 1040A and elects not to show thereon the tax due shall be the lesser of the following amounts:

(i) A tax computed as though the return on Form 1040A constituted the separate returns of the spouses, or

(ii) A tax computed as though the return on Form 1040A constituted a joint return.

(d) Married individuals filing separate returns. In the case of a married individual who files a separate return and who elects under this section not to show his tax on Form 1040A his tax shall be computed with reference to the 10-percent standard deduction rather than the minimum standard deduction.

(e) This section shall apply to taxable years beginning before January 1, 1970.

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 12108, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 6581, 26 FR 11678, Dec. 6, 1961; T.D. 6792, 30 FR 531, Jan. 15, 1965; T.D. 7102, 36 FR 5497, Mar. 24, 1971]

§1.6014-2   Tax not computed by taxpayer for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969.

(a) In general. An individual subject to the tax imposed by section 1 of the Code may, in accordance with the instructions applicable to the income tax return to be filed, elect, for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1969, not to show on his income tax return for such year the amount of tax due in connection with such return.

(b) Restriction on making an election. The election pursuant to this section shall not be made by an individual who does not file his return (or amended return) making such election on or before the date prescribed in section 6072(a) for the filing of the original return (determined without regard to any extension of time).

(c) Effects of election. (1) A taxpayer who, in accordance with the provisions of this section, elects not to show the tax on his income tax return is not required to pay the unpaid balance of such tax at the time he files the return. In such case, the tax will be computed for the taxpayer by the Internal Revenue Service, and a notice will be mailed to the taxpayer stating the amount of tax due. Where it is determined that a refund of tax is due, the Internal Revenue Service will send such refund to the taxpayer. See paragraph (c) of §301.6402-3 of this chapter (Regulations on Procedure and Administration). The computation of tax by the Internal Revenue Service shall be treated for purposes of this chapter as if made by the taxpayer, and such computation or the issuance of a notice or refund pursuant thereto shall not relieve the taxpayer of liability for any deficiency (although the deficiency is based upon an amount of tax different from that computed for the taxpayer by the Internal Revenue Service) or affect the rights of the Internal Revenue Service with respect to any subsequent audit or other review of the taxpayer's return.

(2) Where the election provided for in this section is made by a taxpayer who takes the standard deduction and who has adjusted gross income of less than $10,000, such election constitutes an election to pay the tax imposed by section 3.

(3) A taxpayer who makes an election under section 6014 shall not be precluded from claiming:

(i) Status as a head of household or a surviving spouse;

(ii) The credit under section 31 (relating to tax withheld on wages);

(iii) The credit under section 37 (relating to retirement income);

(iv) The credit under section 38 (relating to investment in certain depreciable property);

(v) The credit under section 39 (relating to certain uses of gasoline and lubricating oil);

(vi) The credit under section 41 (relating to contributions to candidates for public office);

(vii) The credit under section 42 (relating to personal exemptions);

(viii) The credit under section 43 (relating to earned income);

(ix) The credit under section 44 (relating to purchase of new principal residence); or

(x) The credit under section 45 (relating to overpayments of tax).

(d) Joint returns. (1) A husband and wife who file a joint return may elect not to show the tax on such return in accordance with the rules prescribed in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.

(2) The tax computed for a husband and wife who elect pursuant to this section not to show their tax on their joint income tax return shall be the lesser of the following amounts:

(i) A tax computed as though the return of income constituted a joint return, or

(ii) If sufficient information is provided for the taxable income of each spouse to be determined, a tax computed as though the return of income constituted the separate returns of the spouses.

(e) Married individuals filing separate returns. This section shall apply to married individuals filing separate returns unless otherwise provided in the instructions accompanying a return. The instructions may require the taxpayer to attach to his return a statement to the effect that his tax and the tax of his spouse were determined in accordance with the rules of sections 141(d) and 142(a).

(f) Revocation of election. An election pursuant to this section may be revoked on an amended return (whether such return is filed before or after the date prescribed in section 6072(a) for filing the original return).

[T.D. 7102, 36 FR 5497, Mar. 24, 1971, as amended by T.D. 7298, 38 FR 35234, Dec. 26, 1973; T.D. 7391, 40 FR 55856, Dec. 2, 1975]

§1.6015-0   Table of contents.

This section lists captions contained in §§1.6015-1 through 1.6015-9.

§1.6015-1   Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return.

(a) In general.

(b) Duress.

(c) Prior closing agreement or offer in compromise.

(1) In general.

(2) Exception for agreements relating to TEFRA partnership proceedings.

(3) Examples.

(d) Fraudulent scheme.

(e) Res judicata and collateral estoppel.

(f) Community property laws.

(1) In general.

(2) Example.

(g) Scope of this section and §§1.6015-2 through 1.6015-9.

(h) Definitions.

(1) Requesting spouse.

(2) Nonrequesting spouse.

(3) Item.

(4) Erroneous item.

(5) Election or request.

(i) [Reserved]

(j) Transferee liability.

(1) In general.

(2) Example.

§1.6015-2   Relief from liability applicable to all qualifying joint filers.

(a) In general.

(b) Understatement.

(c) Knowledge or reason to know.

(d) Inequity.

(e) Partial relief.

(1) In general.

(2) Example.

§1.6015-3   Allocation of liability for individuals who are no longer married, are legally separated, or are not members of the same household.

(a) Election to allocate liability.

(b) Definitions.

(1) Divorced.

(2) Legally separated.

(3) Members of the same household.

(i) Temporary absences.

(ii) Separate dwellings.

(c) Limitations.

(1) No refunds.

(2) Actual knowledge.

(i) In general.

(A) Omitted income.

(B) Deduction or credit.

(1) Erroneous deductions in general.

(2) Fictitious or inflated deduction.

(ii) Partial knowledge.

(iii) Knowledge of the source not sufficient.

(iv) Factors supporting actual knowledge.

(v) Abuse exception.

(3) Disqualified asset transfers.

(i) In general.

(ii) Disqualified asset defined.

(iii) Presumption.

(4) Examples.

(d) Allocation.

(1) In general.

(2) Allocation of erroneous items.

(i) Benefit on the return.

(ii) Fraud.

(iii) Erroneous items of income.

(iv) Erroneous deduction items.

(3) Burden of proof.

(4) General allocation method.

(i) Proportionate allocation.

(ii) Separate treatment items.

(iii) Child's liability.

(iv) Allocation of certain items.

(A) Alternative minimum tax.

(B) Accuracy-related and fraud penalties.

(5) Examples.

(6) Alternative allocation methods.

(i) Allocation based on applicable tax rates.

(ii) Allocation methods provided in subsequent published guidance.

(iii) Example.

§1.6015-4   Equitable relief.

§1.6015-5   Time and manner for requesting relief.

(a) Requesting relief.

(b) Time period for filing a request for relief.

(1) In general.

(2) Definitions.

(i) Collection activity.

(ii) Section 6330 notice.

(3) Requests for relief made before commencement of collection activity.

(4) Examples.

(5) Premature requests for relief.

(c) Effect of a final administrative determination.

§1.6015-6   Nonrequesting spouse's notice and opportunity to participate in administrative proceedings.

(a) In general.

(b) Information submitted.

(c) Effect of opportunity to participate.

(2) Waiver of the restrictions on collection.

§1.6015-7   Tax Court review.

(a) In general.

(b) Time period for petitioning the Tax Court.

(c) Restrictions on collection and suspension of the running of the period of limitations.

(1) Restrictions on collection under §1.6015-2 or 1.6015-3.

(2) Waiver of the restrictions on collection.

(3) Suspension of the running of the period of limitations.

(i) Relief under §1.6015-2 or 1.6015-3.

(ii) Relief under §1.6015-4.

(4) Definitions.

(i) Levy.

(ii) Proceedings in court.

(iii) Assessment to which the election relates.

§1.6015-8   Applicable liabilities.

(a) In general.

(b) Liabilities paid on or before July 22, 1998.

(c) Examples.

§1.6015-9   Effective date.

[T.D. 9003, 67 FR 47285, July 18, 2002]

§1.6015-1   Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return.

(a) In general. (1) An individual who qualifies and elects under section 6013 to file a joint Federal income tax return with another individual is jointly and severally liable for the joint Federal income tax liabilities for that year. A spouse or former spouse may be relieved of joint and several liability for Federal income tax for that year under the following three relief provisions:

(i) Innocent spouse relief under §1.6015-2.

(ii) Allocation of deficiency under §1.6015-3.

(iii) Equitable relief under §1.6015-4.

(2) A requesting spouse may submit a single claim electing relief under both or either §§1.6015-2 and 1.6015-3, and requesting relief under §1.6015-4. However, equitable relief under §1.6015-4 is available only to a requesting spouse who fails to qualify for relief under §§1.6015-2 and 1.6015-3. If a requesting spouse elects the application of either §1.6015-2 or 1.6015-3, the Internal Revenue Service will consider whether relief is appropriate under the other elective provision and, to the extent relief is unavailable under either, under §1.6015-4. If a requesting spouse seeks relief only under §1.6015-4, the Secretary may not grant relief under §1.6015-2 or 1.6015-3 in the absence of an affirmative election made by the requesting spouse under either of those sections. If in the course of reviewing a request for relief only under §1.6015-4, the IRS determines that the requesting spouse may qualify for relief under §1.6015-2 or 1.6015-3 instead of §1.6015-4, the Internal Revenue Service will correspond with the requesting spouse to see if the requesting spouse would like to amend his or her request to elect the application of §1.6015-2 or 1.6015-3. If the requesting spouse chooses to amend the claim for relief, the requesting spouse must submit an affirmative election under §1.6015-2 or 1.6015-3. The amended claim for relief will relate back to the original claim for purposes of determining the timeliness of the claim.

(3) Relief is not available for liabilities that are required to be reported on a joint Federal income tax return but are not income taxes imposed under Subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code (e.g., domestic service employment taxes under section 3510).

(b) Duress. For rules relating to the treatment of returns signed under duress, see §1.6013-4(d).

(c) Prior closing agreement or offer in compromise—(1) In general. A requesting spouse is not entitled to relief from joint and several liability under §1.6015-2, 1.6015-3, or 1.6015-4 for any tax year for which the requesting spouse has entered into a closing agreement with the Commissioner that disposes of the same liability that is the subject of the claim for relief. In addition, a requesting spouse is not entitled to relief from joint and several liability under §1.6015-2, 1.6015-3, or 1.6015-4 for any tax year for which the requesting spouse has entered into an offer in compromise with the Commissioner. For rules relating to the effect of closing agreements and offers in compromise, see sections 7121 and 7122, and the regulations thereunder.

(2) Exception for agreements relating to TEFRA partnership proceedings. The rule in paragraph (c)(1) of this section regarding the unavailability of relief from joint and several liability when the liability to which the claim for relief relates was the subject of a prior closing agreement entered into by the requesting spouse, shall not apply to an agreement described in section 6224(c) with respect to partnership items (or any penalty, addition to tax, or additional amount that relates to adjustments to partnership items) that is entered into while the requesting spouse is a party to a pending partnership-level proceeding conducted under the provisions of subchapter C of chapter 63 of subtitle F of the Internal Revenue Code (TEFRA partnership proceeding). If, however, a requesting spouse enters into a closing agreement pertaining to any penalty, addition to tax, or additional amount that relates to adjustments to partnership items, at a time when the requesting spouse is not a party to a pending TEFRA partnership proceeding (e.g., in connection with an affected items proceeding), then the provisions of paragraph (c)(1) shall apply. Similarly, if a requesting spouse enters into a closing agreement with respect to both partnership items (including affected items) and nonpartnership items, while the requesting spouse is a party to a pending TEFRA partnership proceeding, the provisions of paragraph (c)(1) shall apply to the portion of the closing agreement that relates to nonpartnership items and the provisions of this paragraph (c)(2) shall apply to the remainder of the closing agreement.

(3) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of this paragraph (c):

Example 1. H and W file joint returns for taxable years 2002-2004, on which they claim losses attributable to H's limited partnership interest in Partnership A. In January 2006, the Internal Revenue Service commences an audit under the provisions of subchapter C of chapter 63 of subtitle F of the Internal Revenue Code (TEFRA partnership proceeding) regarding Partnership A's 2002-2004 taxable years, and sends H and W a notice under section 6223(a)(1). In September 2007, H files a bankruptcy petition under chapter 7 of the Bankruptcy Code and receives a discharge in April 2008. In August 2008, H and W enter into a closing agreement with the Internal Revenue Service, in which H and W agree to the disallowance of some of the claimed losses from Partnership A for taxable years 2002 through 2007. W may not later claim relief from joint and several liability under section 6015 as to the disallowed losses attributable to Partnership A for taxable years 2002 to 2007. This is because at the time W entered into the closing agreement, H's partnership items attributable to Partnership A had converted to nonpartnership items as a result of H's filing of the bankruptcy petition. The conversion of H's items also terminated W's status as a partner in the TEFRA partnership proceeding regarding Partnership A. Consequently, the closing agreement did not pertain to partnership items and W was not a party to a pending partnership-level proceeding regarding Partnership A when she entered into the closing agreement. Accordingly, the exception in paragraph (c)(2) of this section for agreements relating to TEFRA partnership proceedings does not apply.

Example 2. H and W file a joint return for taxable year 2002, on which they claim $25,000 in losses attributable to H's general partnership interest in Partnership B. In November 2003, the Service proposes a deficiency in tax relating to H's and W's 2002 joint return arising from omitted taxable interest income in the amount of $2,000 that is attributable to H. In July 2005, the Internal Revenue Service commences a TEFRA partnership proceeding regarding Partnership B's 2002 and 2003 taxable years, and sends H and W a notice under section 6223(a)(1). In March 2006, H and W enter into a closing agreement with the Service. The closing agreement provides for the disallowance of the claimed losses from Partnership B in excess of H's and W's out-of-pocket expenditures relating to Partnership B for taxable year 2002 and any subsequent year(s) in which H and W claimed losses from Partnership B. In addition, H and W agree to the imposition of the accuracy-related penalty under section 6662 with respect to the disallowed losses attributable to partnership B. In the closing agreement, H and W also agree to the deficiency resulting from the omitted interest income for taxable year 2002. W may not later claim relief from joint and several liability under section 6015 as to the deficiency in tax attributable to the omitted income of $2,000 for taxable year 2002, because this portion of the closing agreement pertains to nonpartnership items. In contrast, W may claim relief from joint and several liability as to the disallowed losses and accuracy-related penalty attributable to Partnership B for taxable year 2002 or any subsequent year(s). This is because this portion of the closing agreement pertains to partnership and affected items and was entered into at a time when W was a party to the pending partnership-level proceeding regarding Partnership B. Consequently, W never had the opportunity to raise the innocent spouse defense in the course of that TEFRA partnership proceeding. (See §1.6015-5(b)(5) relating to premature claims).

(d) Fraudulent scheme. If the Secretary establishes that a spouse transferred assets to the other spouse as part of a fraudulent scheme, relief is not available under section 6015, and section 6013(d)(3) applies to the return. For purposes of this section, a fraudulent scheme includes a scheme to defraud the Service or another third party, including, but not limited to, creditors, ex-spouses, and business partners.

(e) Res judicata and collateral estoppel. A requesting spouse is barred from relief from joint and several liability under section 6015 by res judicata for any tax year for which a court of competent jurisdiction has rendered a final decision on the requesting spouse's tax liability if relief under section 6015 was at issue in the prior proceeding, or if the requesting spouse meaningfully participated in that proceeding and could have raised relief under section 6015. A requesting spouse has not meaningfully participated in a prior proceeding if, due to the effective date of section 6015, relief under section 6015 was not available in that proceeding. Also, any final decisions rendered by a court of competent jurisdiction regarding issues relevant to section 6015 are conclusive and the requesting spouse may be collaterally estopped from relitigating those issues.

(f) Community property laws—(1) In general. In determining whether relief is available under §1.6015-2, 1.6015-3, or 1.6015-4, items of income, credits, and deductions are generally allocated to the spouses without regard to the operation of community property laws. An erroneous item is attributed to the individual whose activities gave rise to such item. See §1.6015-3(d)(2).

(2) Example. The following example illustrates the rule of this paragraph (f):

Example. (i) H and W are married and have lived in State A (a community property state) since 1987. On April 15, 2003, H and W file a joint Federal income tax return for the 2002 taxable year. In August 2005, the Internal Revenue Service proposes a $17,000 deficiency with respect to the 2002 joint return. A portion of the deficiency is attributable to $20,000 of H's unreported interest income from his individual bank account. The remainder of the deficiency is attributable to $30,000 of W's disallowed business expense deductions. Under the laws of State A, H and W each own 12 of all income earned and property acquired during the marriage.

(ii) In November 2005, H and W divorce and W timely elects to allocate the deficiency. Even though the laws of State A provide that 12 of the interest income is W's, for purposes of relief under this section, the $20,000 unreported interest income is allocable to H, and the $30,000 disallowed deduction is allocable to W. The community property laws of State A are not considered in allocating items for this purpose.

(g) Scope of this section and §§1.6015-2 through 1.6015-9. This section and §§1.6015-2 through 1.6015-9 do not apply to any portion of a liability for any taxable year for which a claim for credit or refund is barred by operation of law or rule of law.

(h) Definitions—(1) Requesting spouse. A requesting spouse is an individual who filed a joint return and elects relief from Federal income tax liability arising from that return under §1.6015-2 or 1.6015-3, or requests relief from Federal income tax liability arising from that return under §1.6015-4.

(2) Nonrequesting spouse. A nonrequesting spouse is the individual with whom the requesting spouse filed the joint return for the year for which relief from liability is sought.

(3) Item. An item is that which is required to be separately listed on an individual income tax return or any required attachments. Items include, but are not limited to, gross income, deductions, credits, and basis.

(4) Erroneous item. An erroneous item is any item resulting in an understatement or deficiency in tax to the extent that such item is omitted from, or improperly reported (including improperly characterized) on an individual income tax return. For example, unreported income from an investment asset resulting in an understatement or deficiency in tax is an erroneous item. Similarly, ordinary income that is improperly reported as capital gain resulting in an understatement or deficiency in tax is also an erroneous item. In addition, a deduction for an expense that is personal in nature that results in an understatement or deficiency in tax is an erroneous item of deduction. An erroneous item is also an improperly reported item that affects the liability on other returns (e.g., an improper net operating loss that is carried back to a prior year's return). Penalties and interest are not erroneous items. Rather, relief from penalties and interest will generally be determined based on the proportion of the total erroneous items from which the requesting spouse is relieved. If a penalty relates to a particular erroneous item, see §1.6015-3(d)(4)(iv)(B).

(5) Election or request. A qualifying election under §1.6015-2 or 1.6015-3, or request under §1.6015-4, is the first timely claim for relief from joint and several liability for the tax year for which relief is sought. A qualifying election also includes a requesting spouse's second election to seek relief from joint and several liability for the same tax year under §1.6015-3 when the additional qualifications of paragraphs (h)(5)(i) and (ii) of this section are met—

(i) The requesting spouse did not qualify for relief under §1.6015-3 when the Internal Revenue Service considered the first election solely because the qualifications of §1.6015-3(a) were not satisfied; and

(ii) At the time of the second election, the qualifications for relief under §1.6015-3(a) are satisfied.

(i) [Reserved]

(j) Transferee liability—(1) In general. The relief provisions of section 6015 do not negate liability that arises under the operation of other laws. Therefore, a requesting spouse who is relieved of joint and several liability under §1.6015-2, 1.6015-3, or 1.6015-4 may nevertheless remain liable for the unpaid tax (including additions to tax, penalties, and interest) to the extent provided by Federal or state transferee liability or property laws. For the rules regarding the liability of transferees, see sections 6901 through 6904 and the regulations thereunder. In addition, the requesting spouse's property may be subject to collection under Federal or state property laws.

(2) Example. The following example illustrates the rule of this paragraph (j):

Example. H and W timely file their 1998 joint income tax return on April 15, 1999. H dies in March 2000, and the executor of H's will transfers all of the estate's assets to W. In July 2001, the Internal Revenue Service assesses a deficiency for the 1998 return. The items giving rise to the deficiency are attributable to H. W is relieved of the liability under section 6015, and H's estate remains solely liable. The Internal Revenue Service may seek to collect the deficiency from W to the extent permitted under Federal or state transferee liability or property laws.

[T.D. 9003, 67 FR 47285, July 18, 2002]

§1.6015-2   Relief from liability applicable to all qualifying joint filers.

(a) In general. A requesting spouse may be relieved of joint and several liability for tax (including additions to tax, penalties, and interest) from an understatement for a taxable year under this section if the requesting spouse elects the application of this section in accordance with §§1.6015-1(h)(5) and 1.6015-5, and—

(1) A joint return was filed for the taxable year;

(2) On the return there is an understatement attributable to erroneous items of the nonrequesting spouse;

(3) The requesting spouse establishes that in signing the return he or she did not know and had no reason to know of the understatement; and

(4) It is inequitable to hold the requesting spouse liable for the deficiency attributable to the understatement.

(b) Understatement. The term understatement has the meaning given to such term by section 6662(d)(2)(A) and the regulations thereunder.

(c) Knowledge or reason to know. A requesting spouse has knowledge or reason to know of an understatement if he or she actually knew of the understatement, or if a reasonable person in similar circumstances would have known of the understatement. For rules relating to a requesting spouse's actual knowledge, see §1.6015-3(c)(2). All of the facts and circumstances are considered in determining whether a requesting spouse had reason to know of an understatement. The facts and circumstances that are considered include, but are not limited to, the nature of the erroneous item and the amount of the erroneous item relative to other items; the couple's financial situation; the requesting spouse's educational background and business experience; the extent of the requesting spouse's participation in the activity that resulted in the erroneous item; whether the requesting spouse failed to inquire, at or before the time the return was signed, about items on the return or omitted from the return that a reasonable person would question; and whether the erroneous item represented a departure from a recurring pattern reflected in prior years' returns (e.g., omitted income from an investment regularly reported on prior years' returns).

(d) Inequity. All of the facts and circumstances are considered in determining whether it is inequitable to hold a requesting spouse jointly and severally liable for an understatement. One relevant factor for this purpose is whether the requesting spouse significantly benefitted, directly or indirectly, from the understatement. A significant benefit is any benefit in excess of normal support. Evidence of direct or indirect benefit may consist of transfers of property or rights to property, including transfers that may be received several years after the year of the understatement. Thus, for example, if a requesting spouse receives property (including life insurance proceeds) from the nonrequesting spouse that is beyond normal support and traceable to items omitted from gross income that are attributable to the nonrequesting spouse, the requesting spouse will be considered to have received significant benefit from those items. Other factors that may also be taken into account, if the situation warrants, include the fact that the requesting spouse has been deserted by the nonrequesting spouse, the fact that the spouses have been divorced or separated, or that the requesting spouse received benefit on the return from the understatement. For guidance concerning the criteria to be used in determining whether it is inequitable to hold a requesting spouse jointly and severally liable under this section, see Rev. Proc. 2000-15 (2000-1 C.B. 447), or other guidance published by the Treasury and IRS (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter).

(e) Partial relief—(1) In general. If a requesting spouse had no knowledge or reason to know of only a portion of an erroneous item, the requesting spouse may be relieved of the liability attributable to that portion of that item, if all other requirements are met with respect to that portion.

(2) Example. The following example illustrates the rules of this paragraph (e):

Example. H and W are married and file their 2004 joint income tax return in March 2005. In April 2006, H is convicted of embezzling $2 million from his employer during 2004. H kept all of his embezzlement income in an individual bank account, and he used most of the funds to support his gambling habit. H and W had a joint bank account into which H and W deposited all of their reported income. Each month during 2004, H transferred an additional $10,000 from the individual account to H and W's joint bank account. W paid the household expenses using this joint account, and regularly received the bank statements relating to the account. W had no knowledge or reason to know of H's embezzling activities. However, W did have knowledge and reason to know of $120,000 of the $2 million of H's embezzlement income at the time she signed the joint return because that amount passed through the couple's joint bank account. Therefore, W may be relieved of the liability arising from $1,880,000 of the unreported embezzlement income, but she may not be relieved of the liability for the deficiency arising from $120,000 of the unreported embezzlement income of which she knew and had reason to know.

[T.D. 9003, 67 FR 47285, July 18, 2002]

§1.6015-3   Allocation of deficiency for individuals who are no longer married, are legally separated, or are not members of the same household.

(a) Election to allocate deficiency. A requesting spouse may elect to allocate a deficiency if, as defined in paragraph (b) of this section, the requesting spouse is divorced, widowed, or legally separated, or has not been a member of the same household as the nonrequesting spouse at any time during the 12-month period ending on the date an election for relief is filed. For purposes of this section, the marital status of a deceased requesting spouse will be determined on the earlier of the date of the election or the date of death in accordance with section 7703(a)(1). Subject to the restrictions of paragraph (c) of this section, an eligible requesting spouse who elects the application of this section in accordance with §§1.6015-1(h)(5) and 1.6015-5 generally may be relieved of joint and several liability for the portion of any deficiency that is allocated to the nonrequesting spouse pursuant to the allocation methods set forth in paragraph (d) of this section. Relief may be available to both spouses filing the joint return if each spouse is eligible for and elects the application of this section.

(b) Definitions—(1) Divorced. A determination of whether a requesting spouse is divorced for purposes of this section will be made in accordance with section 7703 and the regulations thereunder. Such determination will be made as of the date the election is filed.

(2) Legally separated. A determination of whether a requesting spouse is legally separated for purposes of this section will be made in accordance with section 7703 and the regulations thereunder. Such determination will be made as of the date the election is filed.

(3) Members of the same household—(i) Temporary absences. A requesting spouse and a nonrequesting spouse are considered members of the same household during either spouse's temporary absences from the household if it is reasonable to assume that the absent spouse will return to the household, and the household or a substantially equivalent household is maintained in anticipation of such return. Examples of temporary absences may include, but are not limited to, absence due to incarceration, illness, business, vacation, military service, or education.

(ii) Separate dwellings. A husband and wife who reside in the same dwelling are considered members of the same household. In addition, a husband and wife who reside in two separate dwellings are considered members of the same household if the spouses are not estranged or one spouse is temporarily absent from the other's household within the meaning of paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section.

(c) Limitations—(1) No refunds. Relief under this section is only available for unpaid liabilities resulting from understatements of liability. Refunds are not authorized under this section.

(2) Actual knowledge—(i) In general. If, under section 6015(c)(3)(C), the Secretary demonstrates that, at the time the return was signed, the requesting spouse had actual knowledge of an erroneous item that is allocable to the nonrequesting spouse, the election to allocate the deficiency attributable to that item is invalid, and the requesting spouse remains liable for the portion of the deficiency attributable to that item. The Service, having both the burden of production and the burden of persuasion, must establish, by a preponderance of the evidence, that the requesting spouse had actual knowledge of the erroneous item in order to invalidate the election.

(A) Omitted income. In the case of omitted income, knowledge of the item includes knowledge of the receipt of the income. For example, assume W received $5,000 of dividend income from her investment in X Co. but did not report it on the joint return. H knew that W received $5,000 of dividend income from X Co. that year. H had actual knowledge of the erroneous item (i.e., $5,000 of unreported dividend income from X Co.), and no relief is available under this section for the deficiency attributable to the dividend income from X Co. This rule applies equally in situations where the other spouse has unreported income although the spouse does not have an actual receipt of cash (e.g., dividend reinvestment or a distributive share from a flow-through entity shown on Schedule K-1, “Partner's Share of Income, Credits, Deductions, etc.”).

(B) Deduction or credit—(1) Erroneous deductions in general. In the case of an erroneous deduction or credit, knowledge of the item means knowledge of the facts that made the item not allowable as a deduction or credit.

(2) Fictitious or inflated deduction. If a deduction is fictitious or inflated, the IRS must establish that the requesting spouse actually knew that the expenditure was not incurred, or not incurred to that extent.

(ii) Partial knowledge. If a requesting spouse had actual knowledge of only a portion of an erroneous item, then relief is not available for that portion of the erroneous item. For example, if H knew that W received $1,000 of dividend income and did not know that W received an additional $4,000 of dividend income, relief would not be available for the portion of the deficiency attributable to the $1,000 of dividend income of which H had actual knowledge. A requesting spouse's actual knowledge of the proper tax treatment of an item is not relevant for purposes of demonstrating that the requesting spouse had actual knowledge of an erroneous item. For example, assume H did not know W's dividend income from X Co. was taxable, but knew that W received the dividend income. Relief is not available under this section. In addition, a requesting spouse's knowledge of how an erroneous item was treated on the tax return is not relevant to a determination of whether the requesting spouse had actual knowledge of the item. For example, assume that H knew of W's dividend income, but H failed to review the completed return and did not know that W omitted the dividend income from the return. Relief is not available under this section.

(iii) Knowledge of the source not sufficient. Knowledge of the source of an erroneous item is not sufficient to establish actual knowledge. For example, assume H knew that W owned X Co. stock, but H did not know that X Co. paid dividends to W that year. H's knowledge of W's ownership in X Co. is not sufficient to establish that H had actual knowledge of the dividend income from X Co. In addition, a requesting spouse's actual knowledge may not be inferred when the requesting spouse merely had reason to know of the erroneous item. Even if H's knowledge of W's ownership interest in X Co. indicates a reason to know of the dividend income, actual knowledge of such dividend income cannot be inferred from H's reason to know. Similarly, the IRS need not establish that a requesting spouse knew of the source of an erroneous item in order to establish that the requesting spouse had actual knowledge of the item itself. For example, assume H knew that W received $1,000, but he did not know the source of the $1,000. W and H omit the $1,000 from their joint return. H has actual knowledge of the item giving rise to the deficiency ($1,000), and relief is not available under this section.

(iv) Factors supporting actual knowledge. To demonstrate that a requesting spouse had actual knowledge of an erroneous item at the time the return was signed, the IRS may rely upon all of the facts and circumstances. One factor that may be relied upon in demonstrating that a requesting spouse had actual knowledge of an erroneous item is whether the requesting spouse made a deliberate effort to avoid learning about the item in order to be shielded from liability. This factor, together with all other facts and circumstances, may demonstrate that the requesting spouse had actual knowledge of the item, and the requesting spouse's election would be invalid with respect to that entire item. Another factor that may be relied upon in demonstrating that a requesting spouse had actual knowledge of an erroneous item is whether the requesting spouse and the nonrequesting spouse jointly owned the property that resulted in the erroneous item. Joint ownership is a factor supporting a finding that the requesting spouse had actual knowledge of an erroneous item. For purposes of this paragraph, a requesting spouse will not be considered to have had an ownership interest in an item based solely on the operation of community property law. Rather, a requesting spouse who resided in a community property state at the time the return was signed will be considered to have had an ownership interest in an item only if the requesting spouse's name appeared on the ownership documents, or there otherwise is an indication that the requesting spouse asserted dominion and control over the item. For example, assume H and W live in State A, a community property state. After their marriage, H opens a bank account in his name. Under the operation of the community property laws of State A, W owns 12 of the bank account. However, W does not have an ownership interest in the account for purposes of this paragraph (c)(2)(iv) because the account is not held in her name and there is no other indication that she asserted dominion and control over the item.

(v) Abuse exception. If the requesting spouse establishes that he or she was the victim of domestic abuse prior to the time the return was signed, and that, as a result of the prior abuse, the requesting spouse did not challenge the treatment of any items on the return for fear of the nonrequesting spouse's retaliation, the limitation on actual knowledge in this paragraph (c) will not apply. However, if the requesting spouse involuntarily executed the return, the requesting spouse may choose to establish that the return was signed under duress. In such a case, §1.6013-4(d) applies.

(3) Disqualified asset transfers—(i) In general. The portion of the deficiency for which a requesting spouse is liable is increased (up to the entire amount of the deficiency) by the value of any disqualified asset that was transferred to the requesting spouse. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(3), the value of a disqualified asset is the fair market value of the asset on the date of the transfer.

(ii) Disqualified asset defined. A disqualified asset is any property or right to property that was transferred from the nonrequesting spouse to the requesting spouse if the principal purpose of the transfer was the avoidance of tax or payment of tax (including additions to tax, penalties, and interest).

(iii) Presumption. Any asset transferred from the nonrequesting spouse to the requesting spouse during the 12-month period before the mailing date of the first letter of proposed deficiency (e.g., a 30-day letter or, if no 30-day letter is mailed, a notice of deficiency) is presumed to be a disqualified asset. The presumption also applies to any asset that is transferred from the nonrequesting spouse to the requesting spouse after the mailing date of the first letter of proposed deficiency. The presumption does not apply, however, if the requesting spouse establishes that the asset was transferred pursuant to a decree of divorce or separate maintenance or a written instrument incident to such a decree. If the presumption does not apply, but the Internal Revenue Service can establish that the purpose of the transfer was the avoidance of tax or payment of tax, the asset will be disqualified, and its value will be added to the amount of the deficiency for which the requesting spouse remains liable. If the presumption applies, a requesting spouse may still rebut the presumption by establishing that the principal purpose of the transfer was not the avoidance of tax or payment of tax.

(4) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules in this paragraph (c):

Example 1. Actual knowledge of an erroneous item. (i) H and W file their 2001 joint Federal income tax return on April 15, 2002. On the return, H and W report W's self-employment income, but they do not report W's self-employment tax on that income. H and W divorce in July 2003. In August 2003, H and W receive a 30-day letter from the Internal Revenue Service proposing a deficiency with respect to W's unreported self-employment tax on the 2001 return. On November 4, 2003, H files an election to allocate the deficiency to W. The erroneous item is the self-employment income, and it is allocable to W. H knows that W earned income in 2001 as a self-employed musician, but he does not know that self-employment tax must be reported on and paid with a joint return.

(ii) H's election to allocate the deficiency to W is invalid because, at the time H signed the joint return, H had actual knowledge of W's self-employment income. The fact that H was unaware of the tax consequences of that income (i.e., that an individual is required to pay self-employment tax on that income) is not relevant.

Example 2. Actual knowledge not inferred from a requesting spouse's reason to know. (i) H has long been an avid gambler. H supports his gambling habit and keeps all of his gambling winnings in an individual bank account, held solely in his name. W knows about H's gambling habit and that he keeps a separate bank account, but she does not know whether he has any winnings because H does not tell her, and she does not otherwise know of H's bank account transactions. H and W file their 2001 joint Federal income tax return on April 15, 2002. On October 31, 2003, H and W receive a 30-day letter proposing a $100,000 deficiency relating to H's unreported gambling income. In February 2003, H and W divorce, and in March 2004, W files an election under section 6015(c) to allocate the $100,000 deficiency to H.

(ii) While W may have had reason to know of the gambling income because she knew of H's gambling habit and separate account, W did not have actual knowledge of the erroneous item (i.e., the gambling winnings). The Internal Revenue Service may not infer actual knowledge from W's reason to know of the income. Therefore, W's election to allocate the $100,000 deficiency to H is valid.

Example 3. Actual knowledge and failure to review return. (i) H and W are legally separated. In February 1999, W signs a blank joint Federal income tax return for 1998 and gives it to H to fill out. The return was timely filed on April 15, 1999. In September 2001, H and W receive a 30-day letter proposing a deficiency relating to $100,000 of unreported dividend income received by H with respect to stock of ABC Co. owned by H. W knew that H received the $100,000 dividend payment in August 1998, but she did not know whether H reported that payment on the joint return.

(ii) On January 30, 2002, W files an election to allocate the deficiency from the 1998 return to H. W claims she did not review the completed joint return, and therefore, she had no actual knowledge that there was an understatement of the dividend income. W's election to allocate the deficiency to H is invalid because she had actual knowledge of the erroneous item (dividend income from ABC Co.) at the time she signed the return. The fact that W signed a blank return is irrelevant. The result would be the same if W had not reviewed the completed return or if W had reviewed the completed return and had not noticed that the item was omitted.

Example 4. Actual knowledge of an erroneous item of income. (i) H and W are legally separated. In June 2004, a deficiency is proposed with respect to H's and W's 2002 joint Federal income tax return that is attributable to $30,000 of unreported income from H's plumbing business that should have been reported on a Schedule C. No Schedule C was attached to the return. At the time W signed the return, W knew that H had a plumbing business but did not know whether H received any income from the business. W's election to allocate to H the deficiency attributable to the $30,000 of unreported plumbing income is valid.

(ii) Assume the same facts as in paragraph (i) of this Example 5 except that, at the time W signed the return, W knew that H received $20,000 of plumbing income. W's election to allocate to H the deficiency attributable to the $20,000 of unreported plumbing income (of which W had actual knowledge) is invalid. W's election to allocate to H the deficiency attributable to the $10,000 of unreported plumbing income (of which W did not have actual knowledge) is valid.

(iii) Assume the same facts as in paragraph (i) of this Example 5 except that, at the time W signed the return, W did not know the exact amount of H's plumbing income. W did know, however, that H received at least $8,000 of plumbing income. W's election to allocate to H the deficiency attributable to $8,000 of unreported plumbing income (of which W had actual knowledge) is invalid. W's election to allocate to H the deficiency attributable to the remaining $22,000 of unreported plumbing income (of which W did not have actual knowledge) is valid.

(iv) Assume the same facts as in paragraph (i) of this Example 5 except that H reported $26,000 of plumbing income on the return and omitted $4,000 of plumbing income from the return. At the time W signed the return, W knew that H was a plumber, but she did not know that H earned more than $26,000 that year. W's election to allocate to H the deficiency attributable to the $4,000 of unreported plumbing income is valid because she did not have actual knowledge that H received plumbing income in excess of $26,000.

(v) Assume the same facts as in paragraph (i) of this Example 5 except that H reported only $20,000 of plumbing income on the return and omitted $10,000 of plumbing income from the return. At the time W signed the return, W knew that H earned at least $26,000 that year as a plumber. However, W did not know that, in reality, H earned $30,000 that year as a plumber. W's election to allocate to H the deficiency attributable to the $6,000 of unreported plumbing income (of which W had actual knowledge) is invalid. W's election to allocate to H the deficiency attributable to the $4,000 of unreported plumbing income (of which W did not have actual knowledge) is valid.

Example 5. Actual knowledge of a deduction that is an erroneous item. (i) H and W are legally separated. In February 2005, a deficiency is asserted with respect to their 2002 joint Federal income tax return. The deficiency is attributable to a disallowed $1,000 deduction for medical expenses H claimed he incurred. At the time W signed the return, W knew that H had not incurred any medical expenses. W's election to allocate to H the deficiency attributable to the disallowed medical expense deduction is invalid because W had actual knowledge that H had not incurred any medical expenses.

(ii) Assume the same facts as in paragraph (i) of this Example 6 except that, at the time W signed the return, W did not know whether H had incurred any medical expenses. W's election to allocate to H the deficiency attributable to the disallowed medical expense deduction is valid because she did not have actual knowledge that H had not incurred any medical expenses.

(iii) Assume the same facts as in paragraph (i) of this Example 6 except that the Internal Revenue Service disallowed $400 of the $1,000 medical expense deduction. At the time W signed the return, W knew that H had incurred some medical expenses but did not know the exact amount. W's election to allocate to H the deficiency attributable to the disallowed medical expense deduction is valid because she did not have actual knowledge that H had not incurred medical expenses (in excess of the floor amount under section 213(a)) of more than $600.

(iv) Assume the same facts as in paragraph (i) of this Example 6 except that H claims a medical expense deduction of $10,000 and the Internal Revenue Service disallows $9,600. At the time W signed the return, W knew H had incurred some medical expenses but did not know the exact amount. W also knew that H incurred medical expenses (in excess of the floor amount under section 213(a)) of no more than $1,000. W's election to allocate to H the deficiency attributable to the portion of the overstated deduction of which she had actual knowledge ($9,000) is invalid. W's election to allocate the deficiency attributable to the portion of the overstated deduction of which she had no knowledge ($600) is valid.

Example 6. Disqualified asset presumption. (i) H and W are divorced. In May 1999, W transfers $20,000 to H, and in April 2000, H and W receive a 30-day letter proposing a $40,000 deficiency on their 1998 joint Federal income tax return. The liability remains unpaid, and in October 2000, H elects to allocate the deficiency under this section. Seventy-five percent of the net amount of erroneous items are allocable to W, and 25% of the net amount of erroneous items are allocable to H.

(ii) In accordance with the proportionate allocation method (see paragraph (d)(4) of this section), H proposes that $30,000 of the deficiency be allocated to W and $10,000 be allocated to himself. H submits a signed statement providing that the principal purpose of the $20,000 transfer was not the avoidance of tax or payment of tax, but he does not submit any documentation indicating the reason for the transfer. H has not overcome the presumption that the $20,000 was a disqualified asset. Therefore, the portion of the deficiency for which H is liable ($10,000) is increased by the value of the disqualified asset ($20,000). H is relieved of liability for $10,000 of the $30,000 deficiency allocated to W, and remains jointly and severally liable for the remaining $30,000 of the deficiency (assuming that H does not qualify for relief under any other provision).

Example 7. Disqualified asset presumption inapplicable. On May 1, 2001, H and W receive a 30-day letter regarding a proposed deficiency on their 1999 joint Federal income tax return relating to unreported capital gain from H's sale of his investment in Z stock. W had no actual knowledge of the stock sale. The deficiency is assessed in November 2001, and in December 2001, H and W divorce. According to a decree of divorce, H must transfer 12 of his interest in mutual fund A to W. The transfer takes place in February 2002. In August 2002, W elects to allocate the deficiency to H. Although the transfer of 12 of H's interest in mutual fund A took place after the 30-day letter was mailed, the mutual fund interest is not presumed to be a disqualified asset because the transfer of H's interest in the fund was made pursuant to a decree of divorce.

Example 8. Overcoming the disqualified asset presumption. (i) H and W are married for 25 years. Every September, on W's birthday, H gives W a gift of $500. On February 28, 2002, H and W receive a 30-day letter from the Internal Revenue Service relating to their 1998 joint individual Federal income tax return. The deficiency relates to H's Schedule C business, and W had no knowledge of the items giving rise to the deficiency. H and W are legally separated in June 2003, and, despite the separation, H continues to give W $500 each year for her birthday. H is not required to give such amounts pursuant to a decree of divorce or separate maintenance.

(ii) On January 27, 2004, W files an election to allocate the deficiency to H. The $1,500 transferred from H to W from February 28, 2001 (a year before the 30-day letter was mailed) to the present is presumed disqualified. However, W may overcome the presumption that such amounts were disqualified by establishing that such amounts were birthday gifts from H and that she has received such gifts during their entire marriage. Such facts would show that the amounts were not transferred for the purpose of avoidance of tax or payment of tax.

(d) Allocation—(1) In general. (i) An election to allocate a deficiency limits the requesting spouse's liability to that portion of the deficiency allocated to the requesting spouse pursuant to this section.

(ii) Only a requesting spouse may receive relief. A nonrequesting spouse who does not also elect relief under this section remains liable for the entire amount of the deficiency. Even if both spouses elect to allocate a deficiency under this section, there may be a portion of the deficiency that is not allocable, for which both spouses remain jointly and severally liable.

(2) Allocation of erroneous items. For purposes of allocating a deficiency under this section, erroneous items are generally allocated to the spouses as if separate returns were filed, subject to the following four exceptions:

(i) Benefit on the return. An erroneous item that would otherwise be allocated to the nonrequesting spouse is allocated to the requesting spouse to the extent that the requesting spouse received a tax benefit on the joint return.

(ii) Fraud. The Internal Revenue Service may allocate any item between the spouses if the Internal Revenue Service establishes that the allocation is appropriate due to fraud by one or both spouses.

(iii) Erroneous items of income. Erroneous items of income are allocated to the spouse who was the source of the income. Wage income is allocated to the spouse who performed the services producing such wages. Items of business or investment income are allocated to the spouse who owned the business or investment. If both spouses owned an interest in the business or investment, the erroneous item of income is generally allocated between the spouses in proportion to each spouse's ownership interest in the business or investment, subject to the limitations of paragraph (c) of this section. In the absence of clear and convincing evidence supporting a different allocation, an erroneous income item relating to an asset that the spouses owned jointly is generally allocated 50% to each spouse, subject to the limitations in paragraph (c) of this section and the exceptions in paragraph (c)(2)(iv) of this section. For rules regarding the effect of community property laws, see §1.6015-1(f) and paragraph (c)(2)(iv) of this section.

(iv) Erroneous deduction items. Erroneous deductions related to a business or investment are allocated to the spouse who owned the business or investment. If both spouses owned an interest in the business or investment, an erroneous deduction item is generally allocated between the spouses in proportion to each spouse's ownership interest in the business or investment. In the absence of clear and convincing evidence supporting a different allocation, an erroneous deduction item relating to an asset that the spouses owned jointly is generally allocated 50% to each spouse, subject to the limitations in paragraph (c) of this section and the exceptions in paragraph (d)(4) of this section. Deduction items unrelated to a business or investment are also generally allocated 50% to each spouse, unless the evidence shows that a different allocation is appropriate.

(3) Burden of proof. Except for establishing actual knowledge under paragraph (c)(2) of this section, the requesting spouse must prove that all of the qualifications for making an election under this section are satisfied and that none of the limitations (including the limitation relating to transfers of disqualified assets) apply. The requesting spouse must also establish the proper allocation of the erroneous items.

(4) General allocation method—(i) Proportionate allocation. (A) The portion of a deficiency allocable to a spouse is the amount that bears the same ratio to the deficiency as the net amount of erroneous items allocable to the spouse bears to the net amount of all erroneous items. This calculation may be expressed as follows:

eCFR graphic er18jy02.004.gif

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where X = the portion of the deficiency allocable to the spouse.

(B) The proportionate allocation applies to any portion of the deficiency other than—

(1) Any portion of the deficiency attributable to erroneous items allocable to the nonrequesting spouse of which the requesting spouse had actual knowledge;

(2) Any portion of the deficiency attributable to separate treatment items (as defined in paragraph (d)(4)(ii) of this section);

(3) Any portion of the deficiency relating to the liability of a child (as defined in paragraph (d)(4)(iii) of this section) of the requesting spouse or nonrequesting spouse;

(4) Any portion of the deficiency attributable to alternative minimum tax under section 55;

(5) Any portion of the deficiency attributable to accuracy-related or fraud penalties;

(6) Any portion of the deficiency allocated pursuant to alternative allocation methods authorized under paragraph (d)(6) of this section.

(ii) Separate treatment items. Any portion of a deficiency that is attributable to an item allocable solely to one spouse and that results from the disallowance of a credit, or a tax or an addition to tax (other than tax imposed by section 1 or section 55) that is required to be included with a joint return (a separate treatment item) is allocated separately to that spouse. If such credit or tax is attributable in whole or in part to both spouses, then the IRS will determine on a case by case basis how such item will be allocated. Once the proportionate allocation is made, the liability for the requesting spouse's separate treatment items is added to the requesting spouse's share of the liability.

(iii) Child's liability. Any portion of a deficiency relating to the liability of a child of the requesting and nonrequesting spouse is allocated jointly to both spouses. For purposes of this paragraph, a child does not include the taxpayer's stepson or stepdaughter, unless such child was legally adopted by the taxpayer. If the child is the child of only one of the spouses, and the other spouse had not legally adopted such child, any portion of a deficiency relating to the liability of such child is allocated solely to the parent spouse.

(iv) Allocation of certain items—(A) Alternative minimum tax. Any portion of a deficiency relating to the alternative minimum tax under section 55 will be allocated appropriately.

(B) Accuracy-related and fraud penalties. Any accuracy-related or fraud penalties under section 6662 or 6663 are allocated to the spouse whose item generated the penalty.

(5) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of this paragraph (d). In each example, assume that the requesting spouse or spouses qualify to elect to allocate the deficiency, that any election is timely made, and that the deficiency remains unpaid. In addition, unless otherwise stated, assume that neither spouse has actual knowledge of the erroneous items allocable to the other spouse. The examples are as follows:

Example 1. Allocation of erroneous items. (i) H and W file a 2003 joint Federal income tax return on April 15, 2004. On April 28, 2006, a deficiency is assessed with respect to their 2003 return. Three erroneous items give rise to the deficiency—

(A) Unreported interest income, of which W had actual knowledge, from H's and W's joint bank account;

(B) A disallowed business expense deduction on H's Schedule C; and

(C) A disallowed Lifetime Learning Credit for W's post-secondary education, paid for by W.

(ii) H and W divorce in May 2006, and in September 2006, W timely elects to allocate the deficiency. The erroneous items are allocable as follows:

(A) The interest income would be allocated 12 to H and 12 to W, except that W has actual knowledge of it. Therefore, W's election to allocate the portion of the deficiency attributable to this item is invalid, and W remains jointly and severally liable for it.

(B) The business expense deduction is allocable to H.

(C) The Lifetime Learning Credit is allocable to W.

Example 2. Proportionate allocation. (i) W and H timely file their 2001 joint Federal income tax return on April 15, 2002. On August 16, 2004, a $54,000 deficiency is assessed with respect to their 2001 joint return. H and W divorce on October 14, 2004, and W timely elects to allocate the deficiency. Five erroneous items give rise to the deficiency—

(A) A disallowed $15,000 business deduction allocable to H;

(B) $20,000 of unreported income allocable to H;

(C) A disallowed $5,000 deduction for educational expense allocable to H;

(D) A disallowed $40,000 charitable contribution deduction allocable to W; and

(E) A disallowed $40,000 interest deduction allocable to W.

(ii) In total, there are $120,000 worth of erroneous items, of which $80,000 are attributable to W and $40,000 are attributable to H.

   W's items      H's items
$40,000charitable deduction   $15,000business deduction
40,000interest deduction   20,000unreported income
         5,000education deduction
$80,000      $40,000
(iii) The ratio of erroneous items allocable to W to the total erroneous items is 23 ($80,000/$120,000). W's liability is limited to $36,000 of the deficiency ( 23 of $54,000). The Internal Revenue Service may collect up to $36,000 from W and up to $54,000 from H (the total amount collected, however, may not exceed $54,000). If H also made an election, there would be no remaining joint and several liability, and the Internal Revenue Service would be permitted to collect $36,000 from W and $18,000 from H.

Example 3. Proportionate allocation with joint erroneous item. (i) On September 4, 2001, W elects to allocate a $3,000 deficiency for the 1998 tax year to H. Three erroneous items give rise to the deficiency—

(A) Unreported interest in the amount of $4,000 from a joint bank account;

(B) A disallowed deduction for business expenses in the amount of $2,000 attributable to H's business; and

(C) Unreported wage income in the amount of $6,000 attributable to W's second job.

(ii) The erroneous items total $12,000. Generally, income, deductions, or credits from jointly held property that are erroneous items are allocable 50% to each spouse. However, in this case, both spouses had actual knowledge of the unreported interest income. Therefore, W's election to allocate the portion of the deficiency attributable to this item is invalid, and W and H remain jointly and severally liable for this portion. Assume that this portion is $1,000. W may allocate the remaining $2,000 of the deficiency.

   H's items      W's items
$2,000business deduction   $6,000wage income
Total allocable items: $8,000

(iii) The ratio of erroneous items allocable to W to the total erroneous items is 34 ($6,000/$8,000). W's liability is limited to $1,500 of the deficiency ( 34 of $2,000) allocated to her. The Internal Revenue Service may collect up to $2,500 from W ( 34 of the total allocated deficiency plus $1,000 of the deficiency attributable to the joint bank account interest) and up to $3,000 from H (the total amount collected, however, cannot exceed $3,000).

(iv) Assume H also elects to allocate the 1998 deficiency. H is relieved of liability for 34 of the deficiency, which is allocated to W. H's relief totals $1,500 ( 34 of $2,000). H remains liable for $1,500 of the deficiency ( 14 of the allocated deficiency plus $1,000 of the deficiency attributable to the joint bank account interest).

Example 4. Separate treatment items (STIs). (i) On September 1, 2006, a $28,000 deficiency is assessed with respect to H's and W's 2003 joint return. The deficiency is the result of 4 erroneous items—

(A) A disallowed Lifetime Learning Credit of $2,000 attributable to H;

(B) A disallowed business expense deduction of $8,000 attributable to H;

(C) Unreported income of $24,000 attributable to W; and

(D) Unreported self-employment tax of $14,000 attributable to W.

(ii) H and W both elect to allocate the deficiency.

(iii) The $2,000 Lifetime Learning Credit and the $14,000 self-employment tax are STIs totaling $16,000. The amount of erroneous items included in computing the proportionate allocation ratio is $32,000 ($24,000 unreported income and $8,000 disallowed business expense deduction). The amount of the deficiency subject to proportionate allocation is reduced by the amount of STIs ($28,000−$16,000 = $12,000).

(iv) Of the $32,000 of proportionate allocation items, $24,000 is allocable to W, and $8,000 is allocable to H.

W's share of allocable items   H's share of allocable items
34 ($24,000/$32,000)    14 ($8,000/$32,000)
(v) W's liability for the portion of the deficiency subject to proportionate allocation is limited to $9,000 ( 34 of $12,000) and H's liability for such portion is limited to $3,000 ( 14 of $12,000).

(vi) After the proportionate allocation is completed, the amount of the STIs is added to each spouse's allocated share of the deficiency.

   W's share of total deficiency      H's share of total deficiency
$ 9,000allocated deficiency   $3,000allocated deficiency
14,000self-employment tax   2,000Lifetime Learning Credit
$23,000      $5,000
(vii) Therefore, W's liability is limited to $23,000 and H's liability is limited to $5,000.

Example 5. Requesting spouse receives a benefit on the joint return from the nonrequesting spouse's erroneous item. (i) In 2001, H reports gross income of $4,000 from his business on Schedule C, and W reports $50,000 of wage income. On their 2001 joint Federal income tax return, H deducts $20,000 of business expenses resulting in a net loss from his business of $16,000. H and W divorce in September 2002, and on May 22, 2003, a $5,200 deficiency is assessed with respect to their 2001 joint return. W elects to allocate the deficiency. The deficiency on the joint return results from a disallowance of all of H's $20,000 of deductions.

(ii) Since H used only $4,000 of the disallowed deductions to offset gross income from his business, W benefitted from the other $16,000 of the disallowed deductions used to offset her wage income. Therefore, $4,000 of the disallowed deductions are allocable to H and $16,000 of the disallowed deductions are allocable to W. W's liability is limited to $4,160 ( 45 of $5,200). If H also elected to allocate the deficiency, H's election to allocate the $4,160 of the deficiency to W would be invalid because H had actual knowledge of the erroneous items.

Example 6. Calculation of requesting spouse's benefit on the joint return when the nonrequesting spouse's erroneous item is partially disallowed. Assume the same facts as in Example 5, except that H deducts $18,000 for business expenses on the joint return, of which $16,000 are disallowed. Since H used only $2,000 of the $16,000 disallowed deductions to offset gross income from his business, W received benefit on the return from the other $14,000 of the disallowed deductions used to offset her wage income. Therefore, $2,000 of the disallowed deductions are allocable to H and $14,000 of the disallowed deductions are allocable to W. W's liability is limited to $4,550 ( 78 of $5,200).

(6) Alternative allocation methods—(i) Allocation based on applicable tax rates. If a deficiency arises from two or more erroneous items that are subject to tax at different rates (e.g., ordinary income and capital gain items), the deficiency will be allocated after first separating the erroneous items into categories according to their applicable tax rate. After all erroneous items are categorized, a separate allocation is made with respect to each tax rate category using the proportionate allocation method of paragraph (d)(4) of this section.

(ii) Allocation methods provided in subsequent published guidance. Additional alternative methods for allocating erroneous items under section 6015(c) may be prescribed by the Treasury and IRS in subsequent revenue rulings, revenue procedures, or other appropriate guidance.

(iii) Example. The following example illustrates the rules of this paragraph (d)(6):

Example. Allocation based on applicable tax rates. H and W timely file their 1998 joint Federal income tax return. H and W divorce in 1999. On July 13, 2001, a $5,100 deficiency is assessed with respect to H's and W's 1998 return. Of this deficiency, $2,000 results from unreported capital gain of $6,000 that is attributable to W and $4,000 of capital gain that is attributable to H (both gains being subject to tax at the 20% marginal rate). The remaining $3,100 of the deficiency is attributable to $10,000 of unreported dividend income of H that is subject to tax at a marginal rate of 31%. H and W both timely elect to allocate the deficiency, and qualify under this section to do so. There are erroneous items subject to different tax rates; thus, the alternative allocation method of this paragraph (d)(6) applies. The three erroneous items are first categorized according to their applicable tax rates, then allocated. Of the total amount of 20% tax rate items ($10,000), 60% is allocable to W and 40% is allocable to H. Therefore, 60% of the $2,000 deficiency attributable to these items (or $1,200) is allocated to W. The remaining 40% of this portion of the deficiency ($800) is allocated to H. The only 31% tax rate item is allocable to H. Accordingly, H is liable for $3,900 of the deficiency ($800 + $3,100), and W is liable for the remaining $1,200.

[T.D. 9003, 67 FR 47285, July 18, 2002]

§1.6015-4   Equitable relief.

(a) A requesting spouse who files a joint return for which a liability remains unpaid and who does not qualify for full relief under §1.6015-2 or 1.6015-3 may request equitable relief under this section. The Internal Revenue Service has the discretion to grant equitable relief from joint and several liability to a requesting spouse when, considering all of the facts and circumstances, it would be inequitable to hold the requesting spouse jointly and severally liable.

(b) This section may not be used to circumvent the limitation of §1.6015-3(c)(1) (i.e., no refunds under §1.6015-3). Therefore, relief is not available under this section to obtain a refund of liabilities already paid, for which the requesting spouse would otherwise qualify for relief under §1.6015-3.

(c) For guidance concerning the criteria to be used in determining whether it is inequitable to hold a requesting spouse jointly and severally liable under this section, see Rev. Proc. 2000-15 (2000-1 C.B. 447), or other guidance published by the Treasury and IRS (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter).

[T.D. 9003, 67 FR 47285, July 18, 2002]

§1.6015-5   Time and manner for requesting relief.

(a) Requesting relief. To elect the application of §1.6015-2 or 1.6015-3, or to request equitable relief under §1.6015-4, a requesting spouse must file Form 8857, “Request for Innocent Spouse Relief” (or other specified form); submit a written statement containing the same information required on Form 8857, which is signed under penalties of perjury; or submit information in the manner prescribed by the Treasury and IRS in forms, relevant revenue rulings, revenue procedures, or other published guidance (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter).

(b) Time period for filing a request for relief—(1) In general. To elect the application of §1.6015-2 or 1.6015-3, or to request equitable relief under §1.6015-4, a requesting spouse must file Form 8857 or other similar statement with the Internal Revenue Service no later than two years from the date of the first collection activity against the requesting spouse after July 22, 1998, with respect to the joint tax liability.

(2) Definitions—(i) Collection activity. For purposes of this paragraph (b), collection activity means a section 6330 notice; an offset of an overpayment of the requesting spouse against a liability under section 6402; the filing of a suit by the United States against the requesting spouse for the collection of the joint tax liability; or the filing of a claim by the United States in a court proceeding in which the requesting spouse is a party or which involves property of the requesting spouse. Collection activity does not include a notice of deficiency; the filing of a Notice of Federal Tax Lien; or a demand for payment of tax. The term property of the requesting spouse, for purposes of this paragraph (b), means property in which the requesting spouse has an ownership interest (other than solely through the operation of community property laws), including property owned jointly with the nonrequesting spouse.

(ii) Section 6330 notice. A section 6330 notice refers to the notice sent, pursuant to section 6330, providing taxpayers notice of the Service's intent to levy and of their right to a collection due process (CDP) hearing.

(3) Requests for relief made before commencement of collection activity. An election or request for relief may be made before collection activity has commenced. For example, an election or request for relief may be made in connection with an audit or examination of the joint return or a demand for payment, or pursuant to the CDP hearing procedures under section 6320 in connection with the filing of a Notice of Federal Tax Lien. For more information on the rules regarding collection due process for liens, see the Treasury regulations under section 6320. However, no request for relief may be made before the date specified in paragraph (b)(5) of this section.

(4) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of this paragraph (b):

Example 1. On January 11, 2000, a section 6330 notice is mailed to H and W regarding their 1997 joint Federal income tax liability. The Internal Revenue Service levies on W's employer on June 5, 2000. The Internal Revenue Service levies on H's employer on July 10, 2000. An election or request for relief must be made by January 11, 2002, which is two years after the Internal Revenue Service sent the section 6330 notice.

Example 2. The Internal Revenue Service offsets an overpayment against a joint liability for 1995 on January 12, 1998. The offset only partially satisfies the liability. The Internal Revenue Service takes no other collection actions. On July 24, 2001, W elects relief with respect to the unpaid portion of the 1995 liability. W's election is timely because the Internal Revenue Service has not taken any collection activity after July 22, 1998; therefore, the two-year period has not commenced.

Example 3. Assume the same facts as in Example 2, except that the Internal Revenue Service sends a section 6330 notice on January 22, 1999. W's election is untimely because it is filed more than two years after the first collection activity after July 22, 1998.

Example 4. H and W do not remit full payment with their timely filed joint Federal income tax return for the 1989 tax year. No collection activity is taken after July 22, 1998, until the United States files a suit against both H and W to reduce the tax assessment to judgment and to foreclose the tax lien on their jointly-held business property on July 1, 1999. H elects relief on October 2, 2000. The election is timely because it is made within two years of the filing of a collection suit by the United States against H.

Example 5. W files a Chapter 7 bankruptcy petition on July 10, 2000. On September 5, 2000, the United States files a proof of claim for her joint 1998 income tax liability. W elects relief with respect to the 1998 liability on August 20, 2002. The election is timely because it is made within two years of the date the United States filed the proof of claim in W's bankruptcy case.

(5) Premature requests for relief. The Internal Revenue Service will not consider premature claims for relief under §1.6015-2, 1.6015-3, or 1.6015-4. A premature claim is a claim for relief that is filed for a tax year prior to the receipt of a notification of an audit or a letter or notice from the IRS indicating that there may be an outstanding liability with regard to that year. Such notices or letters do not include notices issued pursuant to section 6223 relating to TEFRA partnership proceedings. A premature claim is not considered an election or request under §1.6015-1(h)(5).

(c) Effect of a final administrative determination—(1) In general. A requesting spouse is entitled to only one final administrative determination of relief under §1.6015-1 for a given assessment, unless the requesting spouse properly submits a second request for relief that is described in §1.6015-1(h)(5).

(2) Example. The following example illustrates the rule of this paragraph (c):

Example: In January 2001, W becomes a limited partner in partnership P, and in February 2001, she starts her own business from which she earns $100,000 of net income for the year. H and W file a joint return for tax year 2001, on which they claim $20,000 in losses from their investment in P, and they omit W's self-employment tax. In March 2003, the Internal Revenue Service commences an audit under the provisions of subchapter C of chapter 63 of subtitle F of the Internal Revenue Code (TEFRA partnership proceeding) and sends H and W a notice under section 6223(a)(1). In September 2003, the Internal Revenue Service audits H's and W's 2001 joint return regarding the omitted self-employment tax. H may file a claim for relief from joint and several liability for the self-employment tax liability because he has received a notification of an audit indicating that there may be an outstanding liability on the joint return. However, his claim for relief regarding the TEFRA partnership proceeding is premature under paragraph (b)(5) of this section. H will have to wait until the Internal Revenue Service sends him a notice of computational adjustment or assesses the liability resulting from the TEFRA partnership proceeding before he files a claim for relief with respect to any such liability. The assessment relating to the TEFRA partnership proceeding is separate from the assessment for the self-employment tax; therefore, H's subsequent claim for relief for the liability from the TEFRA partnership proceeding is not precluded by his previous claim for relief from the self-employment tax liability under this paragraph (c).

[T.D. 9003, 67 FR 47285, July 18, 2002, as amended at 67 FR 54735, Aug. 26, 2002]

§1.6015-6   Nonrequesting spouse's notice and opportunity to participate in administrative proceedings.

(a) In general. (1) When the Internal Revenue Service receives an election under §1.6015-2 or 1.6015-3, or a request for relief under §1.6015-4, the Internal Revenue Service must send a notice to the nonrequesting spouse's last known address that informs the nonrequesting spouse of the requesting spouse's claim for relief. For further guidance regarding the definition of last known address, see §301.6212-2 of this chapter. The notice must provide the nonrequesting spouse with an opportunity to submit any information that should be considered in determining whether the requesting spouse should be granted relief from joint and several liability. A nonrequesting spouse is not required to submit information under this section. Upon the request of either spouse, the Internal Revenue Service will share with one spouse the information submitted by the other spouse, unless such information would impair tax administration.

(2) The Internal Revenue Service must notify the nonrequesting spouse of the Service's preliminary and final determinations with respect to the requesting spouse's claim for relief under section 6015.

(b) Information submitted. The Internal Revenue Service will consider all of the information (as relevant to each particular relief provision) that the nonrequesting spouse submits in determining whether relief from joint and several liability is appropriate, including information relating to the following—

(1) The legal status of the requesting and nonrequesting spouses' marriage;

(2) The extent of the requesting spouse's knowledge of the erroneous items or underpayment;

(3) The extent of the requesting spouse's knowledge or participation in the family business or financial affairs;

(4) The requesting spouse's education level;

(5) The extent to which the requesting spouse benefitted from the erroneous items;

(6) Any asset transfers between the spouses;

(7) Any indication of fraud on the part of either spouse;

(8) Whether it would be inequitable, within the meaning of §§1.6015-2(d) and 1.6015-4, to hold the requesting spouse jointly and severally liable for the outstanding liability;

(9) The allocation or ownership of items giving rise to the deficiency; and

(10) Anything else that may be relevant to the determination of whether relief from joint and several liability should be granted.

(c) Effect of opportunity to participate. The failure to submit information pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section does not affect the nonrequesting spouse's ability to seek relief from joint and several liability for the same tax year. However, information that the nonrequesting spouse submits pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section is relevant in determining whether relief from joint and several liability is appropriate for the nonrequesting spouse should the nonrequesting spouse also submit an application for relief.

[T.D. 9003, 67 FR 47285, July 18, 2002]

§1.6015-7   Tax Court review.

(a) In general. Requesting spouses may petition the Tax Court to review the denial of relief under §1.6015-1.

(b) Time period for petitioning the Tax Court. Pursuant to section 6015(e), the requesting spouse may petition the Tax Court to review a denial of relief under §1.6015-1 within 90 days after the date notice of the Service's final determination is mailed by certified or registered mail (90-day period). If the IRS does not mail the requesting spouse a final determination letter within 6 months of the date the requesting spouse files an election under §1.6015-2 or 1.6015-3, the requesting spouse may petition the Tax Court to review the election at any time after the expiration of the 6-month period, and before the expiration of the 90-day period. The Tax Court also may review a claim for relief if Tax Court jurisdiction has been acquired under another section of the Internal Revenue Code such as section 6213(a) or 6330(d).

(c) Restrictions on collection and suspension of the running of the period of limitations—(1) Restrictions on collection under §1.6015-2 or 1.6015-3. Unless the Internal Revenue Service determines that collection will be jeopardized by delay, no levy or proceeding in court shall be made, begun, or prosecuted against a requesting spouse electing the application of §1.6015-2 or 1.6015-3 for the collection of any assessment to which the election relates until the expiration of the 90-day period described in paragraph (b) of this section, or if a petition is filed with the Tax Court, until the decision of the Tax Court becomes final under section 7481. For more information regarding the date on which a decision of the Tax Court becomes final, see section 7481 and the regulations thereunder. Notwithstanding the above, if the requesting spouse appeals the Tax Court's decision, the Internal Revenue Service may resume collection of the liability from the requesting spouse on the date the requesting spouse files the notice of appeal, unless the requesting spouse files an appeal bond pursuant to the rules of section 7485. Jeopardy under this paragraph (c)(1) means conditions exist that would require an assessment under section 6851 or 6861 and the regulations thereunder.

(2) Waiver of the restrictions on collection. A requesting spouse may, at any time (regardless of whether a notice of the Service's final determination of relief is mailed), waive the restrictions on collection in paragraph (c)(1) of this section.

(3) Suspension of the running of the period of limitations—(i) Relief under §1.6015-2 or 1.6015-3. The running of the period of limitations in section 6502 on collection against the requesting spouse of the assessment to which an election under §1.6015-2 or 1.6015-3 relates is suspended for the period during which the Internal Revenue Service is prohibited by paragraph (c)(1) of this section from collecting by levy or a proceeding in court and for 60 days thereafter. However, if the requesting spouse signs a waiver of the restrictions on collection in accordance with paragraph (c)(2) of this section, the suspension of the period of limitations in section 6502 on collection against the requesting spouse will terminate on the date that is 60 days after the date the waiver is filed with the Internal Revenue Service.

(ii) Relief under §1.6015-4. If a requesting spouse seeks only equitable relief under §1.6015-4, the restrictions on collection of paragraph (c)(1) of this section do not apply. Accordingly, the request for relief does not suspend the running of the period of limitations on collection.

(4) Definitions—(i) Levy. For purposes of this paragraph (c), levy means an administrative levy or seizure described by section 6331.

(ii) Proceedings in court. For purposes of this paragraph (c), proceedings in court means suits filed by the United States for the collection of Federal tax. Proceedings in court does not refer to the filing of pleadings and claims and other participation by the Internal Revenue Service or the United States in suits not filed by the United States, including Tax Court cases, refund suits, and bankruptcy cases.

(iii) Assessment to which the election relates. For purposes of this paragraph (c), the assessment to which the election relates is the entire assessment of the deficiency to which the election relates, even if the election is made with respect to only part of that deficiency.

[T.D. 9003, 67 FR 47285, July 18, 2002]

§1.6015-8   Applicable liabilities.

(a) In general. Section 6015 applies to liabilities that arise after July 22, 1998, and to liabilities that arose prior to July 22, 1998, that were not paid on or before July 22, 1998.

(b) Liabilities paid on or before July 22, 1998. A requesting spouse seeking relief from joint and several liability for amounts paid on or before July 22, 1998, must request relief under section 6013(e) and the regulations thereunder.

(c) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of this section:

Example 1. H and W file a joint Federal income tax return for 1995 on April 15, 1996. There is an understatement on the return attributable to an omission of H's wage income. On October 15, 1998, H and W receive a 30-day letter proposing a deficiency on the 1995 joint return. W pays the outstanding liability in full on November 30, 1998. In March 1999, W files Form 8857, requesting relief from joint and several liability under section 6015(b). Although W's liability arose prior to July 22, 1998, it was unpaid as of that date. Therefore, section 6015 is applicable.

Example 2. H and W file their 1995 joint Federal income tax return on April 15, 1996. On October 14, 1997, a deficiency of $5,000 is assessed regarding a disallowed business expense deduction attributable to H. On June 30, 1998, the Internal Revenue Service levies on the $3,000 in W's bank account in partial satisfaction of the outstanding liability. On August 31, 1998, W files a request for relief from joint and several liability. The liability arose prior to July 22, 1998. Section 6015 is applicable to the $2,000 that remained unpaid as of July 22, 1998, and section 6013(e) is applicable to the $3,000 that was paid prior to July 22, 1998.

[T.D. 9003, 67 FR 47285, July 18, 2002]

§1.6015-9   Effective date.

Sections 1.6015-0 through 1.6015-9 are applicable for all elections under §1.6015-2 or 1.6015-3 or any requests for relief under §1.6015-4 filed on or after July 18, 2002.

[T.D. 9003, 67 FR 47285, July 18, 2002]

§1.6016-1   Declarations of estimated income tax by corporations.

(a) Requirement. For taxable years ending on or after December 31, 1955, a declaration of estimated tax shall be made by every corporation (including unincorporated business enterprises electing to be taxed as domestic corporations under section 1361), which is subject to taxation under section 11 or 1201(a), or subchapter L, chapter 1 of the Code (relating to insurance companies), if its income tax under such sections or such subchapter L for the taxable year can reasonably be expected to exceed the sum of $100,000 plus the amount of any estimated credits allowable under section 32 (relating to tax withheld at source on nonresident aliens and foreign corporations and on tax-free covenant bonds), section 33 (relating to taxes of foreign countries and possessions of the United States), and section 38 (relating to investment in certain depreciable property).

(b) Definition of estimated tax. The term “estimated tax”, in the case of a corporation, means the excess of the amount which such corporation estimates as its income tax liability for the taxable year under section 11 or 1201(a), or subchapter L, chapter 1 of the Code, over the sum of $100,000 and any estimated credits under sections 32, 33, and 38. However, for the rule with respect to the limitation upon the $100,000 exemption for members of certain electing affiliated groups, see section 243(b)(3)(C)(v) and the regulations thereunder.

(c) Examples. The application of this section may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. M, a corporation subject to tax under section 11, reasonably anticipates that it will have taxable income of $224,000 for the calendar year 1964. The normal tax and surtax result in an expected liability of $105,000. M determines that it will not have any allowable credits under sections 32, 33, and 38 for 1964. Since M's expected tax ($105,000) exceeds the exemption ($100,000), a declaration of estimated tax is required to be filed, reporting an estimated tax of $5,000 ($105,000−$100,000) for the calendar year 1964.

Example 2. Under the facts stated in example (1), except that M estimates it will have an allowable foreign tax credit under section 33 in the amount of $4,000 and an allowable investment credit under section 38 in the amount of $3,000, no declaration is required, since M's expected tax ($105,000) does not exceed the $100,000 plus the allowable credits totaling $7,000.

[T.D. 6768, 29 FR 14921, Nov. 4, 1964]

§1.6016-2   Contents of declaration of estimated tax.

(a) In general. The declaration of estimated tax by a corporation shall be made on Form 1120-ES. For the purpose of making the declaration, the estimated tax should be based upon the amount of gross income which the taxpayer can reasonably be expected to receive or accrue as the case may be, depending upon the method of accounting upon the basis of which the taxable income is computed, and the amount of the estimated allowable deductions and credits to be taken into account. Such amounts of gross income, deductions, and credits should be determined upon the basis of facts and circumstances existing as at the time prescribed for the filing of the declaration as well as those reasonably to be anticipated for the taxable year.

(b) Use of prescribed form. Copies of Form 1120-ES will so far as possible be furnished taxpayers by district directors. A taxpayer will not be excused from making a declaration, however, by the fact that no form has been furnished. Taxpayers not supplied with the proper form should make application therefor to the district director in ample time to have their declarations prepared, verified, and filed with the district director on or before the date prescribed for filing the declaration. If the prescribed form is not available a statement disclosing the estimated income tax after the exemption and the credits, if any, should be filed as a tentative declaration within the prescribed time, accompanied by the payment of the required installment. Such tentative declaration should be supplemented, without unnecessary delay, by a declaration made on the proper form.

§1.6016-3   Amendment of declaration.

In the making of a declaration of estimated tax the corporation is required to take into account the then existing facts and circumstances as well as those reasonably to be anticipated relating to prospective gross income, allowable deductions, and estimated credits for the taxable year. Amended or revised declarations may be made in any case in which the corporation estimates that its gross income, deductions, or credits will materially change the estimated tax reported in the previous declaration. However, for the rule with respect to the number of amended declarations which may be filed for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1963, see paragraph (d)(2) of §1.6074-1. Such amended declaration may be made on either Form 1120-ES (marked “Amended”) or on the reverse side of the installment notice furnished the corporation by the district director. See, however, paragraph (b) of §1.6016-2 for procedure to be followed if the prescribed form is not available.

[T.D. 6768, 29 FR 14922, Nov. 4, 1964]

§1.6016-4   Short taxable year.

(a) Requirement of declaration. No declaration may be made for a period of more than 12 months. For purposes of this section a taxable year of 52 or 53 weeks, in the case of a corporation which computes its taxable income in accordance with the election permitted by section 441(f), shall be deemed a period of 12 months. For special rules affecting the time for filing declarations and paying estimated tax by such corporation, see paragraph (b) of §1.441-2. A separate declaration is required where a corporation is required to submit an income tax return for a period of less than 12 months, but only if such short period ends on or after December 31, 1955. However, no declaration is required if the short taxable year:

(1) Begins on or before December 31, 1963, and is:

(i) A period of less than 9 months, or

(ii) A period of 9 or more months but less than 12 months and the requirements of section 6016(a) are not met before the 1st day of the last month in the short taxable year, or

(2) Begins after December 31, 1963, and is:

(i) A period of less than 4 months, or

(ii) A period of 4 or more months but less than 12 months and the requirements of section 6016(a) are not met before the 1st day of the last month in the short taxable year.

(b) Income placed on an annual basis. In cases where the short taxable year results from a change of annual accounting period, for the purpose of determining whether the anticipated income for a short taxable year will result in an estimated tax liability requiring the filing of a declaration, such income shall be placed on an annual basis in the manner prescribed in section 443(b)(1). If a tax computed on such annualized income exceeds the sum of $100,000 and any credits under part IV, of subchapter A, chapter 1 of the Code, the estimated tax shall be the same part of the excess so computed as the number of months in the short period is of 12 months. Thus, for example, a corporation which changes from a calendar year basis to a fiscal year basis beginning October 1, 1956, will have a short taxable year beginning January 1, 1956, and ending September 30, 1956. If on or before August 31, 1956, the taxpayer anticipates that it will have income of $264,000 for the 9-month taxable year the estimated tax is computed as follows:

(1) Anticipated taxable income for 9 months$264,000
(2) Annualized income ($264,000 × 12 ÷ 9)352,000
(3) Tax liability on item (2)177,540
(4) Item (3) reduced by $100,000 (there are no credits under part IV, subchapter A, chapter 1 of the Code)77,540
(5) Estimated tax for 9-month period ($77,540 × 9 ÷ 12)58,155

Since the tax liability on the annualized income is in excess of $100,000, a declaration is required to be filed, reporting an estimated tax of $58,155 for the 9-month taxable period. This paragraph has no application where the short taxable year does not result from a change in the taxpayer's annual accounting period.

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 12108, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 6768, 29 FR 14922, Nov. 4, 1964]

§1.6017-1   Self-employment tax returns.

(a) In general. (1) Every individual, other than a nonresident alien, having net earnings from self-employment, as defined in section 1402, of $400 or more for the taxable year shall make a return of such earnings. For purposes of this section, an individual who is a resident of the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, or (for any taxable year beginning after 1960) Guam or American Samoa is not to be considered a nonresident alien individual. See paragraph (d) of §1.1402(b)-1. A return is required under this section if an individual has self-employment income, as defined in section 1402(b), even though he may not be required to make a return under section 6012 for purposes of the tax imposed by section 1 or 3. Provisions applicable to returns under section 6012(a) shall be applicable to returns under this section.

(2) Except as otherwise provided in this subparagraph, the return required by this section shall be made on Form 1040. The form to be used by residents of the Virgin Islands, Guam, or American Samoa is From 1040SS. In the case of a resident of Puerto Rico who is not required to make a return of income under section 6012(a), the form to be used is Form 1040SS, except that Form 1040PR shall be used if it is furnished by the Internal Revenue Service to such resident for use in lieu of Form 1040SS.

(b) Joint returns. (1) In the case of a husband and wife filing a joint return under section 6013, the tax on self-employment income is computed on the separate self-employment income of each spouse, and not on the aggregate of the two amounts. The requirement of section 6013(d)(3) that in the case of a joint return the tax is computed on the aggregate income of the spouses is not applicable with respect to the tax on self-employment income. Where the husband and wife each has net earnings from self-employment of $400 or more, it will be necessary for each to complete separate schedules of the computation of self-employment tax with respect to the net earnings of each spouse, despite the fact that a joint return is filed. If the net earnings from self-employment of either the husband or the wife are less than $400, such net earnings are not subject to the tax on self-employment income, even though they must be shown on the joint return for purposes of the tax imposed by section 1 or 3.

(2) Except as otherwise expressly provided, section 6013 is applicable to the return of the tax on self-employment income; therefore, the liability with respect to such tax in the case of a joint return is joint and several.

(c) Social security account numbers. (1) Every individual making a return of net earnings from self-employment for any period commencing before January 1, 1962, is required to show thereon his social security account number, or, if he has no such account number, to make application therefor on Form SS-5 before filing such return. However, the failure to apply for or receive a social security account number will not excuse the individual from the requirement that he file such return on or before the due date thereof. Form SS-5 may be obtained from any district office of the Social Security Administration or from any district director. The application shall be filed with a district office of the Social Security Administration or, in the case of an individual not in the United States, with the district office of the Social Security Administration at Baltimore, Md. An individual who has previously secured a social security account number as an employee shall use that account number on his return of net earnings from self-employment.

(2) For provisions applicable to the securing of identifying numbers and the reporting thereof on returns and schedules for periods commencing after December 31, 1961, see §1.6109-1.

(d) Declaration of estimated tax with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1966. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1966, section 6015 provides that the term “estimated tax” includes the amount which an individual estimates as the amount of self-employment tax imposed by chapter 2 for the taxable year. Thus, individuals upon whom self-employment tax is imposed by section 1401 must make a declaration of estimated tax if they meet the requirements of section 6015(a); except as otherwise provided under section 6015(i).

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 12108, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 6691, 28 FR 12816, Dec. 3, 1963; T.D. 7427, 41 FR 34028, Aug. 12, 1976]

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