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e-CFR data is current as of September 24, 2020

Title 14Chapter ISubchapter CPart 25Subpart E → Subject Group


Title 14: Aeronautics and Space
PART 25—AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES
Subpart E—Powerplant


Fuel System Components

§25.991   Fuel pumps.

(a) Main pumps. Each fuel pump required for proper engine operation, or required to meet the fuel system requirements of this subpart (other than those in paragraph (b) of this section, is a main pump. For each main pump, provision must be made to allow the bypass of each positive displacement fuel pump other than a fuel injection pump (a pump that supplies the proper flow and pressure for fuel injection when the injection is not accomplished in a carburetor) approved as part of the engine.

(b) Emergency pumps. There must be emergency pumps or another main pump to feed each engine immediately after failure of any main pump (other than a fuel injection pump approved as part of the engine).

§25.993   Fuel system lines and fittings.

(a) Each fuel line must be installed and supported to prevent excessive vibration and to withstand loads due to fuel pressure and accelerated flight conditions.

(b) Each fuel line connected to components of the airplane between which relative motion could exist must have provisions for flexibility.

(c) Each flexible connection in fuel lines that may be under pressure and subjected to axial loading must use flexible hose assemblies.

(d) Flexible hose must be approved or must be shown to be suitable for the particular application.

(e) No flexible hose that might be adversely affected by exposure to high temperatures may be used where excessive temperatures will exist during operation or after engine shut-down.

(f) Each fuel line within the fuselage must be designed and installed to allow a reasonable degree of deformation and stretching without leakage.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-15, 32 FR 13266, Sept. 20, 1967]

§25.994   Fuel system components.

Fuel system components in an engine nacelle or in the fuselage must be protected from damage that could result in spillage of enough fuel to constitute a fire hazard as a result of a wheels-up landing on a paved runway under each of the conditions prescribed in §25.721(b).

[Amdt. 25-139, 79 FR 59430, Oct. 2, 2014]

§25.995   Fuel valves.

In addition to the requirements of §25.1189 for shutoff means, each fuel valve must—

(a) [Reserved]

(b) Be supported so that no loads resulting from their operation or from accelerated flight conditions are transmitted to the lines attached to the valve.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-40, 42 FR 15043, Mar. 17, 1977]

§25.997   Fuel strainer or filter.

There must be a fuel strainer or filter between the fuel tank outlet and the inlet of either the fuel metering device or an engine driven positive displacement pump, whichever is nearer the fuel tank outlet. This fuel strainer or filter must—

(a) Be accessible for draining and cleaning and must incorporate a screen or element which is easily removable;

(b) Have a sediment trap and drain except that it need not have a drain if the strainer or filter is easily removable for drain purposes;

(c) Be mounted so that its weight is not supported by the connecting lines or by the inlet or outlet connections of the strainer or filter itself, unless adequate strength margins under all loading conditions are provided in the lines and connections; and

(d) Have the capacity (with respect to operating limitations established for the engine) to ensure that engine fuel system functioning is not impaired, with the fuel contaminated to a degree (with respect to particle size and density) that is greater than that established for the engine in Part 33 of this chapter.

[Amdt. 25-36, 39 FR 35460, Oct. 1, 1974, as amended by Amdt. 25-57, 49 FR 6848, Feb. 23, 1984]

§25.999   Fuel system drains.

(a) Drainage of the fuel system must be accomplished by the use of fuel strainer and fuel tank sump drains.

(b) Each drain required by paragraph (a) of this section must—

(1) Discharge clear of all parts of the airplane;

(2) Have manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position; and

(3) Have a drain valve—

(i) That is readily accessible and which can be easily opened and closed; and

(ii) That is either located or protected to prevent fuel spillage in the event of a landing with landing gear retracted.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-38, 41 FR 55467, Dec. 20, 1976]

§25.1001   Fuel jettisoning system.

(a) A fuel jettisoning system must be installed on each airplane unless it is shown that the airplane meets the climb requirements of §§25.119 and 25.121(d) at maximum takeoff weight, less the actual or computed weight of fuel necessary for a 15-minute flight comprised of a takeoff, go-around, and landing at the airport of departure with the airplane configuration, speed, power, and thrust the same as that used in meeting the applicable takeoff, approach, and landing climb performance requirements of this part.

(b) If a fuel jettisoning system is required it must be capable of jettisoning enough fuel within 15 minutes, starting with the weight given in paragraph (a) of this section, to enable the airplane to meet the climb requirements of §§25.119 and 25.121(d), assuming that the fuel is jettisoned under the conditions, except weight, found least favorable during the flight tests prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section.

(c) Fuel jettisoning must be demonstrated beginning at maximum takeoff weight with flaps and landing gear up and in—

(1) A power-off glide at 1.3 VSR1;

(2) A climb at the one-engine inoperative best rate-of-climb speed, with the critical engine inoperative and the remaining engines at maximum continuous power; and

(3) Level flight at 1.3 V SR1; if the results of the tests in the conditions specified in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section show that this condition could be critical.

(d) During the flight tests prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section, it must be shown that—

(1) The fuel jettisoning system and its operation are free from fire hazard;

(2) The fuel discharges clear of any part of the airplane;

(3) Fuel or fumes do not enter any parts of the airplane; and

(4) The jettisoning operation does not adversely affect the controllability of the airplane.

(e) For reciprocating engine powered airplanes, means must be provided to prevent jettisoning the fuel in the tanks used for takeoff and landing below the level allowing 45 minutes flight at 75 percent maximum continuous power. However, if there is an auxiliary control independent of the main jettisoning control, the system may be designed to jettison the remaining fuel by means of the auxiliary jettisoning control.

(f) For turbine engine powered airplanes, means must be provided to prevent jettisoning the fuel in the tanks used for takeoff and landing below the level allowing climb from sea level to 10,000 feet and thereafter allowing 45 minutes cruise at a speed for maximum range. However, if there is an auxiliary control independent of the main jettisoning control, the system may be designed to jettison the remaining fuel by means of the auxiliary jettisoning control.

(g) The fuel jettisoning valve must be designed to allow flight personnel to close the valve during any part of the jettisoning operation.

(h) Unless it is shown that using any means (including flaps, slots, and slats) for changing the airflow across or around the wings does not adversely affect fuel jettisoning, there must be a placard, adjacent to the jettisoning control, to warn flight crewmembers against jettisoning fuel while the means that change the airflow are being used.

(i) The fuel jettisoning system must be designed so that any reasonably probable single malfunction in the system will not result in a hazardous condition due to unsymmetrical jettisoning of, or inability to jettison, fuel.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-18, 33 FR 12226, Aug. 30, 1968; Amdt. 25-57, 49 FR 6848, Feb. 23, 1984; Amdt. 25-108, 67 FR 70827, Nov. 26, 2002]

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