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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of June 4, 2020

Title 26Chapter ISubchapter APart 1 → Subject Group


Title 26: Internal Revenue
PART 1—INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED)


Certain Controlled Corporations

§1.1561-0   Table of contents.

This section lists the table of contents for §§1.1561-1 through 1.1561-3.

§1.1561-1   General rules regarding certain tax benefits available to the component members of a controlled group of corporations.

(a) In general.

(1) Limitation.

(2) Definitions.

(b) Special rules.

(1) S Corporation.

(2) 52-53-week taxable year.

(c) Tax avoidance.

(d) Effective/applicability date.

§1.1561-2   Special rules for allocating reductions of certain Section 1561(a) tax-benefit items.

(a) Additional tax.

(1) Calculation.

(2) Apportionment.

(3) Examples.

(b) Reduction to the amount exempted from the alternative minimum tax.

(1) Calculation.

(2) Apportionment.

(3) Examples.

(c) Accumulated earnings credit.

(d) [Reserved]

(e) Short taxable year not including a December 31st date.

(1) General rule.

(2) Additional rules.

(3) Calculation of the additional tax.

(4) Calculation of the alternative minimum tax.

(5) Examples.

(f) Effective/applicability date.

§1.1561-3   Allocation of the section 1561(a) tax items.

(a) Filing of form.

(1) In general.

(2) Exception for component members that are members of a consolidated group.

(b) No apportionment plan in effect.

(c) Apportionment plan in effect.

(1) Adoption of plan.

(2) Limitation on adopting a plan.

(3) Termination of plan.

(d) Effective/applicability date.

[T.D. 9476, 74 FR 68532, Dec. 28, 2009]

§1.1561-1   General rules regarding certain tax benefits available to the component members of a controlled group of corporations.

(a) In general—(1)—Limitation. Part II (section 1561 and following) of subchapter B of chapter 6 of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) (part II) provides rules to limit the amounts of certain specified tax benefit items of component members of a controlled group of corporations for their tax years which include a particular December 31st date, or, in the case of a short taxable year member (see section 1561(b) and §1.1561-2(e)), the date substituted for that December 31st date. The amount of the tax items enumerated in section 1561(a) available to any of the component members of a controlled group shall be determined for purposes of subtitle A of the Code as if the component members were a single corporation. Certain other tax items also set forth in section 1561(a) (for example, the additional tax imposed by section 11(b)(1) and the section 55(d)(3) phase out of the alternative minimum tax exemption amount) will be determined by combining the positive taxable income or positive alternative minimum taxable income of the component members of such a group and then allocating the amount of such items among those members.

(2) Definitions. For certain definitions (including the definition of a controlled group of corporations and a component member) and special rules for purposes of this part II see section 1563.

(b) Special rules—(1) S Corporation. For purposes of this part II, the term corporation includes a small business corporation (as defined in section 1361). However, for the treatment of such a corporation as an excluded member of a controlled group of corporations see §1.1563-1(b)(2)(ii)(C).

(2) 52-53-week taxable year. In the case of corporations electing a 52-53-week taxable year under section 441(f)(1), the provisions of this part II shall be applied in accordance with the special rule of section 441(f)(2)(A). See §1.441-2.

(c) Tax avoidance. The provisions of this part II do not delimit or abrogate any principle of law established by judicial decision, or any existing provisions of the Code, such as sections 269, 482, and 1551, which serve to prevent any avoidance or evasion of income taxes.

(d) Effective/applicability date. This section applies to any tax year beginning on or after December 21, 2009. However, taxpayers may apply this section to any Federal income tax return filed on or after December 21, 2009. For tax years beginning before December 21, 2009, see §1.1561-1T as contained in 26 CFR part 1 in effect on April 1, 2009.

[T.D. 9476, 74 FR 68532, Dec. 28, 2009]

§1.1561-2   Special rules for allocating reductions of certain section 1561(a) tax-benefit items.

(a) Additional tax—(1) Calculation—(i) In general. For the purpose of determining the amount, if any, of the additional tax imposed by section 11(b)(1) (the additional tax), the taxable incomes of all of the component members of a controlled group of corporations shall be combined to determine whether either of the income thresholds for imposing the additional tax have been attained.

(ii) Special rules. For purposes of paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section—

(A) Component member means a corporation that is apportioned some part of any applicable tax bracket amount; and

(B) Taxable income means the positive taxable income of a component member for its entire tax year (even if it was not a member of the group for each day of that tax year) that includes the same December 31st testing date, which is also applicable to the other component members of that same controlled group.

(2) Apportionment—(i) General rule. Any additional tax determined under paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall be apportioned among such members in the same manner as the corresponding tax bracket of section 11(b)(1) is apportioned. For rules to apportion the section 11(b)(1) tax brackets among the component members of a controlled group, see §1.1561-3(b) or (c).

(ii) Apportionment methods. Unless the component members of a controlled group elect to use the first-in-first-out (FIFO) method described in paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(B) of this section, such members are required to apportion the amount of the additional tax using the proportionate method described in paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(A) of this section. These component members may elect the FIFO method by specifically adopting such method in their apportionment plan.

(A) Proportionate method. Under the proportionate method, the additional tax is allocated to each component member in the same proportion as the portion of the tax-benefit amount that inured to a member from utilizing lower tax brackets bears to the amount of the group's total tax-benefit amount inuring to it from utilizing those lower tax brackets. The tax-benefit amount that inures to a corporation from using a particular tax bracket is the tax savings that such corporation realizes from having a portion of its taxable income taxed at the lower rate attributed to that tax bracket instead of the high tax rates to which it would otherwise be subject. The steps for applying the proportionate method of allocation are as follows:

(1) Step 1. The regular tax (not including the additional tax) owed by a component member under a particular tax bracket is divided by the total tax owed by all component members under that tax bracket;

(2) Step 2. The percentage calculated under Step 1 is multiplied by the total tax-benefit amount inuring to all the members of the group from their use of this tax bracket. This computed amount equals the portion of the group's tax-benefit amount that inured to such member from using its portion of this tax bracket;

(3) Step 3. The amount determined under Step 2 is divided by the total tax-benefit amount, inuring to all the component members of the group from using all the tax brackets to which any component member's income was subject;

(4) Step 4. The percentage calculated under Step 3 is multiplied by the amount of the group's additional tax. The amount determined under this Step 4 equals the amount of the additional tax apportioned to such member for that tax bracket; and

(5) Step 5. If a component member is liable for regular tax (not including the additional tax) under more than one tax bracket, that member must calculate the amount of the additional tax apportioned to it with respect to each tax bracket. Accordingly, steps 1 through 4 must be applied for each tax bracket applicable to that member. The sum of all the apportioned amounts of additional tax from each tax bracket for which the member is subject is the total amount of the additional tax apportioned to that member.

(B) FIFO method. Under the FIFO method, the first dollars of the additional tax are to be allocated proportionately to the members starting with the lowest tax bracket (that is, the first tax bracket), up to the amount of the tax benefit inuring to those members from using that tax bracket. Any remaining amount of additional tax is then allocated proportionately among the component members who use the next higher tax bracket, and so on, until the entire amount of the additional tax has been fully apportioned among the members. For example, the first $9,500 of the additional tax liability of a controlled group is apportioned entirely to the member(s) that availed themselves of the benefit of the 15 percent tax bracket.

(3) Examples. The provisions of this paragraph (a) may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. (i) Facts. A controlled group of corporations consists of three members: X, Y and Z. X owns all the stock of Y and Z. Each corporation files its separate return on a calendar year basis. For calendar year 2007, the component members of the controlled group have an apportionment plan in effect. The members apportioned 80% of the 15 percent tax-bracket amount ($40,000) to X and the remaining 10% ($10,000) to Y. The members apportioned 100% of the 25 percent tax-bracket amount ($25,000) to Y. However, these members have not adopted the FIFO method for apportioning the additional taxes. Therefore, they must follow the proportionate method. For 2007, X had taxable income (TI) of $40,000, Y had TI of $60,000 and Z had TI of $100,000. Thus the total TI of the group is $200,000.

(ii) Calculating the tax from the tax brackets and the tax benefit derived from such tax. (A) Regular tax of group subject to a 15 percent tax rate. (1) Calculating the group's tax which resulted from applying a 15 percent tax rate. The amount of tax under the 15 percent tax bracket is $7,500 (15% × $50,000).

(2) The tax-benefit amount inuring to the group from using the 15 percent tax bracket. A tax benefit inures to those members of the group who avail themselves of the 15 percent tax bracket. That tax benefit results from having the first $50,000 of its income taxed at the 15 percent tax rate, instead of at the 34 percent tax rate. Thus, the tax-benefit amount inuring to this group from using the 15 percent tax bracket is $9,500 ($17,000 (34% × $50,000) minus $7,500 (15% × $50,000)).

(B) Regular tax of group subject to a 25 percent tax rate. (1) Calculating the group's tax which resulted from applying a 25 percent tax rate. The amount of tax under the 25 percent tax bracket is $6,250 (25% × $25,000 ($75,000−$50,000)).

(2) The tax-benefit amount inuring to the group from using the 25 percent tax bracket. A tax benefit inures to those members of the group who avail themselves of the 25 percent tax bracket. That tax benefit results from having $25,000 of its income taxed at the 25 percent tax rate, instead of at the 34 percent tax rate. Thus, the tax-benefit amount inuring to this group from using the 25 percent tax bracket is $2,250 ($8,500 (34% × $25,000) minus $6,250 (25% × $25,000)).

(C) Regular tax of group subject to a 34 percent tax rate. (1) Calculating the group's tax which resulted from applying a 34 percent tax rate. The amount of tax under the 34 percent tax bracket is $42,500 (34% × $125,000 ($200,000 (total TI)−$75,000) (amount taxed at lower rates)).

(2) The tax-benefit amount inuring to the group from using the 34 percent tax bracket. The group's total TI of $200,000 is less than the $15,000,000 income threshold for imposing any 3 percent additional tax on the group. Therefore, there is no tax benefit inuring to the members of this group for using the 34 percent tax bracket.

(D) The computation of the additional tax. Since the combined TI of the group exceeds $100,000, a 5 percent additional tax is imposed on the group. That 5 percent additional tax is the lesser amount of 5 percent of the group's taxable income exceeding $100,000 or $11,750. Five percent of that excess amount of taxable income is $5,000 (5% × $100,000 ($200,000−$100,000)). Since $5,000 is less than $11,750, the group's 5 percent additional tax is $5,000.

(iii) Apportioning the amount of additional tax to each applicable tax bracket. (A) The apportioned tax under each bracket. The amount of tax owed by each member under each tax bracket pursuant to the apportionment plan is as follows:

Name of component memberAmount of tax owed under the 15% tax bracketAmount of tax owed under the 25% tax bracketAmount of tax owed under the 34% tax bracket
X$6,00000
Y1,500$6,250$8,500
Z0034,000
(B) Apportioning the 5 percent additional tax among the component members of the controlled group. Since the group did not elect to adopt the FIFO method of apportionment, it is required to apportion the $5,000 of its 5 percent additional tax pursuant to the proportionate method in the following manner:

(1) Amount of the additional tax apportioned to X. Pursuant to the plan, X was liable for $6,000 of the group's $7,500 regular tax (80%) owed under the 15 percent tax bracket (and X is not liable for any regular tax under any higher tax bracket). See Step 1 of paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(A) of this section. X's portion of the group's tax benefit which it derived from using the 15 percent tax rate is $7,600 (0.8 × $9,500). See Step 2. The tax benefit inuring to the entire group from using the 15 percent and 25 percent tax brackets is $11,750 ($9,500 (from the 15 percent tax bracket) + $2,250 (from the 25 percent tax bracket)). So, X's percentage portion of the group's total tax benefit is $7,600/$11,750 (64.68%). See Step 3. Thus, X's allocated portion of the 5 percent additional tax from using the 15 percent tax bracket is $3,234 (0.6468 × $5,000). See Step 4.

(2) Amount of the additional tax apportioned to Y. (i) Regular tax apportioned to Y from using the 15 percent tax bracket. Pursuant to the plan, Y was liable for the remaining $1,500 of the group's $7,500 regular tax (20%) owed under the 15 percent tax bracket. See Step 1. Y's portion of the group's tax benefit which it derived from using the 15 percent tax rate is $1,900 ($9,500−$7,600, or 0.2 × $9,500). See Step 2. So, Y's percentage portion of the group's total tax benefit is $1,900/$11,750 (16.17%). See Step 3. Thus, Y's allocated portion of the 5 percent additional tax from using the 15 percent tax bracket is $809 (0.1617 × $5,000). See Step 4.

(ii) Regular tax apportioned to Y from using the 25 percent tax bracket. Pursuant to the plan, Y was liable for 100% of the group's regular tax owed under the 25 percent tax bracket, an amount of $6,250. See Step 1. Y is, therefore, entitled to 100% of the group's tax benefit which it derived from using this tax bracket, an amount of $2,250. See Step 2. So, Y's percentage portion of the group's total tax benefit is $2,250/$11,750 (19.15%). See Step 3. Thus, Y's allocated portion of the 5 percent additional tax from using the 25 percent tax bracket is $957 (0.1915 × $5,000). See Step 4. Y's total allocated portion of the additional tax is $1,766 ($809 + $957). See Step 5.

Example 2. (i) Facts. The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that on August 31, 2007, X of the X-Y-Z controlled group sold all of the stock of Z to M of the M-N controlled group, a pair of corporations unrelated to the X-Y group. Pursuant to the terms of the sales agreement, the members of the M-N group properly notified the members of the X-Y group on a timely basis that Z's taxable income for its 2007 tax year, as based on the group's December 31st testing date, was $100,000.

(ii) Controlled group analysis. On December 31st, 2007, X and Y are members of the selling controlled group and M, N and Z are members of the buying controlled group. However, pursuant to section 1563(b)(3), Z is treated as an additional member of the X-Y group on December31st 2007, since it was a member for at least one-half the number of days (243 out of 364) during the period beginning on January 1 and ending on December 30, 2007. Conversely, pursuant to section 1563(b)(2)(A), Z is treated as an excluded member of the M-N controlled group. Therefore, on December 31st, 2007, X, Y, and Z qualify as component members of the selling group, and only M and N qualify as component members of the buying group.

(iii) Additional tax analysis. With regard to X and Y's 2007 tax years, X and Y together owed $5,000 of additional tax, as calculated in Example 1. X's allocated portion of the additional tax is $3,234, as calculated in the manner set forth in Example 1. Y's allocated portion of the additional tax is $1,766, also as calculated in the manner set forth in Example 1.

Example 3. (i) Facts. The facts are the same as in Example 2, except that in 2012, pursuant to an IRS audit, Z's 2007 taxable income was re-determined. It was adjusted by an income increase of $10,000. Pursuant to the terms of the sales agreement, the members of the M-N group timely notified the members of the X-Y group of Z's income adjustment.

(ii) Additional tax analysis. For 2007 the X-Y-Z group owed a revised additional tax in the amount of $5,500, allocated as follows: $3,557.40 to X and $1,942.60 to Y. X and Y each filed an amended 2007 tax return to report their portions of the $500 increase to the group's additional tax. Pursuant to their apportionment plan for allocating their regular tax, and as a result of defaulting to the proportionate method for allocating the group's additional tax, X reported $323.40 as its share of the group's increase to its additional tax and Y reported $176.60 as its share of the group's increase to its additional tax.

Example 4. The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that the members elected in their apportionment plan to adopt the FIFO method for apportioning the additional tax. Under the FIFO method, the 5 percent additional tax amount of $5,000 will be apportioned entirely to those members who would benefit from using the 15 percent tax bracket, by reason that $5,000 of the group's additional tax is less than $9,500, which is the full tax-benefit amount inuring to a controlled group from having a 15 percent tax rate applied to the full income bracket subject to that rate. Since X derived 80 percent of the group's tax benefit by its use of the 15 percent tax bracket, its share of the group's 5 percent additional tax is $4,000 (80% × $5,000), and Y's share of the group's 5 percent additional tax is, therefore, $1,000, which is the remaining amount of the group's 5 percent additional tax, attributable to the 15 percent tax bracket.

(b) Reduction to the amount exempted from the alternative minimum tax—(1) Calculation. The alternative minimum taxable incomes of the component members of a controlled group of corporations shall be taken into account in calculating the reduction set forth in section 55(d)(3) to the amount exempted from the alternative minimum tax (the exemption amount). For purposes of the preceding sentence, alternative minimum taxable income means the positive alternative minimum taxable income of a component member for its entire tax year (even if it was not a member of the group for each day of that tax year) that includes the same December 31st testing date, which is also applicable to the other component members of that same controlled group.

(2) Apportionment. Any reduction to the exemption amount shall be apportioned to the component members of a controlled group in the same manner that the amount of the exemption (provided in section 55(d)(2)) to the alternative minimum tax was allocated under section 1561(a). For rules to apportion the section 55(d)(2) exemption amount among the component members of a controlled group, see §1.1561-3(b) or (c).

(3) Examples. The provisions of this paragraph (b) may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. (i) Facts. A controlled group of corporations consists of three members: X, Y and Z. X owns all of the stock of Y and Z. Each corporation files its separate return on a calendar year basis. For calendar year 2007, the component members of this controlled group have an apportionment plan in effect. The group has chosen to apportion the entire section 55(d)(2) exemption amount of $40,000 to Z. For 2007, X had alternative minimum taxable income (AMTI) of $40,000, Y had AMTI of $60,000 and Z had AMTI of $100,000. Thus the total AMTI of the group is $200,000.

(ii) Calculating the reduction to the exemption amount. Section 55(d)(3)(A) provides that the section 55(d)(2) exemption amount shall be reduced (but not below zero) by an amount equal to 25 percent of the amount by which the AMTI of a corporation exceeds $150,000. For the purpose of computing the group's AMTI, the AMTI of each of the component members, for their tax years that have the same December 31st testing date, shall be taken into account. In accordance with these provisions, the $40,000 exemption amount is reduced by $12,500 (25% × $50,000 ($200,000−$150,000)). Pursuant to the group's allocation plan, the entire $12,500 reduction to the exemption amount is allocated to Z. Thus, after such allocation, Z's $40,000 exemption amount is reduced to $27,500 ($40,000−$12,500).

(c) Accumulated earnings credit. The component members of a controlled group of corporations are permitted to allocate the amount of the accumulated earnings credit unequally if they have an apportionment plan in effect.

(d) [Reserved]

(e) Short taxable years not including a December 31st date—(1) General rule. If a corporation has a short taxable year not including a December 31st date and, after applying the rules of section 1561(b) and paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, it qualifies as a component member of the group with respect to its short taxable year (short-year member), then, for purposes of subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code, the amount of any tax-benefit item described in section 1561(b) allocated to that component member's short taxable year shall be the amount specified in section 1561(a) for that item, divided by the number of corporations which are component members of that group on the last day of that component member's short taxable year. The component members of such group may not apportion, by an apportionment plan, an amount of such tax-benefit item to any short-year member that differs from equal apportionment of that item.

(2) Additional rules. For purposes of paragraph (e)(1) of this section—

(i) Section 1563(b) shall be applied as if the last day of the taxable year of a short-year member were substituted for December 31st; and

(ii) The term short taxable year does not refer to any portion of a tax year of a corporation for which its income is required to be included in a consolidated return pursuant to §1.1502-76(b).

(3) Calculation of the additional tax. A short-year member (as defined in paragraph (e)(1) of this section) for its short taxable year calculates its additional tax liability imposed by section 11(b)(1) only on its own income, and therefore the subsequent calculation of the additional tax liability with regard to the remaining members of the group will not include the income of this short-year member.

(4) Calculation of the alternative minimum tax. If a component member has a tax year of less than 12 months, whether or not such tax year includes a December 31st date, see section 443(d) for the annualization method required for calculating the alternative minimum tax.

(5) Examples. The provisions of this paragraph (e) may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Formation of a new member of a controlled group— (i) Facts. On January 2, 2007, corporation X transfers cash to newly formed corporation Y (which begins business on that date) and receives all of the stock of Y in return. X also owns all of the stock of corporation Z on each day of 2006 and 2007. X, Y and Z have an apportionment plan in effect, apportioning the 15 percent taxbracket amount as follows: 40% ($20,000) to each of X and Y and 20% ($10,000) to Z. X, Y and Z each file a separate return with respect to the group's December 31st, 2007 testing date. X is on a calendar tax year and Z is on a fiscal tax year ending on March 31. Y adopts a fiscal year ending on June 30 and timely files a tax return for its short taxable year beginning on January 2, 2007, and ending on June 30, 2007.

(ii) Y's short taxable year. On June 30, 2007, Y is a component member of a parentsubsidiary controlled group of corporations composed of X, Y and Z. Pursuant to paragraph (e)(1) of this section, the group may not apportion any amount of the 15 percent tax bracket to Y's short taxable year ending on June 30, 2007. Rather, Y is entitled to exactly 13 of such bracket amount, or $16,667.

(iii) The members' subsequent tax years. On December 31st, 2007, X, Y and Z are component members of a parent-subsidiary controlled group of corporations. For their tax years that include December 31st, 2007 (X's calendar year ending December 31st, 2007, Z's fiscal year ending March 31, 2008 and Y's fiscal year ending June 30, 2008), X, Y and Z apportion among themselves the full amount of all of the applicable tax brackets pursuant to their apportionment plan. For example, 40% of the 15 percent tax-bracket amount, or $20,000, was apportioned to each of X and Y, and the remaining 10%, or $10,000, was apportioned to Z.

Example 2. Allocating a tax bracket to the short taxable year of a liquidated member of a controlled group— (i) Facts. On January 1, 2007, corporation P owns all of the stock of corporations S1, S2 and S3 (the P group). Each of these four component members of the P group, with respect to the group's December 31st, 2007 testing date, files its separate return on a calendar year basis. These members have an apportionment plan in effect (the P group plan) under which S1 and S2 are each entitled to 40% of the 15 percent tax-bracket amount ($20,000), and P and S3 are each entitled to 10% of the 15 percent tax-bracket amount ($5,000). On May 31, 2007, S1 liquidates and therefore files a return for the short taxable year beginning on January 1, 2007, and ending on May 31, 2007. On July 31, 2007, S2 liquidates and therefore files a return for the short taxable year beginning on January 1, 2007 and ending on July 31, 2007. P and S3 each file a return for their 2007 calendar tax years.

(ii) Apportionment of the 15 percent tax bracket to S1 for its short taxable year. On May 31, 2007, S1 is a component member of the P group composed of P, S1, S2 and S3. Pursuant to paragraph (e)(1) of this section, the group may not apportion any amount of the 15 percent tax bracket to S1's short taxable year ending on June 30, 2007. Rather, S1 is entitled to exactly 14 of such bracket amount, or $12,500.

(iii) Apportionment of the 15 percent tax bracket to S2 for its short taxable year. On July 31, 2007, S2 is a component member of the P group composed of P, S2 and S3. Pursuant to paragraph (e)(1) of this section, the group may not apportion any amount of the 15 percent tax bracket to S2's short taxable year ending on June 30, 2007. Rather, S2 is entitled to exactly 14 of such bracket amount, or $16,667.

(iv) Apportionment of the 15 percent tax bracket to P and S3 for each of their calendar tax years. On December 31st, 2007, P and S3 are component members of the P group. Accordingly, for P and S3's 2007 calendar tax year, they are each apportioned $25,000 of the 15 percent tax bracket, pursuant to the applicable P group plan.

Example 3. Liquidation of member after its transfer to another controlled group— (i) Facts. The facts are the same as in Example 2, except that P, on April 30, 2007, sold all of the stock of S2 to the M-N controlled group. At the time of the sale, M and N are both unrelated to any members of the P group. As in Example 2, S2 liquidates on July 31, 2007, and therefore files a tax return for its short taxable year beginning on January 1, 2007, and ending on July 31, 2007. Pursuant to the sales agreement, the N-M group timely notified P that S2 had liquidated.

(ii) Controlled group analysis. On April 30, 2007, the date of the sale of S2, the P group reasonably expected that S2 would be treated as an excluded member with respect to its December 31st, 2007 testing date. On that April 30th date, S2 had been a member of the P group for less than one-half the number of days of what it expected would be a full 2007 calendar tax year preceding December 31st, 2007 (120 days (January 1-April 30) out of 364 days (January 1-December 30)). Yet, as a result of S2's subsequent liquidation by the M-N group prior to December 31st, 2007, S2 became a component member of the P group with respect to the P group's December 31st, 2007 testing date. With respect to that December 31st testing date, S2 thus was a member of the P group for more than one-half of the number of days of its tax year ending on July 31, 2007, which days proceeded December 31st, 2007 (120 days (January 1-April 30 of 2007) out of 211 days (January 1-July 30 of 2007)). The allocation of the 15 percent tax-bracket amount to the P group members is determined in the same manner as in Example 2 and, therefore, the bracket amounts allocated to P, S1, S2 and S3 are the same as determined in Example 2. The allocation of the bracket amounts would be the same if, at the time P sold all of the S2 stock, the parties had made a section 338(h)(10) election.

Example 4. Short tax year including a December 31st date. Corporation X owns all of the stock of corporations Y and Z. X, Y and Z each file separate returns. X and Y are on a calendar tax year and Z is on a fiscal tax year beginning October 1 and ending September 30. On January 2, 2007, Z liquidates. Because Z's final tax year (beginning on October 1, 2006 and ending on January 2, 2007) includes a December 31st date, that is, December 31, 2006, it is therefore not subject to the short taxable year rule provided by section 1561(b) and paragraph (e) of this section. Accordingly, Z is a component member of the X-Y-Z group, for the group's December 31st, 2006 testing date. Thus, the rules of this paragraph (e) do not limit the amount of any of the tax-benefit items of section 1561(a) available to Z or to this controlled group.

(f) Effective/applicability date. This section applies to any tax year beginning on or after December 21, 2009. However, taxpayers may apply this section to any Federal income tax return filed on or after December 21, 2009. For tax years beginning before December 21, 2009, see §1.1561-2T as contained in 26 CFR part 1 in effect on April 1, 2009.

[T.D. 9476, 74 FR 68533, Dec. 28, 2009]

§1.1561-3   Allocation of the section 1561(a) tax items.

(a) Filing of form—(1) In general. For each tax year that a corporation is a component member of the same controlled group of corporations on a December 31st (its testing date), or, in the case of a short-year member (see section 1561(b) and §1.1561-2(e)), the date substituted for that December 31st date (its testing date), such corporation and all the other component members of such group each must file the required form (that is, Schedule O or any successor form) with the Federal income tax return for that component member's tax year that includes a particular testing date. Each such corporation must file that form with its return whether or not—

(i) An apportionment plan is in effect; or

(ii) Any change is made to the group's apportionment of its section 1561(a) tax benefit items from the previous year.

(2) Exception for component members that are members of a consolidated group. If any of the component members of a controlled group of corporations are also members of a consolidated group, the parent of such consolidated group shall file only one form on behalf of all such members. Such form shall contain the information required for each such member.

(b) No apportionment plan in effect. If the component members of a controlled group of corporations do not have an apportionment plan in effect, the amounts of the section 1561(a) items must be divided equally among all such members. For purposes of the preceding sentence, if any of the component members of a controlled group of corporations are also members of a consolidated group, such members will each be treated as a separate component member of the controlled group.

(c) Apportionment plan in effect—(1) Adoption of plan. The component members of a controlled group of corporations consent to the adoption (or amendment) of an apportionment plan by checking the box to that effect on such form. For purposes of this paragraph (c)—

(i) An apportionment plan that is adopted (including a plan that has been amended) continues in effect until it is terminated;

(ii) A consolidated group is treated collectively as one component member of such group. This treatment occurs even where a member of that consolidated group has joined or left the group, if after such corporation joins or leaves the consolidated group, that group remains in existence, pursuant to §1.1502-75(d); and

(iii) The members must allocate the amounts of the section 1561(a) items between/among themselves as described in the plan.

(2) Limitation on adopting a plan—(i) Sufficient statute of limitations period for making an assessment of tax. The members may only adopt or amend such a plan if there is at least one year remaining in the statutory period (including any extensions thereof) for the assessment of a deficiency against every member the tax liability of which would be increased by the adoption of such a plan.

(ii) Insufficient statute of limitations period for making an assessment of tax. If any member cannot satisfy the requirement of paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, the members may not adopt or amend such a plan unless the member not satisfying such requirement has entered into an agreement with the Internal Revenue Service to extend the statute of limitations for the limited purpose of assessing any deficiency against such member attributable to the adoption of such a plan.

(3) Termination of plan. An apportionment plan that is in effect for the component members of a controlled group with respect to a preceding December 31st is terminated with respect to the current December 31st if—

(i) Each member of such group consents to the termination of such a plan for the current December 31st by checking the box to that effect on its form;

(ii) The controlled group ceases to remain in existence (within the meaning of section 1563(a)) during the calendar year ending on the current December 31st;

(iii) Any corporation which was a component member of such group on the preceding December 31st is not a component member of such group on the current December 31st; or

(iv) Any corporation which was not a component member of such group on the preceding December 31st is a component member of such group on the current December 31st.

(d) Effective/applicability date. This section applies to any tax year beginning on or after December 21, 2009. However, taxpayers may apply this section to any Federal income tax return filed on or after December 21, 2009. For tax years beginning before December 21, 2009, see §1.1561-3T as contained in 26 CFR part 1 in effect on April 1, 2009.

[T.D. 9476, 74 FR 68536, Dec. 28, 2009]

§1.1563-1   Definition of controlled group of corporations and component members and related concepts.

(a) Controlled group of corporations—(1) In general—(i) Types of controlled groups. For purposes of sections 1561 through 1563, the term controlled group of corporations means any group of corporations which is—

(A) A parent-subsidiary controlled group (as defined in paragraph (a)(2) of this section);

(B) A brother-sister controlled group (as defined in paragraph (a)(3)(i) of this section);

(C) A combined group (as defined in paragraph (a)(4) of this section); or

(D) A life insurance controlled group (as defined in paragraph (a)(5) of this section).

(ii) Special rules. In determining whether a corporation is included in a controlled group of corporations, section 1563(b) and paragraph (b) of this section shall not be taken into account. For rules defining a component member of a controlled group of corporations, including rules defining an excluded member and an additional member, see section 1563(b) and paragraph (b) of this section.

(iii) Cross reference. For the exclusion of certain stock for purposes of applying the definitions contained in this paragraph, see section 1563(c) and §1.1563-2.

(2) Parent-subsidiary controlled group—(i) Definition. The term parent-subsidiary controlled group means one or more chains of corporations connected through stock ownership with a common parent corporation if—

(A) Stock possessing at least 80 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or at least 80 percent of the total value of shares of all classes of stock of each of the corporations, except the common parent corporation, is owned (directly and with the application of §1.1563-3(b)(1), relating to options) by one or more of the other corporations; and

(B) The common parent corporation owns (directly and with the application of §1.1563-3(b)(1), relating to options) stock possessing at least 80 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or at least 80 percent of the total value of shares of all classes of stock of at least one of the other corporations, excluding, in computing such voting power or value, stock owned directly by such other corporations.

(ii) Examples. The definition of a parent-subsidiary controlled group of corporations may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. P Corporation owns stock possessing 80 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote of S Corporation. P is the common parent of a parent-subsidiary controlled group consisting of member corporations P and S.

Example 2. Assume the same facts as in Example 1. Assume further that S owns stock possessing 80 percent of the total value of shares of all classes of stock of X Corporation. P is the common parent of a parent-subsidiary controlled group consisting of member corporations P, S, and X. The result would be the same if P, rather than S, owned the X stock.

Example 3. P Corporation owns 80 percent of the only class of stock of S Corporation and S, in turn, owns 40 percent of the only class of stock of X Corporation. P also owns 80 percent of the only class of stock of Y Corporation and Y, in turn, owns 40 percent of the only class of stock of X. P is the common parent of a parent-subsidiary controlled group consisting of member corporations P, S, X, and Y.

Example 4. P Corporation owns 75 percent of the only class of stock of Y and Z Corporations; Y owns all the remaining stock of Z; and Z owns all the remaining stock of Y. Since intercompany stockholdings are excluded (that is, are not treated as outstanding) for purposes of determining whether P owns stock possessing at least 80 percent of the voting power or value of at least one of the other corporations, P is treated as the owner of stock possessing 100 percent of the voting power and value of Y and of Z for purposes of paragraph (a)(2)(i)(B) of this section. Also, stock possessing 100 percent of the voting power and value of Y and Z is owned by the other corporations in the group within the meaning of paragraph (a)(2)(i)(A) of this section. (P and Y together own stock possessing 100 percent of the voting power and value of Z, and P and Z together own stock possessing 100 percent of the voting power and value of Y.) Therefore, P is the common parent of a parent-subsidiary controlled group of corporations consisting of member corporations P, Y, and Z.

(3) Brother-sister controlled group—(i) Definition. The term brother-sister controlled group means two or more corporations if the same five or fewer persons who are individuals, estates, or trusts own (directly and with the application of the rules contained in §1.1563-3(b)) stock possessing more than 50 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or more than 50 percent of the total value of shares of all classes of stock of each corporation, taking into account the stock ownership of each such person only to the extent such stock ownership is identical with respect to each such corporation.

(ii) Additional stock ownership requirement for purposes of certain other provisions of law. For purposes of any provision of law (other than sections 1561 through 1563) that incorporates the section 1563(a) definition of a controlled group, the term brother-sister controlled group means two or more corporations if the same five or fewer persons who are individuals, estates, or trusts own (directly and with the application of the rules contained in §1.1563-3(b)) stock possessing—

(A) At least 80 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or at least 80 percent of the total value of shares of all classes of stock of each corporation (the 80 percent requirement);

(B) More than 50 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or more than 50 percent of the total value of shares of all classes of stock of each corporation, taking into account the stock ownership of each such person only to the extent such stock ownership is identical with respect to each such corporation (the more-than-50 percent identical ownership requirement); and

(C) The five or fewer persons whose stock ownership is considered for purposes of the 80 percent requirement must be the same persons whose stock ownership is considered for purposes of the more-than-50 percent identical ownership requirement.

(iii) Examples. The principles of paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. (i) The outstanding stock of corporations P, W, X, Y, and Z, which have only one class of stock outstanding, is owned by the following unrelated individuals:

IndividualsP (%)W (%)X (%)Y (%)Z (%)Identical
ownership
A555155555551.
B4549(45% in P and W).
C45
D45
E45
Total100100100100100
(ii) Corporations P and W are members of a brother-sister controlled group of corporations. Although the more-than-50 percent identical ownership requirement is met for all 5 corporations, corporations X, Y, and Z are not members because at least 80 percent of the stock of each of those corporations is not owned by the same 5 or fewer persons whose stock ownership is considered for purposes of the more-than-50 percent identical ownership requirement.

Example 2. (i) The outstanding stock of corporations X and Y, which have only one class of stock outstanding, is owned by the following unrelated individuals:

IndividualsCorporations
X (%)Y (%)
A1212
B1212
C1212
D1212
E1313
F1313
G1313
H1313
Total100100
(ii) Any group of five of the shareholders will own more than 50 percent of the stock in each corporation, in identical holdings. However, X and Y are not members of a brother-sister controlled group because at least 80 percent of the stock of each corporation is not owned by the same five or fewer persons.

Example 3. (i) Corporation X and Y each have two classes of stock outstanding, voting common and non-voting common. (None of this stock is excluded from the definition of stock under section 1563(c).) Unrelated individuals A and B own the following percentages of the class of stock entitled to vote (voting) and of the total value of shares of all classes of stock (value) in each of corporations X and Y:

IndividualsCorporations
XY
A100% voting; 60% value75% voting; 60% value.
B0% voting; 10% value25% voting; 10% value.
(ii) No other shareholder of X owns (or is considered to own) any stock in Y. X and Y are a brother-sister controlled group of corporations. The group meets the more-than-50 percent identical ownership requirement because A and B own more than 50 percent of the total value of shares of all classes of stock of X and Y in identical holdings. (The group also meets the more-than-50 percent identical ownership requirement because of A's voting stock ownership.) The group meets the 80 percent requirement because A and B own at least 80 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote.

Example 4. Assume the same facts as in Example 3 except that the value of the stock owned by A and B is not more than 50 percent of the total value of shares of all classes of stock of each corporation in identical holdings. X and Y are not a brother-sister controlled group of corporations. The group meets the more-than-50 percent identical ownership requirement because A owns more than 50 percent of the total combined voting power of the voting stock of each corporation. For purposes of the 80 percent requirement, B's voting stock in Y cannot be combined with A's voting stock in Y since B, who does not own any voting stock in X, is not a person whose ownership is considered for purposes of the more-than-50 percent identical ownership requirement. Because no other shareholder owns stock in both X and Y, these other shareholders' stock ownership is not counted towards meeting either the more-than-50 percent identical ownership requirement or the 80 percent ownership requirement.

(iv) Special rule if prior law applies. Paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section, as amended by TD 8179, applies to taxable years ending on or after December 31, 1970. See, however, the transitional rule in paragraph (d) of this section.

(4) Combined group—(i) Definition. The term combined group means any group of three or more corporations if—

(A) Each such corporation is a member of either a parent-subsidiary controlled group of corporations or a brother-sister controlled group of corporations; and

(B) At least one of such corporations is the common parent of a parent-subsidiary controlled group and also is a member of a brother-sister controlled group.

(ii) Examples. The definition of a combined group of corporations may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. A, an individual, owns stock possessing 80 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of the stock of corporations X and Y. Y, in turn, owns stock possessing 80 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of the stock of corporation Z. X, Y, and Z are members of the same combined group since—

(i) X, Y, and Z are each members of either a parent-subsidiary or brother-sister controlled group of corporations; and

(ii) Y is the common parent of a parent-subsidiary controlled group of corporations consisting of Y and Z, and also is a member of a brother-sister controlled group of corporations consisting of X and Y.

Example 2. Assume the same facts as in Example 1, and further assume that corporation X owns 80 percent of the total value of shares of all classes of stock of corporation S. X, Y, Z, and S are members of the same combined group.

(5) Life insurance controlled group—(i) Definition. The term life insurance controlled group means two or more life insurance companies each of which is a member of a controlled group of corporations described in paragraph (a)(2), (a)(3)(i), or (a)(4) of this section and to which §1.1502-47(f)(6) does not apply. Such insurance companies shall be treated as a controlled group of corporations separate from any other corporations which are members of a controlled group described in such paragraph (a)(2), (a)(3)(i), or (a)(4) of this section. For purposes of this section, the common parent of the controlled group described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section shall be referred to as the common parent of the life insurance controlled group.

(ii) Examples. The following examples illustrate the definition of a life insurance controlled group. In these examples, L indicates a life company, another letter indicates a nonlife company and each corporation uses the calendar year as its taxable year:

Example 1. Since January 1, 1999, corporation P has owned all the stock of corporations L1 and Y, and L1 has owned all the stock of corporation X. On January 1, 2005, Y acquired all of the stock of corporation L2. Since L1 and L2 are members of a parent-subsidiary controlled group of corporations, such companies are treated as members of a life insurance controlled group separate from the parent-subsidiary controlled group consisting of P, X and Y. For purposes of this section, P is referred to as the common parent of the life insurance controlled group even though P is not a member of such group.

Example 2. The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that, beginning with the 2005 tax year, the P affiliated group elected to file a consolidated return and P made a section 1504(c)(2) election. Pursuant to paragraph (a)(5)(i) of this section, L1 and L2 are not members of a separate life insurance controlled group. Instead, P, X, Y, L1 and L2 constitute one controlled group. See §1.1502-47(f)(6).

(6) Voting power of stock. For purposes of this section, and §§1.1563-2 and 1.1563-3, in determining whether the stock owned by a person (or persons) possesses a certain percentage of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote of a corporation, consideration will be given to all the facts and circumstances of each case. A share of stock will generally be considered as possessing the voting power accorded to such share by the corporate charter, by-laws, or share certificate. On the other hand, if there is any agreement, whether express or implied, that a shareholder will not vote his stock in a corporation, the formal voting rights possessed by his stock may be disregarded in determining the percentage of the total combined voting power possessed by the stock owned by other shareholders in the corporation, if the result is that the corporation becomes a component member of a controlled group of corporations. Moreover, if a shareholder agrees to vote his stock in a corporation in the manner specified by another shareholder in the corporation, the voting rights possessed by the stock owned by the first shareholder may be considered to be possessed by the stock owned by such other shareholder if the result is that the corporation becomes a component member of a controlled group of corporations.

(b) Component members—(1) In general—(i) Definition. For purposes of sections 1561 through 1563, a corporation is with respect to its taxable year a component member of a controlled group of corporations for the group's testing date if such corporation—

(A) Is a member of such controlled group on such testing date and is not treated as an excluded member under paragraph (b)(2) of this section; or

(B) Is not a member of such controlled group on such testing date but is treated as an additional member under paragraph (b)(3) of this section.

(ii) Member of a controlled group of corporations. For purposes of sections 1561 through 1563, a member of a controlled group is a corporation connected with other member(s) of a controlled group under the stock ownership rules and the stock qualification rules set forth in section 1563. Under these rules, for a corporation to qualify as a component member of the group with respect to a group's December 31st testing date (or the short-year testing date for a short-year member), that corporation does not have to be a member of that group on that group's testing date. In addition, a corporation that is a member of a controlled group on the group's testing date does not necessarily qualify as a component member of that group with respect to that testing date.

(iii) Additional concepts used in applying the controlled group rules.

(A) The term testing date means the date used for determining the status of controlled group members as either component members or excluded members. That testing date is then also used to determine which taxable years of those component members are to be subjected to the controlled group rules. Generally, a member's testing date is the December 31st date included within that member's taxable year, whether such member is on a calendar or fiscal taxable year. However, if a component member of a controlled group has a short taxable year that does not include a December 31st date, then the last day of that short taxable year becomes that member's testing date.

(B) The term testing period means the time period used for determining the status of controlled group members as either component members or excluded members. The testing period begins on the first day of a member's taxable year and ends on the day before its testing date. (Generally, the testing date is December 31st, but for a component member having a short taxable year not ending on December 31st, the testing date for the short taxable year of that member (and only that member) becomes the last day of that member's short taxable year.) Thus, for a member on a fiscal taxable year, the portion of its taxable year beginning on December 31st and ending on the last day of its taxable year is not taken into account for determining its status as a component member or an excluded member.

(2) Excluded members—(i) Temporal test. A corporation, which is a member of a controlled group of corporations on the group's testing date, a date included within that member's taxable year, but who was a member of such group for less than one-half of the number of days of its testing period, shall be treated as an excluded member of such group for that group's testing date.

(ii) Qualification test. A corporation which is a member of a controlled group of corporations on a testing date shall be treated as an excluded member of such group on such date if, for its taxable year including such date, such corporation is—

(A) Exempt from taxation under section 501(a) (except a corporation which is subject to tax on its unrelated business taxable income under section 511) or 521 for such taxable year;

(B) A foreign corporation not subject to taxation under section 882(a) for the taxable year;

(C) An S corporation (as defined in section 1361) for purposes of any tax benefit item described in section 1561(a) to which it is not subject;

(D) A franchised corporation (as defined in section 1563(f)(4) and §1.1563-4); or

(E) An insurance company subject to taxation under section 801, unless such insurance company (without regard to this paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(E)) is a component member of a life insurance controlled group described in paragraph (a)(5)(i) of this section or unless §1.1502-47(f)(6) applies (which treats a life insurance company, for which a section 1504(c)(2) election is effective, as a member (whether eligible or ineligible) of a life-nonlife affiliated group).

(3) Additional members. A corporation shall be treated as an additional member of a controlled group of corporations, that is, an additional component member, on the group's testing date if it—

(i) Is not a member of such group on such date;

(ii) Is not described, with respect to such taxable year, in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(A), (b)(2)(ii)(B), (b)(2)(ii)(C), (b)(2)(ii)(D), or (b)(2)(ii)(E) of this section; and

(iii) Was a member of such group for one-half (or more) of the number of days in its testing period.

(4) Examples. The provisions of this paragraph (b) may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. B, an individual, owns all of the stock of corporations W and X on each day of 1964. W and X each use the calendar year as their taxable year. On January 1, 1964, B also owns all the stock of corporation Y (a fiscal year corporation with a taxable year beginning on July 1, 1964, and ending on June 30, 1965), which stock he sells on October 15, 1964. On December 1, 1964, B purchases all the stock of corporation Z (a fiscal year corporation with a taxable year beginning on September 1, 1964, and ending on August 31, 1965). On December 31, 1964, W, X, and Z are members of the same controlled group. However, the component members of the group on such December 31st are W, X, and Y. Under paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section, Z is treated as an excluded member of the group on December 31, 1964, since Z was a member of the group for less than one-half of the number of days (29 out of 121 days) during the period beginning on September 1, 1964 (the first day of its taxable year) and ending on December 30, 1964. Under paragraph (b)(3) of this section, Y is treated as an additional member of the group on December 31, 1964, since Y was a member of the group for at least one-half of the number of days (107 out of 183 days) during the period beginning on July 1, 1964 (the first day of its taxable year) and ending on December 30, 1964.

Example 2. On January 1, 1964, corporation P owns all the stock of corporation S, which in turn owns all the stock of corporation S-1. On November 1, 1964, P purchases all of the stock of corporation X from the public and sells all of the stock of S to the public. Corporation X owns all the stock of corporation Y during 1964. P, S, S-1, X, and Y file their returns on the basis of the calendar year. On December 31, 1964, P, X, and Y are members of a parent-subsidiary controlled group of corporations; also, corporations S and S-1 are members of a different parent-subsidiary controlled group on such date. However, since X and Y have been members of the parent-subsidiary controlled group of which P is the common parent for less than one-half the number of days during the period January 1 through December 30, 1964, they are not component members of such group on such date. On the other hand, X and Y have been members of a parent-subsidiary controlled group of which X is the common parent for at least one-half the number of days during the period January 1 through December 30, 1964, and therefore they are component members of such group on December 31, 1964. Also since S and S-1 were members of the parent-subsidiary controlled group of which P is the common parent for at least one-half the number of days in the taxable years of each such corporation during the period January 1 through December 30, 1964, P, S, and S-1 are component members of such group on December 31, 1964.

Example 3. Throughout 1964, corporation M owns all the stock of corporation F which, in turn, owns all the stock of corporations L1, L2, X, and Y. M is a domestic mutual insurance company subject to taxation under section 821, F is a foreign corporation not engaged in a trade or business within the United States, L1 and L2 are domestic life insurance companies subject to taxation under section 802, and X and Y are domestic corporations subject to tax under section 11 of the Code. Each corporation uses the calendar year as its taxable year. On December 31, 1964, M, F, L1, L2, X, and Y are members of a parent-subsidiary controlled group of corporations. However, under paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, M, F, L1, and L2 are treated as excluded members of the group on December 31, 1964. Thus, on December 31, 1964, the component members of the parent-subsidiary controlled group of which M is the common parent include only X and Y.

Furthermore, since paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(E) of this section does not result in L1 and L2 being treated as excluded members of a life insurance controlled group, L1 and L2 are component members of a life insurance controlled group on December 31, 1964.

Example 4. Individual A owns all of the stock of corporations X, Y and Z. Each of these corporations is an S corporation. X, Y, and Z are each members of a brother-sister controlled group, even though each such corporation is treated as an excluded member of such group. See §1.1563-1(b)(2)(ii)(C).

(5) Application of constructive ownership rules. For purposes of paragraphs (b)(2)(i) and (b)(3)(iii) of this section, it is necessary to determine whether a corporation was a member of a controlled group of corporations for one-half (or more) of the number of days in its taxable year which precede the December 31st falling within such taxable year. Therefore, the constructive ownership rules contained in §1.1563-3(b) (to the extent applicable in making such determination) must be applied on a day-by-day basis. For example, if P Corporation owns all the stock of X Corporation on each day of 1964, and on December 30, 1964, acquires an option to purchase all the stock of Y Corporation (a calendar-year taxpayer which has been in existence on each day of 1964), the application of §1.1563-3(b)(1) on a day-by-day basis results in Y being a member of the brother-sister controlled group on only one day of Y's 1964 year which precedes December 31, 1964. Accordingly, since Y is not a member of such group for one-half or more of the number of days in its 1964 year preceding December 31, 1964, Y is treated as an excluded member of such group on December 31, 1964.

(c) Overlapping groups—(1) In general. If on a December 31st a corporation is a component member of a controlled group of corporations by reason of ownership of stock possessing at least 80 percent of the total value of shares of all classes of stock of the corporation, and if on such December 31st such corporation is also a component member of another controlled group of corporations by reason of ownership of other stock (that is, stock not used to satisfy the at-least-80 percent total value test) possessing at least 80 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock of the corporation entitled to vote, then such corporation shall be treated as a component member only of the controlled group of which it is a component member by reason of the ownership of at least 80 percent of the total value of its shares.

(2) Brother-sister controlled groups—(i) One corporation. If on a December 31st, a corporation would, without the application of this paragraph (c)(2), be a component member of more than one brother-sister controlled group on such date, the corporation will be treated as a component member of only one such group on such date. Such corporation may elect the group in which it is to be included by including on or with its income tax return for the taxable year that includes such date a statement entitled, “STATEMENT TO ELECT CONTROLLED GROUP PURSUANT TO §1.1563-1(c)(2).” This statement must include—

(A) A description of each of the controlled groups in which the corporation could be included. The description must include the name and employer identification number of each component member of each such group and the stock ownership of the component members of each such group; and

(B) The following representation: [INSERT NAME AND EMPLOYER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER OF CORPORATION] ELECTS TO BE TREATED AS A COMPONENT MEMBER OF THE [INSERT DESIGNATION OF GROUP].

(ii) Multiple corporations. If more than one corporation would, without the application of this paragraph (c)(2), be a component member of more than one controlled group, those corporations electing to be component members of the same group must file a single statement. The statement must contain the information described in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, plus the names and employer identification numbers of all other corporations designating the same group. The original statement must be included on or with the original Federal income tax return (including any amended return filed on or before the due date (including extensions) of such return) of the corporation that, among those corporations which would (without the application of this paragraph (c)(2)) belong to more than one group, has the taxable year including such December 31st which ends on the earliest date. That corporation must provide a copy of the statement to each other corporation included in the statement and represent in its statement that it has done so. Either the original or a copy of the statement must be retained by each corporation as part of its records. See §1.6001-1(e) of this chapter.

(iii) Election. (A) An election filed under this paragraph (c)(2) is irrevocable and effective until a change in the stock ownership of the corporation results in termination of membership in the controlled group in which such corporation has been included.

(B) In the event no election is filed in accordance with the provisions of this paragraph (c)(2), then the Internal Revenue Service will determine the group in which such corporation is to be included. Such determination will be binding for all subsequent years unless the corporation files a valid election with respect to any such subsequent year or until a change in the stock ownership of the corporation results in termination of membership in the controlled group in which such corporation has been included.

(iv) Examples. The provisions of this paragraph (c)(2) may be illustrated by the following examples (in which it is assumed that all the individuals are unrelated):

Example 1. (i) On each day of 1970 all the outstanding stock of corporations X, Y, and Z is held in the following manner:

IndividualsCorporations
X (%)Y (%)Z (%)
A55405
B402040
C54055
(ii) Since the more-than-50 percent identical ownership requirement of section 1563(a)(2) is met with respect to corporations X and Y and with respect to corporations Y and Z, but not with respect to corporations X, Y, and Z, corporation Y would, without the application of this paragraph (c)(2), be a component member on December 31, 1970, of overlapping groups consisting of X and Y and of Y and Z. If Y does not file an election in accordance with paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, the Internal Revenue Service will determine the group in which Y is to be included.

Example 2. (i) On each day of 1970, all the outstanding stock of corporations V, W, X, Y, and Z is held in the following manner:

IndividualsCorporations
VWXYZ
D5252525252
E402222
F240222
G224022
H222402
I222240
(ii) On December 31, 1970, the more-than-50 percent identical ownership requirement of section 1563(a)(2) may be met with regard to any combination of the corporations but all five corporations cannot be included as component members of a single controlled group because the inclusion of all the corporations in a single group would be dependent upon taking into account the stock ownership of more than five persons. Therefore, if the corporations do not file a statement in accordance with paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, the Internal Revenue Service will determine the group in which each corporation is to be included. The corporations or the Internal Revenue Service, as the case may be, may designate that three corporations be included in one group and two corporations in another, or that any four corporations be included in one group and that the remaining corporation not be included in any group.

(d) Transitional rules—(1) In general. Treasury decision 8179 amended paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section to revise the definition of a brother-sister controlled group of corporations. In general, those amendments are effective for taxable years ending on or after December 31, 1970.

(2) Limited nonretroactivity—(i) Old group. Under the authority of section 7805(b), the Internal Revenue Service will treat an old group as a brother-sister controlled group corporations for purposes of applying sections 401, 404(a), 408(k), 409A, 410, 411, 412, 414, 415, and 4971 of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) and sections 202, 203, 204, and 302 of the Employment Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) in a plan year or taxable year beginning before March 2, 1988, to the extent necessary to prevent an adverse effect on any old member (or any other corporation), or on any plan or other entity described in such sections (including plans, etc., of corporations not part of such old group), that would result solely from the retroactive effect of the amendment to this section by TD 8179. An adverse effect includes the disqualification of a plan or the disallowance of a deduction or credit for a contribution to a plan. The Internal Revenue Service, however, will not treat an old member as a member of an old group to the extent that such treatment will have an adverse effect on that old member.

(ii) Old member of old group. Section 7805(b) will not be applied pursuant to paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section to treat an old member of an old group as a member of a brother-sister controlled group to prevent an adverse effect for a taxable year if, for that taxable year, that old member treats or has treated itself as not being a member of that old group for purposes of sections 401, 404(a), 408(k), 409A, 410, 411, 412, 414, 415, and 4971 of the Code and sections 202, 203, 204, and 302 and title IV of ERISA for such taxable year (such as by filing, with respect to such taxable year, a return, amended return, or claim for credit or refund in which the amount of any deduction, credit, limitation, or tax due is determined by treating itself as not being a member of the old group for purposes of those sections). However, the fact that one or more (but not all) of the old members do not qualify for section 7805(b) treatment because of the preceding sentence will not preclude that old member (or members) from being treated as a member of the old group under paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section in order to prevent the disallowance of a deduction or credit of another old member (or other corporation) or to prevent the disqualification of, or other adverse effect on, another old member's plan (or other entity) described in the sections of the Code and ERISA enumerated in such paragraph.

(3) Election of general nonretroactivity. In the case of a taxable year ending on or after December 31, 1970, and before March 2, 1988, an old group will be treated as a brother-sister controlled group of corporations for all purposes of the Code for such taxable year if—

(i) Each old member files a statement consenting to such treatment for such taxable year with the District Director having audit jurisdiction over its return within six months after March 2, 1988; and

(ii) No old member—

(A) Files or has filed, with respect to such taxable year, a return, amended return, or claim for credit or refund in which the amount of any deduction, credit, limitation, or tax due is determined by treating any old member as not a member of the old group; or

(B) Treats the employees of all members of the old group as not being employed by a single employer for purposes of sections 401, 404(a), 408(k), 409A, 410, 411, 412, 414, 415, and 4971 of the Code and sections 202, 203, 204, and 302 of ERISA for such taxable year.

(4) Definitions. For purposes of this paragraph (d)—

(i) An old group is a brother-sister controlled group of corporations, determined by applying paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section as in effect before the amendments made by TD 8179, that is not a brother-sister controlled group of corporations, determined by applying paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section as amended by such Treasury decision; and

(ii) An old member is any corporation that is a member of an old group.

(5) Election to choose between membership in more than one controlled group—(i) In general. A corporation may make an election under paragraph (c)(2) of this section by filing an amended return on or before September 2, 1988 if—

(A) An old member has filed an election under paragraph (c)(2) of this section to be treated as a component member of an old group for a December 31st before March 2, 1988; and

(B) That corporation would (without regard to such paragraph (c)(2)) be a component member of more than one brother-sister controlled group (not including an old group) on December 31st.

(ii) Exception. This paragraph (d)(5) does not apply to a corporation that is treated as a member of an old group under paragraph (d)(3) of this section.

(6) Refunds. See section 6511(a) for period of limitation on filing claims for credit or refund.

(e) Effective/applicability date. This section applies to taxable years beginning on or after May 26, 2009. However, taxpayers may apply this section to taxable years beginning before May 26, 2009. For taxable years beginning before May 26, 2009, see §1.1563-1T as contained in 26 CFR part 1 in effect on April 1, 2009. Paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section applies to taxable years beginning on or after April 11, 2011.

[T.D. 9451, 74 FR 25148, May 27, 2009, as amended by T.D. 9522, 76 FR 19907, Apr. 11, 2011]

§1.1563-2   Excluded stock.

(a) Certain stock excluded. For purposes of sections 1561 through 1563 and the regulations thereunder, the term “stock” does not include:

(1) Nonvoting stock which is limited and preferred as to dividends, and

(2) Treasury stock.

(b) Stock treated as excluded stock—(1) Parent-subsidiary controlled group. If a corporation (hereinafter in this paragraph referred to as “parent corporation”) owns 50 percent or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or 50 percent or more of the total value of shares of all classes of stock in another corporation (hereinafter in this paragraph referred to as “subsidiary corporation”), the provisions of subparagraph (2) of this paragraph shall apply. For purposes of this subparagraph, stock owned by a corporation means stock owned directly plus stock owned with the application of the constructive ownership rules of paragraph (b) (1) and (4) of §1.1563-3, relating to options and attribution from corporations. In determining whether the stock owned by a corporation possesses the requisite percentage of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote of another corporation, see paragraph (a)(6) of §1.1563-1.

(2) Stock treated as not outstanding. If the provisions of this subparagraph apply, then for purposes of determining whether the parent corporation or the subsidiary corporation is a member of a parent-subsidiary controlled group of corporations within the meaning of paragraph (a)(2) of §1.1563-1, the following stock of the subsidiary corporation shall, except as otherwise provided in paragraph (c) of this section, be treated as if it were not outstanding:

(i) Plan of deferred compensation. Stock in the subsidiary corporation held by a trust which is part of a plan of deferred compensation for the benefit of the employees of the parent corporation or the subsidiary corporation. The term “plan of deferred compensation” shall have the same meaning such term has in section 406(a)(3) and the regulations thereunder.

(ii) Principal stockholders and officers. Stock in the subsidiary corporation owned (directly and with the application of the rules contained in paragraph (b) of §1.1563-3) by an individual who is a principal stockholder or officer of the parent corporation. A principal stockholder of the parent corporation is an individual who owns (directly and with the application of the rules contained in paragraph (b) of §1.1563-3) 5 percent or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or 5 percent or more of the total value of shares of all classes of stock of the parent corporation. An officer of the parent corporation includes the president, vice-presidents, general manager, treasurer, secretary, and comptroller of such corporation, and any other person who performs duties corresponding to those normally performed by persons occupying such positions.

(iii) Employees. Stock in the subsidiary corporation owned (directly and with the application of the rules contained in paragraph (b) of §1.1563-3) by an employee of the subsidiary corporation if such stock is subject to conditions which substantially restrict or limit the employee's right (or if the employee constructively owns such stock, the direct owner's right) to dispose of such stock and which run in favor of the parent or subsidiary corporation. In general, any condition which extends, directly or indirectly, to the parent corporation or the subsidiary corporation preferential rights with respect to the acquisition of the employee's (or direct owner's) stock will be considered to be a condition described in the preceding sentence. It is not necessary, in order for a condition to be considered to be in favor of the parent corporation or the subsidiary corporation, that the parent or subsidiary be extended a discriminatory concession with respect to the price of the stock. For example, a condition whereby the parent corporation is given a right of first refusal with respect to any stock of the subsidiary corporation offered by an employee for sale is a condition which substantially restricts or limits the employee's right to dispose of such stock and runs in favor of the parent corporation. Moreover, any legally enforceable condition which prohibits the employee from disposing of his stock without the consent of the parent (or a subsidiary of the parent) will be considered to be a substantial limitation running in favor of the parent corporation.

(iv) Controlled exempt organization. Stock in the subsidiary corporation owned (directly and with the application of the rules contained in paragraph (b) of §1.1563-3) by an organization (other than the parent corporation):

(a) To which section 501 (relating to certain educational and charitable organizations which are exempt from tax) applies, and

(b) Which is controlled directly or indirectly by the parent corporation or subsidiary corporation, by an individual, estate, or trust that is a principal stockholder of the parent corporation, by an officer of the parent corporation, or by any combination thereof.

The terms “principal stockholder of the parent corporation” and “officer of the parent corporation” shall have the same meanings in this subdivision as in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph. The term “control” as used in this subdivision means control in fact and the determination of whether the control requirement of (b) of this subdivision is met will depend upon all the facts and circumstances of each case, without regard to whether such control is legally enforceable and irrespective of the method by which such control is exercised or exercisable.

(3) Brother-sister controlled group. If five or fewer persons (hereinafter referred to as common owners) who are individuals, estates, or trusts own (directly and with the application of the rules contained in paragraph (b) of §1.1563-3) stock possessing 50 percent or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or 50 percent or more of the total value of shares of all classes of stock in a corporation, the provisions of subparagraph (4) of this paragraph shall apply. In determining whether the stock owned by such person or persons possesses the requisite percentage of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote of a corporation, see paragraph (a)(6) of §1.1563-1.

(4) Stock treated as not outstanding. If the provisions of this subparagraph apply, then for purposes of determining whether a corporation is a member of a brother-sister controlled group of corporations within the meaning of paragraph (a)(3) of §1.1563-1, the following stock of such corporation shall, except as otherwise provided in paragraph (c) of this section, be treated as if it were not outstanding:

(i) Exempt employees' trust. Stock in such corporation held by an employees' trust described in section 401(a) which is exempt from tax under section 501(a), if such trust is for the benefit of the employees of such corporation.

(ii) Employees. Stock in such corporation owned (directly and with the application of the rules contained in paragraph (b) of §1.1563-3) by an employee of such corporation if such stock is subject to conditions which run in favor of a common owner of such corporation (or in favor of such corporation) and which substantially restrict or limit the employee's right (or if the employee constructively owns such stock, the record owner's right) to dispose of such stock. The principles of subparagraph (2)(iii) of this paragraph shall apply in determining whether a condition satisfies the requirements of the preceding sentence. Thus, in general, a condition which extends, directly or indirectly, to a common owner or such corporation preferential rights with respect to the acquisition of the employee's (or record owner's) stock will be considered to be a condition which satisfies such requirements. For purposes of this subdivision, if a condition which restricts or limits an employee's right (or record owner's right) to dispose of his stock also applies to the stock in such corporation held by such common owner pursuant to a bona fide reciprocal stock purchase arrangement, such condition shall not be treated as one which restricts or limits the employee's (or record owner's) right to dispose of such stock. An example of a reciprocal stock purchase arrangement is an agreement whereby a common owner and the employee are given a right of first refusal with respect to stock of the employer corporation owned by the other party. If, however, the agreement also provides that the common owner has the right to purchase the stock of the employer corporation owned by the employee in the event that the corporation should discharge the employee for reasonable cause, the purchase arrangement would not be reciprocal within the meaning of this subdivision.

(iii) Controlled exempt organization. Stock in such corporation owned (directly and with the application of the rules contained in paragraph (b) of §1.1563-3) by an organization:

(a) To which section 501(c)(3) (relating to certain educational and charitable organizations which are exempt from tax) applies, and

(b) Which is controlled directly or indirectly by such corporation, by an individual, estate, or trust that is a principal stockholder of such corporation, by an officer of such corporation, or by any combination thereof.

The terms “principal stockholder” and “officer” shall have the same meanings in this subdivision as in subparagraph (2)(ii) of this paragraph. The term “control” as used in this subdivision means control in fact and the determination of whether the control requirement of (b) of this subdivision is met will depend upon all the facts and circumstances of each case, without regard to whether such control is legally enforceable and irrespective of the method by which such control is exercised or exercisable.

(5) Other controlled groups. The provisions of subparagraphs (1), (2), (3), and (4) of this paragraph shall apply in determining whether a corporation is a member of a combined group (within the meaning of paragraph (a)(4) of §1.1563-1) or an insurance group (within the meaning of paragraph (a)(5) of §1.1563-1). For example, under paragraph (a)(4) of §1.1563-1, in order for a corporation to be a member of a combined group such corporation must be a member of a parent-subsidiary group or a brother-sister group. Accordingly, the excluded stock rules provided by this paragraph are applicable in determining whether the corporation is a member of such group.

(6) Meaning of employee. For purposes of this section §§1.1563-3 and 1.1563-4, the term “employee” has the same meaning such term is given in section 3306(i) of the Code (relating to definitions for purposes of the Federal Unemployment Tax Act). Accordingly, the term employee as used in such sections includes an officer of a corporation.

(7) Examples. The provisions of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Corporation P owns 70 of the 100 shares of the only class of stock of corporation S. The remaining shares of S are owned as follows: 4 shares by Jones (the general manager of P), and 26 shares by Smith (who also owns 5 percent of the total combined voting power of the stock of P). P satisfies the 50 percent stock ownership requirement of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph with respect to S. Since Jones is an officer of P and Smith is a principal stockholder of P, under subparagraph (2)(ii) of this paragraph the S stock owned by Jones and Smith is treated as not outstanding for purposes of determining whether P and S are members of a parent-subsidiary controlled group of corporations within the meaning of paragraph (a)(2) of §1.1563-1. Thus, P is considered to own stock possessing 100 percent (70 ÷ 70) of the total voting power and value of all the S stock. Accordingly, P and S are members of a parent-subsidiary controlled group of corporations.

Example 2. Assume the same facts as in example (1) and further assume that Jones owns 15 shares of the 100 shares of the only class of stock of corporation S-1, and corporation S owns 75 shares of such stock. P satisfies the 50 percent stock ownership requirement of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph with respect to S-1 since P is considered as owning 52.5 percent (70 percent × 75 percent) of the S-1 stock with the application of paragraph (b)(4) of §1.1563-3. Since Jones is an officer of P, under subparagraph (2)(ii) of this paragraph, the S-1 stock owned by Jones is treated as not outstanding for purposes of determining whether S-1 is a member of the parent-subsidiary controlled group of corporations. Thus, S is considered to own stock possessing 88.2 percent (75 ÷ 85) of the voting power and value of the S-1 stock. Accordingly, P, S, and S-1 are members of a parent-subsidiary controlled group of corporations.

Example 3. Corporation X owns 60 percent of the only class of stock of corporation Y. Davis, the president of Y, owns the remaining 40 percent of the stock of Y. Davis has agreed that if he offers his stock in Y for sale he will first offer the stock to X at a price equal to the fair market value of the stock on the first date the stock is offered for sale. Since Davis is an employee of Y within the meaning of section 3306(i) of the Code, and his stock in Y is subject to a condition which substantially restricts or limits his right to dispose of such stock and runs in favor of X, under subparagraph (2)(iii) of this paragraph such stock is treated as if it were not outstanding for purposes of determining whether X and Y are members of a parent-subsidiary controlled group of corporations. Thus, X is considered to own stock possessing 100 percent of the voting power and value of the stock of Y. Accordingly, X and Y are members of a parent-subsidiary controlled group of corporations. The result would be the same if Davis's wife, instead of Davis, owned directly the 40 percent stock interest in Y and such stock was subject to a right of first refusal running in favor of X.

(c) Exception—(1) General. If stock of a corporation is owned by a person directly or with the application of the rules contained in paragraph (b) of §1.1563-3 and such ownership results in the corporation being a component member of a controlled group of corporations on a December 31, then the stock shall not be treated as excluded stock under the provisions of paragraph (b) of this section if the result of applying such provisions is that such corporation is not a component member of a controlled group of corporations on such December 31.

(2) Illustration. The provisions of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. On each day of 1965, corporation P owns directly 50 of the 100 shares of the only class of stock of corporation S. Jones, an officer of P, owns directly 30 shares of S stock and P has an option to acquire such 30 shares from Jones. The remaining shares of S are owned by unrelated persons. If, pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, the 30 shares of S stock owned directly by Jones is treated as not outstanding, the result is that P would be treated as owning stock possessing only 71 percent (50 ÷ 70) of the total voting power and value of S stock, and S would not be a component member of a controlled group of corporations on December 31, 1965. However, since P is considered as owning the 30 shares of S stock with the application of paragraph (b)(1) of this section, and such ownership plus the S stock directly owned by P (50 shares) results in S being a component member of a controlled group of corporations on December 31, 1965, the provisions of this paragraph apply. Therefore, the provisions of paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section do not apply with respect to the 30 shares of S stock, and on December 31, 1965, S is a component member of a controlled group of corporations consisting of P and S.

[T.D. 6845, 30 FR 9753, Aug. 5, 1965, as amended by T.D. 7181, 37 FR 8070, Apr. 4, 1972]

§1.1563-3   Rules for determining stock ownership.

(a) In general. In determining stock ownership for purposes of §§1.1562-5, 1.1563-1, 1.1563-2, and this section, the constructive ownership rules of paragraph (b) of this section apply to the extent such rules are referred to in such sections. The application of such rules shall be subject to the operating rules and special rules contained in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section.

(b) Constructive ownership—(1) Options. If a person has an option to acquire any outstanding stock of a corporation, such stock shall be considered as owned by such person. For purposes of this subparagraph, an option to acquire such an option, and each one of a series of such options, shall be considered as an option to acquire such stock. For example, assume Smith owns an option to purchase 100 shares of the outstanding stock of M Corporation. Under this subparagraph, Smith is considered to own such 100 shares. The result would be the same if Smith owned an option to acquire the option (or one of a series of options) to purchase 100 shares of M stock.

(2) Attribution from partnerships. (i) Stock owned, directly or indirectly, by or for a partnership shall be considered as owned by any partner having an interest of 5 percent or more in either the capital or profits of the partnership in proportion to his interest in capital or profits, whichever such proportion is the greater.

(ii) The provisions of this subparagraph may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. Green, Jones, and White, unrelated individuals, are partners in the GJW partnership. The partners' interests in the capital and profits of the partnership are as follows:

PartnerCapitalProfits
PercentPercent
Green3625
Jones6071
White44

The GJW partnership owns the entire outstanding stock (100 shares) of X Corporation. Under this subparagraph, Green is considered to own the X stock owned by the partnership in proportion to his interest in capital (36 percent) or profits (25 percent), whichever such proportion is the greater. Therefore, Green is considered to own 36 shares of the X stock. However, since Jones has a greater interest in the profits of the partnership, he is considered to own the X stock in proportion to his interest in such profits. Therefore, Jones is considered to own 71 shares of the X stock. Since White does not have an interest of 5 percent or more in either the capital or profits of the partnership, he is not considered to own any shares of the X stock.

(3) Attribution from estates or trusts. (i) Stock owned, directly or indirectly, by or for an estate or trust shall be considered as owned by any beneficiary who has an actuarial interest of 5 percent or more in such stock, to the extent of such actuarial interest. For purposes of this subparagraph, the actuarial interest of each beneficiary shall be determined by assuming the maximum exercise of discretion by the fiduciary in favor of such beneficiary and the maximum use of such stock to satisfy his rights as a beneficiary. A beneficiary of an estate or trust who cannot under any circumstances receive any interest in stock held by the estate or trust, including the proceeds from the disposition thereof, or the income therefrom, does not have an actuarial interest in such stock. Thus, where stock owned by a decedent's estate has been specifically bequeathed to certain beneficiaries and the remainder of the estate is bequeathed to other beneficiaries, the stock is attributable only to the beneficiaries to whom it is specifically bequeathed. Similarly, a remainderman of a trust who cannot under any circumstances receive any interest in the stock of a corporation which is a part of the corpus of the trust (including any accumulated income therefrom or the proceeds from a disposition thereof) does not have an actuarial interest in such stock. However, an income beneficiary of a trust does have an actuarial interest in stock if he has any right to the income from such stock even though under the terms of the trust instrument such stock can never be distributed to him. The factors and methods prescribed in §20.2031-7 of this chapter (Estate Tax Regulations) for use in ascertaining the value of an interest in property for estate tax purposes shall be used for purposes of this subdivision in determining a beneficiary's actuarial interest in stock owned directly or indirectly by or for a trust.

(ii) For the purposes of this subparagraph, property of a decedent shall be considered as owned by his estate if such property is subject to administration by the executor or administrator for the purposes of paying claims against the estate and expenses of administration notwithstanding that, under local law, legal title to such property vests in the decedent's heirs, legatees or devisees immediately upon death. With respect to an estate, the term “beneficiary” includes any person entitled to receive property of the decedent pursuant to a will or pursuant to laws of descent and distribution. A person shall no longer be considered a beneficiary of an estate when all the property to which he is entitled has been received by him, when he no longer has a claim against the estate arising out of having been a beneficiary, and when there is only a remote possibility that it will be necessary for the estate to seek the return of property or to seek payment from him by contribution or otherwise to satisfy claims against the estate or expenses of administration. When pursuant to the preceding sentence, a person ceases to be a beneficiary, stock owned by the estate shall not thereafter be considered owned by him.

(iii) Stock owned, directly or indirectly, by or for any portion of a trust of which a person is considered the owner under Subpart E, Part I, Subchapter J of the Code (relating to grantors and others treated as substantial owners) is considered as owned by such person.

(iv) This subparagraph does not apply to stock owned by any employees' trust described in section 401(a) which is exempt from tax under section 501(a).

(4) Attribution from corporations. (i) Stock owned, directly or indirectly, by or for a corporation shall be considered as owned by any person who owns (within the meaning of section 1563(d)) 5 percent or more in value or its stock in that proportion which the value of the stock which such person so owns bears to the value of all the stock in such corporation.

(ii) The provisions of this subparagraph may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. Brown, an individual, owns 60 shares of the 100 shares of the only class of outstanding stock of corporation P. Smith, an individual, owns 4 shares of the P stock, and corporation X owns 36 shares of the P stock. Corporation P owns, directly and indirectly, 50 shares of the stock of corporation S. Under this subparagraph, Brown is considered to own 30 shares of the S stock ( 60100 × 50), and X is considered to own 18 shares of the S stock ( 36100 × 50). Since Smith does not own 5 percent or more in value of the P stock, he is not considered as owning any of the S stock owned by P. If, in this example, Smith's wife had owned directly 1 share of the P stock, Smith (and his wife) would each own 5 shares of the P stock, and therefore Smith (and his wife) would be considered as owning 2.5 shares of the S stock ( 5100 × 50).

(5) Spouse. (i) Except as provided in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph, an individual shall be considered to own the stock owned, directly or indirectly, by or for his spouse, other than a spouse who is legally separated from the individual under a decree of divorce, whether interlocutory or final, or a decree of separate maintenance.

(ii) An individual shall not be considered to own stock in a corporation owned, directly or indirectly, by or for his spouse on any day of a taxable year of such corporation, provided that each of the following conditions are satisfied with respect to such taxable year:

(a) Such individual does not, at any time during such taxable year, own directly any stock in such corporation.

(b) Such individual is not a member of the board of directors or an employee of such corporation and does not participate in the management of such corporation at any time during such taxable year.

(c) Not more than 50 percent of such corporation's gross income for such taxable year was derived from royalties, rents, dividends, interest, and annuities.

(d) Such stock in such corporation is not, at any time during such taxable year, subject to conditions which substantially restrict or limit the spouse's right to dispose of such stock and which run in favor of the individual or his children who have not attained the age of 21 years. The principles of paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of §1.1563-2 shall apply in determining whether a condition is a condition described in the preceding sentence.

(iii) For purposes of subdivision (ii)(c) of this subparagraph, the gross income of a corporation for a taxable year shall be determined under section 61 and the regulations thereunder. The terms “royalties”, “rents”, “dividends”, “interest”, and “annuities” shall have the same meanings such terms are given for purposes of section 1244(c). See paragraph (e)(1)(ii), (iii), (iv), (v), and (vi) of §1.1244(c)-1.

(6) Children, grandchildren, parents, and grandparents. (i) An individual shall be considered to own the stock owned, directly or indirectly, by or for his children who have not attained the age of 21 years, and, if the individual has not attained the age of 21 years, the stock owned, directly or indirectly, by or for his parents.

(ii) If an individual owns (directly, and with the application of the rules of this paragraph but without regard to this subdivision) stock possessing more than 50 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or more than 50 percent of the total value of shares of all classes of stock in a corporation, then such individual shall be considered to own the stock in such corporation owned, directly or indirectly, by or for his parents, grandparents, grandchildren, and children who have attained the age of 21 years. In determining whether the stock owned by an individual possesses the requisite percentage of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote of a corporation, see paragraph (a)(6) of §1.1563-1.

(iii) For purposes of section 1563, and §§1.1563-1 through 1.1563-4, a legally adopted child of an individual shall be treated as a child of such individual by blood.

(iv) The provisions of this subparagraph may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. (a) Facts. Individual F owns directly 40 shares of the 100 shares of the only class of stock of Z Corporation. His son, M (20 years of age), owns directly 30 shares of such stock, and his son, A (30 years of age), owns directly 20 shares of such stock. The remaining 10 shares of the Z stock are owned by an unrelated person.

(b) F's ownership. Individual F owns 40 shares of the Z stock directly and is considered to own the 30 shares of Z stock owned directly by M. Since, for purposes of the more-than-50-percent stock ownership test contained in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph, F is treated as owning 70 shares or 70 percent of the total voting power and value of the Z stock, he is also considered as owning the 20 shares owned by his adult son, A. Accordingly, F is considered as owning a total of 90 shares of the Z stock.

(c) M's ownership. Minor son, M, owns 30 shares of the Z stock directly, and is considered to own the 40 shares of Z stock owned directly by his father, F. However, M is not considered to own the 20 shares of Z stock owned directly by his brother, A, and constructively by F, because stock constructively owned by F by reason of family attribution is not considered as owned by him for purposes of making another member of his family the constructive owner of such stock. See paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Accordingly, M owns and is considered as owning a total of 70 shares of the Z stock.

(d) A's ownership. Adult son, A, owns 20 shares of the Z stock directly. Since, for purposes of the more-than-50-percent stock ownership test contained in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph, A is treated as owning only the Z stock which he owns directly, he does not satisfy the condition precedent for the attribution of Z stock from his father. Accordingly, A is treated as owning only the 20 shares of Z stock which he owns directly.

(c) Operating rules and special rules—(1) In general. Except as provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, stock constructively owned by a person by reason of the application of subparagraph (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), or (6) of paragraph (b) of this section shall, for purposes of applying such subparagraphs, be treated as actually owned by such person.

(2) Members of family. Stock constructively owned by an individual by reason of the application of subparagraph (5) or (6) of paragraph (b) of this section shall not be treated as owned by him for purposes of again applying such subparagraphs in order to make another the constructive owner of such stock.

(3) Precedence of option attribution. For purposes of this section, if stock may be considered as owned by a person under subparagraph (1) of paragraph (b) of this section (relating to option attribution) and under any other subparagraph of such paragraph, such stock shall be considered as owned by such person under subparagraph (1) of such paragraph.

(4) Examples. The provisions of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. A, 30 years of age, has a 90 percent interest in the capital and profits of a partnership. The partnership owns all the outstanding stock of corporation X and X owns 60 shares of the 100 outstanding shares of corporation Y. Under subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, the 60 shares of Y constructively owned by the partnership by reason of subparagraph (4) of paragraph (b) of this section is treated as actually owned by the partnership for purposes of applying subparagraph (2) of paragraph (b) of this section. Therefore, A is considered as owning 54 shares of the Y stock (90 percent of 60 shares).

Example 2. Assume the same facts as in example (1). Assume further that B, who is 20 years of age and the brother of A, directly owns 40 shares of Y stock. Although the stock of Y owned by B is considered as owned by C (the father of A and B) under paragraph (b)(6)(i) of this section, under subparagraph (2) of this paragraph such stock may not be treated as owned by C for purposes of applying paragraph (b)(6)(ii) of this section in order to make A the constructive owner of such stock.

Example 3. Assume the same facts assumed for purposes of example (2), and further assume that C has an option to acquire the 40 shares of Y stock owned by his son, B. The rule contained in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph does not prevent the reattribution of such 40 shares to A because, under subparagraph (3) of this paragraph, C is considered as owning the 40 shares by reason of option attribution and not by reason of family attribution. Therefore, since A satisfies the more-than-50-percent stock ownership test contained in paragraph (b)(6)(ii) of this section with respect to Y, the 40 shares of Y stock constructively owned by C are reattributed to A, and A is considered as owning a total of 94 shares of Y stock.

(d) Special rule of section 1563 (f)(3)(B)—(1) In general. If the same stock of a corporation is owned (within the meaning of section 1563(d)) by two or more persons, then such stock shall be treated as owned by the person whose ownership of such stock results in the corporation being a component member of a controlled group on a December 31 which has at least one other component member on such date.

(2) Component member of more than one group. (i) If, by reason of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, a corporation would (but for this subparagraph) become a component member of more than one controlled group on a December 31, such corporation shall be treated as a component member of only one such controlled group on such date. The determination as to which group such corporation is treated as a component member of shall be made in accordance with the rules contained in paragraphs (d)(2)(ii), (iii) and (iv) of this section.

(ii) In any case in which a corporation is a component member of a controlled group of corporations on a December 31 as a result of treating each share of its stock as owned only by the person who owns such share directly, then each such share shall be treated as owned by the person who owns such share directly.

(iii) If the application of subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph does not result in a corporation being treated as a component member of only one controlled group on a December 31, then the stock of such corporation described in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph shall be treated as owned by the one person described in such subparagraph who owns, directly and with the application of the rules contained in paragraph (b) (1), (2), (3), and (4) of this section, the stock possessing the greatest percentage of the total value of shares of all classes of stock of the corporation.

(iv) Statement. If the application of paragraph (d)(2)(ii) or (iii) of this section does not result in a corporation being treated as a component member of only one controlled group of corporations on a December 31, then such corporation will be treated as a component member of only one such group on such date. Such corporation may elect the group in which it is to be included by including on or with its income tax return a statement entitled, “STATEMENT TO ELECT CONTROLLED GROUP PURSUANT TO §1.1563-3(d)(2)(iv).” The statement must include—

(A) A description of each of the controlled groups in which the corporation could be included. The description must include the name and employer identification number of each component member of each such group and the stock ownership of the component members of each such group; and

(B) The following representation: [INSERT NAME AND EMPLOYER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER OF CORPORATION] ELECTS TO BE TREATED AS A COMPONENT MEMBER OF THE [INSERT DESIGNATION OF GROUP].

(v) Election—(A) Election filed. An election filed under paragraph (d)(2)(iv) of this section is irrevocable and effective until paragraph (d)(2)(ii) or (iii) of this section applies or until a change in the stock ownership of the corporation results in termination of membership in the controlled group in which such corporation has been included.

(B) Election not filed. In the event no election is filed in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (d)(2)(iv) of this section, then the Internal Revenue Service will determine the group in which such corporation is to be included. Such determination will be binding for all subsequent years unless the corporation files a valid election with respect to any such subsequent year or until a change in the stock ownership of the corporation results in termination of membership in the controlled group in which such corporation has been included.

(3) Examples. The provisions of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples, in which each corporation referred to uses the calendar year as its taxable year and the stated facts are assumed to exist on each day of 1970 (unless otherwise provided in the example):

Example 1. Jones owns all the stock of corporation X and has an option to purchase from Smith all the outstanding stock of corporation Y. Smith owns all the outstanding stock of corporation Z. Since the Y stock is considered as owned by two or more persons, under subparagraph (2)(ii) of this paragraph the Y stock is treated as owned only by Smith since he has direct ownership of such stock. Therefore, on December 31, 1970, Y and Z are component members of the same brother-sister controlled group. If, however, Smith had owned his stock in corporation Z for less than one-half of the number of days of Z's 1970 taxable year, then under subparagraph (1) of this paragraph the Y stock would be treated as owned only by Jones since his ownership results in Y being a component member of a controlled group on December 31, 1970.

Example 2. Individual H owns directly all the outstanding stock of corporation M. W (the wife of H) owns directly all the outstanding stock of corporation N. Neither spouse is considered as owning the stock directly owned by the other because each of the conditions prescribed in paragraph (b)(5)(ii) of this section is satisfied with respect to each corporation's 1970 taxable year. H owns directly 60 percent of the only class of stock of corporation P and W owns the remaining 40 percent of the P stock. Under subparagraph (2)(iii) of this paragraph, the stock of P is treated as owned only by H since H owns (directly and with the application of the rules contained in paragraph (b) (1), (2), (3), and (4) of this section) the stock possessing the greatest percentage of the total value of shares of all classes of stock of P. Accordingly, on December 31, 1970, P is treated as a component member of a brother-sister group consisting of M and P.

Example 3. Unrelated individuals A and B each own 49 percent of all the outstanding stock of corporation R, which in turn owns 70 percent of the only class of outstanding stock of corporation S. The remaining 30 percent of the stock of corporation S is owned by unrelated individual C. C also owns the remaining 2 percent of the stock of corporation R. Under the attribution rule of paragraph (b)(4) of this section A and B are each considered to own 34.3 percent of the stock of corporation S. Accordingly, since five or fewer persons own at least 80 percent of the stock of corporations R and S and also own more than 50 percent identically (A's and B's identical ownership each is 34.3 percent, C's identical ownership is 2 percent), on December 31, 1970, corporations R and S are treated as component members of the same brother-sister controlled group for purposes of paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of §1.1563-1.

(e) Effective/applicability date. Paragraph (d)(2)(iv) and (v) of this section apply to any taxable year beginning on or after May 30, 2006. However, taxpayers may apply paragraph (d)(2)(iv) and (v) of this section to any original Federal income tax return (including any amended return filed on or before the due date (including extensions) of such original return) timely filed on or after May 30, 2006. For taxable years beginning before May 30, 2006, see §1.1563-3 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 in effect on April 1, 2006.

[T.D. 6845, 30 FR 9755, Aug. 5, 1965, as amended by T.D. 7181, 37 FR 8070, Apr. 25, 1972; T.D. 7779, 46 FR 29474, June 2, 1981; T.D. 8179, 53 FR 6613, Mar. 2, 1988; T.D. 9264, 71 FR 30606, 30608, May 30, 2006; T.D. 9304, 71 FR 76913, Dec. 22, 2006; T.D. 9329, 72 FR 32806, 32807, June 14, 2007; T.D. 9451, 74 FR 25148, May 27, 2009]

§1.1563-4   Franchised corporations.

(a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(d) of §1.1563-1, a member of a controlled group of corporations shall be considered to be a franchised corporation for a taxable year if each of the following conditions is satisfied for one-half (or more) of the number of days preceding the December 31 included within such taxable year (or, if such taxable year does not include a December 31, for one-half or more of the number of days in such taxable year preceding the last day of such year):

(1) Such member is franchised to sell the products of another member, or the common owner, of such controlled group.

(2) More than 50 percent (determined on the basis of cost) of all the goods held by such member primarily for sale to its customers are acquired from members or the common owner of the controlled group, or both.

(3) The stock of such member is to be sold to an employee (or employees) of such member pursuant to a bona fide plan designed to eliminate the stock ownership of the parent corporation (as defined in paragraph (b)(1) of §1.1563-2) or of the common owner (as defined in paragraph (b)(3) of §1.1563-2) in such member.

(4) Such employee owns (or such employees in the aggregate own) directly more than 20 percent of the total value of shares of all classes of stock of such member. For purposes of this subparagraph, the determination of whether an employee (or employees) owns the requisite percentage of the total value of the stock of the member shall be made without regard to paragraph (b) of §1.1563-2, relating to certain stock treated as excluded stock. Furthermore, if the corporation has more than one class of stock outstanding, the relative voting rights as between each such class of stock shall be disregarded in making such determination.

(b) Plan for elimination of stock ownership. (1) A plan referred to in paragraph (a)(3) of this section must:

(i) Provide a reasonable selling price for the stock of the member, and

(ii) Require that a portion of the employee's compensation or dividends, or both, from such member be applied to the purchase of such stock (or to the purchase of notes, bonds, debentures, or similar evidences of indebtedness of such member held by the parent corporation or the common owner).

It is not necessary, in order to satisfy the requirements of subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph, that the plan require that a percentage of every dollar of the compensation and dividends be applied to the purchase of the stock (or the indebtedness). The requirements of such subdivision are satisfied if an otherwise qualified plan provides that under certain specified conditions (such as a requirement that the member earn a specified profit) no portion of the compensation and/or dividends need be applied to the purchase of the stock (or indebtedness), provided such conditions are reasonable.

(2) A plan for the elimination of the stock ownership of the parent corporation or of the common owner will satisfy the requirements of paragraph (a)(3) of this section and subparagraph (1) of this paragraph even though it does not require that the stock of the member be sold to an employee (or employees) if it provides for the redemption of the stock of the member held by the parent or common owner and under the plan the amount of such stock to be redeemed during any period is calculated by reference to the profits of such member during such period.

[T.D. 6845, 30 FR 9757, Aug. 5, 1965]

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