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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of January 24, 2020

Title 14Chapter ISubchapter CPart 25Subpart D → Subject Group


Title 14: Aeronautics and Space
PART 25—AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES
Subpart D—Design and Construction


Fire Protection

§25.851   Fire extinguishers.

(a) Hand fire extinguishers. (1) The following minimum number of hand fire extinguishers must be conveniently located and evenly distributed in passenger compartments:

Passenger capacity No. of extinguishers
   7 through 301
   31 through 602
   61 through 2003
201 through 3004
301 through 4005
401 through 5006
501 through 6007
601 through 7008

(2) At least one hand fire extinguisher must be conveniently located in the pilot compartment.

(3) At least one readily accessible hand fire extinguisher must be available for use in each Class A or Class B cargo or baggage compartment and in each Class E or Class F cargo or baggage compartment that is accessible to crewmembers in flight.

(4) At least one hand fire extinguisher must be located in, or readily accessible for use in, each galley located above or below the passenger compartment.

(5) Each hand fire extinguisher must be approved.

(6) At least one of the required fire extinguishers located in the passenger compartment of an airplane with a passenger capacity of at least 31 and not more than 60, and at least two of the fire extinguishers located in the passenger compartment of an airplane with a passenger capacity of 61 or more must contain Halon 1211 (bromochlorodifluoromethane CBrC1 F2), or equivalent, as the extinguishing agent. The type of extinguishing agent used in any other extinguisher required by this section must be appropriate for the kinds of fires likely to occur where used.

(7) The quantity of extinguishing agent used in each extinguisher required by this section must be appropriate for the kinds of fires likely to occur where used.

(8) Each extinguisher intended for use in a personnel compartment must be designed to minimize the hazard of toxic gas concentration.

(b) Built-in fire extinguishers. If a built-in fire extinguisher is provided—

(1) Each built-in fire extinguishing system must be installed so that—

(i) No extinguishing agent likely to enter personnel compartments will be hazardous to the occupants; and

(ii) No discharge of the extinguisher can cause structural damage.

(2) The capacity of each required built-in fire extinguishing system must be adequate for any fire likely to occur in the compartment where used, considering the volume of the compartment and the ventilation rate. The capacity of each system is adequate if there is sufficient quantity of agent to extinguish the fire or suppress the fire anywhere baggage or cargo is placed within the cargo compartment for the duration required to land and evacuate the airplane.

[Amdt. 25-74, 56 FR 15456, Apr. 16, 1991, as amended by Doc. No. Docket FAA-2014-0001, Amdt. 25-142, 81 FR 7703, Feb. 16, 2016]

§25.853   Compartment interiors.

For each compartment occupied by the crew or passengers, the following apply:

(a) Materials (including finishes or decorative surfaces applied to the materials) must meet the applicable test criteria prescribed in part I of appendix F of this part, or other approved equivalent methods, regardless of the passenger capacity of the airplane.

(b) [Reserved]

(c) In addition to meeting the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section, seat cushions, except those on flight crewmember seats, must meet the test requirements of part II of appendix F of this part, or other equivalent methods, regardless of the passenger capacity of the airplane.

(d) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, the following interior components of airplanes with passenger capacities of 20 or more must also meet the test requirements of parts IV and V of appendix F of this part, or other approved equivalent method, in addition to the flammability requirements prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section:

(1) Interior ceiling and wall panels, other than lighting lenses and windows;

(2) Partitions, other than transparent panels needed to enhance cabin safety;

(3) Galley structure, including exposed surfaces of stowed carts and standard containers and the cavity walls that are exposed when a full complement of such carts or containers is not carried; and

(4) Large cabinets and cabin stowage compartments, other than underseat stowage compartments for stowing small items such as magazines and maps.

(e) The interiors of compartments, such as pilot compartments, galleys, lavatories, crew rest quarters, cabinets and stowage compartments, need not meet the standards of paragraph (d) of this section, provided the interiors of such compartments are isolated from the main passenger cabin by doors or equivalent means that would normally be closed during an emergency landing condition.

(f) Smoking is not allowed in lavatories. If smoking is allowed in any area occupied by the crew or passengers, an adequate number of self-contained, removable ashtrays must be provided in designated smoking sections for all seated occupants.

(g) Regardless of whether smoking is allowed in any other part of the airplane, lavatories must have self-contained, removable ashtrays located conspicuously on or near the entry side of each lavatory door, except that one ashtray may serve more than one lavatory door if the ashtray can be seen readily from the cabin side of each lavatory served.

(h) Each receptacle used for the disposal of flammable waste material must be fully enclosed, constructed of at least fire resistant materials, and must contain fires likely to occur in it under normal use. The capability of the receptacle to contain those fires under all probable conditions of wear, misalignment, and ventilation expected in service must be demonstrated by test.

[Amdt. 25-83, 60 FR 6623, Feb. 2, 1995, as amended by Amdt. 25-116, 69 FR 62788, Oct. 27, 2004]

§25.854   Lavatory fire protection.

For airplanes with a passenger capacity of 20 or more:

(a) Each lavatory must be equipped with a smoke detector system or equivalent that provides a warning light in the cockpit, or provides a warning light or audible warning in the passenger cabin that would be readily detected by a flight attendant; and

(b) Each lavatory must be equipped with a built-in fire extinguisher for each disposal receptacle for towels, paper, or waste, located within the lavatory. The extinguisher must be designed to discharge automatically into each disposal receptacle upon occurrence of a fire in that receptacle.

[Amdt. 25-74, 56 FR 15456, Apr. 16, 1991]

§25.855   Cargo or baggage compartments.

For each cargo or baggage compartment, the following apply:

(a) The compartment must meet one of the class requirements of §25.857.

(b) Each of the following cargo or baggage compartments, as defined in §25.857, must have a liner that is separate from, but may be attached to, the airplane structure:

(1) Any Class B through Class E cargo or baggage compartment, and

(2) Any Class F cargo or baggage compartment, unless other means of containing a fire and protecting critical systems and structure are provided.

(c) Ceiling and sidewall liner panels of Class C cargo or baggage compartments, and ceiling and sidewall liner panels in Class F cargo or baggage compartments, if installed to meet the requirements of paragraph (b)(2) of this section, must meet the test requirements of part III of appendix F of this part or other approved equivalent methods.

(d) All other materials used in the construction of the cargo or baggage compartment must meet the applicable test criteria prescribed in part I of appendix F of this part or other approved equivalent methods.

(e) No compartment may contain any controls, lines, equipment, or accessories whose damage or failure would affect safe operation, unless those items are protected so that—

(1) They cannot be damaged by the movement of cargo in the compartment, and

(2) Their breakage or failure will not create a fire hazard.

(f) There must be means to prevent cargo or baggage from interfering with the functioning of the fire protective features of the compartment.

(g) Sources of heat within the compartment must be shielded and insulated to prevent igniting the cargo or baggage.

(h) Flight tests must be conducted to show compliance with the provisions of §25.857 concerning—

(1) Compartment accessibility,

(2) The entries of hazardous quantities of smoke or extinguishing agent into compartments occupied by the crew or passengers, and

(3) The dissipation of the extinguishing agent in all Class C compartments and, if applicable, in any Class F compartments.

(i) During the above tests, it must be shown that no inadvertent operation of smoke or fire detectors in any compartment would occur as a result of fire contained in any other compartment, either during or after extinguishment, unless the extinguishing system floods each such compartment simultaneously.

(j) Cargo or baggage compartment electrical wiring interconnection system components must meet the requirements of §25.1721.

[Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29784, July 20, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 25-93, 63 FR 8048, Feb. 17, 1998; Amdt. 25-116, 69 FR 62788, Oct. 27, 2004; Amdt. 25-123, 72 FR 63405, Nov. 8, 2007; Doc. No. Docket FAA-2014-0001, Amdt. 25-142, 81 FR 7704, Feb. 16, 2016]

§25.856   Thermal/Acoustic insulation materials.

(a) Thermal/acoustic insulation material installed in the fuselage must meet the flame propagation test requirements of part VI of Appendix F to this part, or other approved equivalent test requirements. This requirement does not apply to “small parts,” as defined in part I of Appendix F of this part.

(b) For airplanes with a passenger capacity of 20 or greater, thermal/acoustic insulation materials (including the means of fastening the materials to the fuselage) installed in the lower half of the airplane fuselage must meet the flame penetration resistance test requirements of part VII of Appendix F to this part, or other approved equivalent test requirements. This requirement does not apply to thermal/acoustic insulation installations that the FAA finds would not contribute to fire penetration resistance.

[Amdt. 25-111, 68 FR 45059, July 31, 2003]

§25.857   Cargo compartment classification.

(a) Class A; A Class A cargo or baggage compartment is one in which—

(1) The presence of a fire would be easily discovered by a crewmember while at his station; and

(2) Each part of the compartment is easily accessible in flight.

(b) Class B. A Class B cargo or baggage compartment is one in which—

(1) There is sufficient access in flight to enable a crewmember, standing at any one access point and without stepping into the compartment, to extinguish a fire occurring in any part of the compartment using a hand fire extinguisher;

(2) When the access provisions are being used, no hazardous quantity of smoke, flames, or extinguishing agent, will enter any compartment occupied by the crew or passengers;

(3) There is a separate approved smoke detector or fire detector system to give warning at the pilot or flight engineer station.

(c) Class C. A Class C cargo or baggage compartment is one not meeting the requirements for either a Class A or B compartment but in which—

(1) There is a separate approved smoke detector or fire detector system to give warning at the pilot or flight engineer station;

(2) There is an approved built-in fire extinguishing or suppression system controllable from the cockpit.

(3) There are means to exclude hazardous quantities of smoke, flames, or extinguishing agent, from any compartment occupied by the crew or passengers;

(4) There are means to control ventilation and drafts within the compartment so that the extinguishing agent used can control any fire that may start within the compartment.

(d) [Reserved]

(e) Class E. A Class E cargo compartment is one on airplanes used only for the carriage of cargo and in which—

(1) [Reserved]

(2) There is a separate approved smoke or fire detector system to give warning at the pilot or flight engineer station;

(3) There are means to shut off the ventilating airflow to, or within, the compartment, and the controls for these means are accessible to the flight crew in the crew compartment;

(4) There are means to exclude hazardous quantities of smoke, flames, or noxious gases, from the flight crew compartment; and

(5) The required crew emergency exits are accessible under any cargo loading condition.

(f) Class F. A Class F cargo or baggage compartment must be located on the main deck and is one in which—

(1) There is a separate approved smoke detector or fire detector system to give warning at the pilot or flight engineer station;

(2) There are means to extinguish or control a fire without requiring a crewmember to enter the compartment; and

(3) There are means to exclude hazardous quantities of smoke, flames, or extinguishing agent from any compartment occupied by the crew or passengers.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-32, 37 FR 3972, Feb. 24, 1972; Amdt. 25-60, 51 FR 18243, May 16, 1986; Amdt. 25-93, 63 FR 8048, Feb. 17, 1998; Doc. No. Docket FAA-2014-0001, Amdt. 25-142, 81 FR 7704, Feb. 16, 2016]

§25.858   Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the following must be met for each cargo or baggage compartment with those provisions:

(a) The detection system must provide a visual indication to the flight crew within one minute after the start of a fire.

(b) The system must be capable of detecting a fire at a temperature significantly below that at which the structural integrity of the airplane is substantially decreased.

(c) There must be means to allow the crew to check in flight, the functioning of each fire detector circuit.

(d) The effectiveness of the detection system must be shown for all approved operating configurations and conditions.

[Amdt. 25-54, 45 FR 60173, Sept. 11, 1980, as amended by Amdt. 25-93, 63 FR 8048, Feb. 17, 1998]

§25.859   Combustion heater fire protection.

(a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following combustion heater fire zones must be protected from fire in accordance with the applicable provisions of §§25.1181 through 25.1191 and §§25.1195 through 25.1203;

(1) The region surrounding the heater, if this region contains any flammable fluid system components (excluding the heater fuel system), that could—

(i) Be damaged by heater malfunctioning; or

(ii) Allow flammable fluids or vapors to reach the heater in case of leakage.

(2) The region surrounding the heater, if the heater fuel system has fittings that, if they leaked, would allow fuel or vapors to enter this region.

(3) The part of the ventilating air passage that surrounds the combustion chamber. However, no fire extinguishment is required in cabin ventilating air passages.

(b) Ventilating air ducts. Each ventilating air duct passing through any fire zone must be fireproof. In addition—

(1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to ensure that any fire originating in the heater can be contained in the duct; and

(2) Each part of any ventilating duct passing through any region having a flammable fluid system must be constructed or isolated from that system so that the malfunctioning of any component of that system cannot introduce flammable fluids or vapors into the ventilating airstream.

(c) Combustion air ducts. Each combustion air duct must be fireproof for a distance great enough to prevent damage from backfiring or reverse flame propagation. In addition—

(1) No combustion air duct may have a common opening with the ventilating airstream unless flames from backfires or reverse burning cannot enter the ventilating airstream under any operating condition, including reverse flow or malfunctioning of the heater or its associated components; and

(2) No combustion air duct may restrict the prompt relief of any backfire that, if so restricted, could cause heater failure.

(d) Heater controls; general. Provision must be made to prevent the hazardous accumulation of water or ice on or in any heater control component, control system tubing, or safety control.

(e) Heater safety controls. For each combustion heater there must be the following safety control means:

(1) Means independent of the components provided for the normal continuous control of air temperature, airflow, and fuel flow must be provided, for each heater, to automatically shut off the ignition and fuel supply to that heater at a point remote from that heater when any of the following occurs:

(i) The heat exchanger temperature exceeds safe limits.

(ii) The ventilating air temperature exceeds safe limits.

(iii) The combustion airflow becomes inadequate for safe operation.

(iv) The ventilating airflow becomes inadequate for safe operation.

(2) The means of complying with paragraph (e)(1) of this section for any individual heater must—

(i) Be independent of components serving any other heater whose heat output is essential for safe operation; and

(ii) Keep the heater off until restarted by the crew.

(3) There must be means to warn the crew when any heater whose heat output is essential for safe operation has been shut off by the automatic means prescribed in paragraph (e)(1) of this section.

(f) Air intakes. Each combustion and ventilating air intake must be located so that no flammable fluids or vapors can enter the heater system under any operating condition—

(1) During normal operation; or

(2) As a result of the malfunctioning of any other component.

(g) Heater exhaust. Heater exhaust systems must meet the provisions of §§25.1121 and 25.1123. In addition, there must be provisions in the design of the heater exhaust system to safely expel the products of combustion to prevent the occurrence of—

(1) Fuel leakage from the exhaust to surrounding compartments;

(2) Exhaust gas impingement on surrounding equipment or structure;

(3) Ignition of flammable fluids by the exhaust, if the exhaust is in a compartment containing flammable fluid lines; and

(4) Restriction by the exhaust of the prompt relief of backfires that, if so restricted, could cause heater failure.

(h) Heater fuel systems. Each heater fuel system must meet each powerplant fuel system requirement affecting safe heater operation. Each heater fuel system component within the ventilating airstream must be protected by shrouds so that no leakage from those components can enter the ventilating airstream.

(i) Drains. There must be means to safely drain fuel that might accumulate within the combustion chamber or the heat exchanger. In addition—

(1) Each part of any drain that operates at high temperatures must be protected in the same manner as heater exhausts; and

(2) Each drain must be protected from hazardous ice accumulation under any operating condition.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-11, 32 FR 6912, May 5, 1967; Amdt. 25-23, 35 FR 5676, Apr. 8, 1970]

§25.863   Flammable fluid fire protection.

(a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids and vapors, and the resultant hazards if ignition does occur.

(b) Compliance with paragraph (a) of this section must be shown by analysis or tests, and the following factors must be considered:

(1) Possible sources and paths of fluid leakage, and means of detecting leakage.

(2) Flammability characteristics of fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials.

(3) Possible ignition sources, including electrical faults, overheating of equipment, and malfunctioning of protective devices.

(4) Means available for controlling or extinguishing a fire, such as stopping flow of fluids, shutting down equipment, fireproof containment, or use of extinguishing agents.

(5) Ability of airplane components that are critical to safety of flight to withstand fire and heat.

(c) If action by the flight crew is required to prevent or counteract a fluid fire (e.g., equipment shutdown or actuation of a fire extinguisher) quick acting means must be provided to alert the crew.

(d) Each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be identified and defined.

[Amdt. 25-23, 35 FR 5676, Apr. 8, 1970, as amended by Amdt. 25-46, 43 FR 50597, Oct. 30, 1978]

§25.865   Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in designated fire zones or in adjacent areas which would be subjected to the effects of fire in the fire zone must be constructed of fireproof material or shielded so that they are capable of withstanding the effects of fire.

[Amdt. 25-23, 35 FR 5676, Apr. 8, 1970]

§25.867   Fire protection: other components.

(a) Surfaces to the rear of the nacelles, within one nacelle diameter of the nacelle centerline, must be at least fire-resistant.

(b) Paragraph (a) of this section does not apply to tail surfaces to the rear of the nacelles that could not be readily affected by heat, flames, or sparks coming from a designated fire zone or engine compartment of any nacelle.

[Amdt. 25-23, 35 FR 5676, Apr. 8, 1970]

§25.869   Fire protection: systems.

(a) Electrical system components:

(1) Components of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire and smoke protection requirements of §§25.831(c) and 25.863.

(2) Equipment that is located in designated fire zones and is used during emergency procedures must be at least fire resistant.

(3) EWIS components must meet the requirements of §25.1713.

(b) Each vacuum air system line and fitting on the discharge side of the pump that might contain flammable vapors or fluids must meet the requirements of §25.1183 if the line or fitting is in a designated fire zone. Other vacuum air systems components in designated fire zones must be at least fire resistant.

(c) Oxygen equipment and lines must—

(1) Not be located in any designated fire zone,

(2) Be protected from heat that may be generated in, or escape from, any designated fire zone, and

(3) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot cause ignition of grease, fluid, or vapor accumulations that are present in normal operation or as a result of failure or malfunction of any system.

[Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29784, July 20, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 25-113, 69 FR 12530, Mar. 16, 2004; Amdt. 25-123, 72 FR 63405, Nov. 8, 2007]

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