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Title 14Chapter ISubchapter CPart 25Subpart D → Subject Group


Title 14: Aeronautics and Space
PART 25—AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES
Subpart D—Design and Construction


Emergency Provisions

§25.801   Ditching.

(a) If certification with ditching provisions is requested, the airplane must meet the requirements of this section and §§25.807(e), 25.1411, and 25.1415(a).

(b) Each practicable design measure, compatible with the general characteristics of the airplane, must be taken to minimize the probability that in an emergency landing on water, the behavior of the airplane would cause immediate injury to the occupants or would make it impossible for them to escape.

(c) The probable behavior of the airplane in a water landing must be investigated by model tests or by comparison with airplanes of similar configuration for which the ditching characteristics are known. Scoops, flaps, projections, and any other factor likely to affect the hydrodynamic characteristics of the airplane, must be considered.

(d) It must be shown that, under reasonably probable water conditions, the flotation time and trim of the airplane will allow the occupants to leave the airplane and enter the liferafts required by §25.1415. If compliance with this provision is shown by buoyancy and trim computations, appropriate allowances must be made for probable structural damage and leakage. If the airplane has fuel tanks (with fuel jettisoning provisions) that can reasonably be expected to withstand a ditching without leakage, the jettisonable volume of fuel may be considered as buoyancy volume.

(e) Unless the effects of the collapse of external doors and windows are accounted for in the investigation of the probable behavior of the airplane in a water landing (as prescribed in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section), the external doors and windows must be designed to withstand the probable maximum local pressures.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29781, July 20, 1990]

§25.803   Emergency evacuation.

(a) Each crew and passenger area must have emergency means to allow rapid evacuation in crash landings, with the landing gear extended as well as with the landing gear retracted, considering the possibility of the airplane being on fire.

(b) [Reserved]

(c) For airplanes having a seating capacity of more than 44 passengers, it must be shown that the maximum seating capacity, including the number of crewmembers required by the operating rules for which certification is requested, can be evacuated from the airplane to the ground under simulated emergency conditions within 90 seconds. Compliance with this requirement must be shown by actual demonstration using the test criteria outlined in appendix J of this part unless the Administrator finds that a combination of analysis and testing will provide data equivalent to that which would be obtained by actual demonstration.

(d)-(e) [Reserved]

[Doc. No. 24344, 55 FR 29781, July 20, 1990]

§25.807   Emergency exits.

(a) Type. For the purpose of this part, the types of exits are defined as follows:

(1) Type I. This type is a floor-level exit with a rectangular opening of not less than 24 inches wide by 48 inches high, with corner radii not greater than eight inches.

(2) Type II. This type is a rectangular opening of not less than 20 inches wide by 44 inches high, with corner radii not greater than seven inches. Type II exits must be floor-level exits unless located over the wing, in which case they must not have a step-up inside the airplane of more than 10 inches nor a step-down outside the airplane of more than 17 inches.

(3) Type III. This type is a rectangular opening of not less than 20 inches wide by 36 inches high with corner radii not greater than seven inches, and with a step-up inside the airplane of not more than 20 inches. If the exit is located over the wing, the step-down outside the airplane may not exceed 27 inches.

(4) Type IV. This type is a rectangular opening of not less than 19 inches wide by 26 inches high, with corner radii not greater than 6.3 inches, located over the wing, with a step-up inside the airplane of not more than 29 inches and a step-down outside the airplane of not more than 36 inches.

(5) Ventral. This type is an exit from the passenger compartment through the pressure shell and the bottom fuselage skin. The dimensions and physical configuration of this type of exit must allow at least the same rate of egress as a Type I exit with the airplane in the normal ground attitude, with landing gear extended.

(6) Tailcone. This type is an aft exit from the passenger compartment through the pressure shell and through an openable cone of the fuselage aft of the pressure shell. The means of opening the tailcone must be simple and obvious and must employ a single operation.

(7) Type A. This type is a floor-level exit with a rectangular opening of not less than 42 inches wide by 72 inches high, with corner radii not greater than seven inches.

(8) Type B. This type is a floor-level exit with a rectangular opening of not less than 32 inches wide by 72 inches high, with corner radii not greater than six inches.

(9) Type C. This type is a floor-level exit with a rectangular opening of not less than 30 inches wide by 48 inches high, with corner radii not greater than 10 inches.

(b) Step down distance. Step down distance, as used in this section, means the actual distance between the bottom of the required opening and a usable foot hold, extending out from the fuselage, that is large enough to be effective without searching by sight or feel.

(c) Over-sized exits. Openings larger than those specified in this section, whether or not of rectangular shape, may be used if the specified rectangular opening can be inscribed within the opening and the base of the inscribed rectangular opening meets the specified step-up and step-down heights.

(d) Asymmetry. Exits of an exit pair need not be diametrically opposite each other nor of the same size; however, the number of passenger seats permitted under paragraph (g) of this section is based on the smaller of the two exits.

(e) Uniformity. Exits must be distributed as uniformly as practical, taking into account passenger seat distribution.

(f) Location. (1) Each required passenger emergency exit must be accessible to the passengers and located where it will afford the most effective means of passenger evacuation.

(2) If only one floor-level exit per side is prescribed, and the airplane does not have a tailcone or ventral emergency exit, the floor-level exits must be in the rearward part of the passenger compartment unless another location affords a more effective means of passenger evacuation.

(3) If more than one floor-level exit per side is prescribed, and the airplane does not have a combination cargo and passenger configuration, at least one floor-level exit must be located in each side near each end of the cabin.

(4) For an airplane that is required to have more than one passenger emergency exit for each side of the fuselage, no passenger emergency exit shall be more than 60 feet from any adjacent passenger emergency exit on the same side of the same deck of the fuselage, as measured parallel to the airplane's longitudinal axis between the nearest exit edges.

(g) Type and number required. The maximum number of passenger seats permitted depends on the type and number of exits installed in each side of the fuselage. Except as further restricted in paragraphs (g)(1) through (g)(9) of this section, the maximum number of passenger seats permitted for each exit of a specific type installed in each side of the fuselage is as follows:

Type A110
Type B75
Type C55
Type I45
Type II40
Type III35
Type IV9

(1) For a passenger seating configuration of 1 to 9 seats, there must be at least one Type IV or larger overwing exit in each side of the fuselage or, if overwing exits are not provided, at least one exit in each side that meets the minimum dimensions of a Type III exit.

(2) For a passenger seating configuration of more than 9 seats, each exit must be a Type III or larger exit.

(3) For a passenger seating configuration of 10 to 19 seats, there must be at least one Type III or larger exit in each side of the fuselage.

(4) For a passenger seating configuration of 20 to 40 seats, there must be at least two exits, one of which must be a Type II or larger exit, in each side of the fuselage.

(5) For a passenger seating configuration of 41 to 110 seats, there must be at least two exits, one of which must be a Type I or larger exit, in each side of the fuselage.

(6) For a passenger seating configuration of more than 110 seats, the emergency exits in each side of the fuselage must include at least two Type I or larger exits.

(7) The combined maximum number of passenger seats permitted for all Type III exits is 70, and the combined maximum number of passenger seats permitted for two Type III exits in each side of the fuselage that are separated by fewer than three passenger seat rows is 65.

(8) If a Type A, Type B, or Type C exit is installed, there must be at least two Type C or larger exits in each side of the fuselage.

(9) If a passenger ventral or tailcone exit is installed and that exit provides at least the same rate of egress as a Type III exit with the airplane in the most adverse exit opening condition that would result from the collapse of one or more legs of the landing gear, an increase in the passenger seating configuration is permitted as follows:

(i) For a ventral exit, 12 additional passenger seats.

(ii) For a tailcone exit incorporating a floor level opening of not less than 20 inches wide by 60 inches high, with corner radii not greater than seven inches, in the pressure shell and incorporating an approved assist means in accordance with §25.810(a), 25 additional passenger seats.

(iii) For a tailcone exit incorporating an opening in the pressure shell which is at least equivalent to a Type III emergency exit with respect to dimensions, step-up and step-down distance, and with the top of the opening not less than 56 inches from the passenger compartment floor, 15 additional passenger seats.

(h) Other exits. The following exits also must meet the applicable emergency exit requirements of §§25.809 through 25.812, and must be readily accessible:

(1) Each emergency exit in the passenger compartment in excess of the minimum number of required emergency exits.

(2) Any other floor-level door or exit that is accessible from the passenger compartment and is as large or larger than a Type II exit, but less than 46 inches wide.

(3) Any other ventral or tail cone passenger exit.

(i) Ditching emergency exits for passengers. Whether or not ditching certification is requested, ditching emergency exits must be provided in accordance with the following requirements, unless the emergency exits required by paragraph (g) of this section already meet them:

(1) For airplanes that have a passenger seating configuration of nine or fewer seats, excluding pilot seats, one exit above the waterline in each side of the airplane, meeting at least the dimensions of a Type IV exit.

(2) For airplanes that have a passenger seating configuration of 10 of more seats, excluding pilot seats, one exit above the waterline in a side of the airplane, meeting at least the dimensions of a Type III exit for each unit (or part of a unit) of 35 passenger seats, but no less than two such exits in the passenger cabin, with one on each side of the airplane. The passenger seat/ exit ratio may be increased through the use of larger exits, or other means, provided it is shown that the evacuation capability during ditching has been improved accordingly.

(3) If it is impractical to locate side exits above the waterline, the side exits must be replaced by an equal number of readily accessible overhead hatches of not less than the dimensions of a Type III exit, except that for airplanes with a passenger configuration of 35 or fewer seats, excluding pilot seats, the two required Type III side exits need be replaced by only one overhead hatch.

(j) Flightcrew emergency exits. For airplanes in which the proximity of passenger emergency exits to the flightcrew area does not offer a convenient and readily accessible means of evacuation of the flightcrew, and for all airplanes having a passenger seating capacity greater than 20, flightcrew exits shall be located in the flightcrew area. Such exits shall be of sufficient size and so located as to permit rapid evacuation by the crew. One exit shall be provided on each side of the airplane; or, alternatively, a top hatch shall be provided. Each exit must encompass an unobstructed rectangular opening of at least 19 by 20 inches unless satisfactory exit utility can be demonstrated by a typical crewmember.

[Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29781, July 20, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 25-88, 61 FR 57956, Nov. 8, 1996; 62 FR 1817, Jan. 13, 1997; Amdt. 25-94, 63 FR 8848, Feb. 23, 1998; 63 FR 12862, Mar. 16, 1998; Amdt. 25-114, 69 FR 24502, May 3, 2004]

§25.809   Emergency exit arrangement.

(a) Each emergency exit, including each flightcrew emergency exit, must be a moveable door or hatch in the external walls of the fuselage, allowing an unobstructed opening to the outside. In addition, each emergency exit must have means to permit viewing of the conditions outside the exit when the exit is closed. The viewing means may be on or adjacent to the exit provided no obstructions exist between the exit and the viewing means. Means must also be provided to permit viewing of the likely areas of evacuee ground contact. The likely areas of evacuee ground contact must be viewable during all lighting conditions with the landing gear extended as well as in all conditions of landing gear collapse.

(b) Each emergency exit must be openable from the inside and the outside except that sliding window emergency exits in the flight crew area need not be openable from the outside if other approved exits are convenient and readily accessible to the flight crew area. Each emergency exit must be capable of being opened, when there is no fuselage deformation—

(1) With the airplane in the normal ground attitude and in each of the attitudes corresponding to collapse of one or more legs of the landing gear; and

(2) Within 10 seconds measured from the time when the opening means is actuated to the time when the exit is fully opened.

(3) Even though persons may be crowded against the door on the inside of the airplane.

(c) The means of opening emergency exits must be simple and obvious; may not require exceptional effort; and must be arranged and marked so that it can be readily located and operated, even in darkness. Internal exit-opening means involving sequence operations (such as operation of two handles or latches, or the release of safety catches) may be used for flightcrew emergency exits if it can be reasonably established that these means are simple and obvious to crewmembers trained in their use.

(d) If a single power-boost or single power-operated system is the primary system for operating more than one exit in an emergency, each exit must be capable of meeting the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section in the event of failure of the primary system. Manual operation of the exit (after failure of the primary system) is acceptable.

(e) Each emergency exit must be shown by tests, or by a combination of analysis and tests, to meet the requirements of paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section.

(f) Each door must be located where persons using them will not be endangered by the propellers when appropriate operating procedures are used.

(g) There must be provisions to minimize the probability of jamming of the emergency exits resulting from fuselage deformation in a minor crash landing.

(h) When required by the operating rules for any large passenger-carrying turbojet-powered airplane, each ventral exit and tailcone exit must be—

(1) Designed and constructed so that it cannot be opened during flight; and

(2) Marked with a placard readable from a distance of 30 inches and installed at a conspicuous location near the means of opening the exit, stating that the exit has been designed and constructed so that it cannot be opened during flight.

(i) Each emergency exit must have a means to retain the exit in the open position, once the exit is opened in an emergency. The means must not require separate action to engage when the exit is opened, and must require positive action to disengage.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-15, 32 FR 13264, Sept. 20, 1967; Amdt. 25-32, 37 FR 3970, Feb. 24, 1972; Amdt. 25-34, 37 FR 25355, Nov. 30, 1972; Amdt. 25-46, 43 FR 50597, Oct. 30, 1978; Amdt. 25-47, 44 FR 61325, Oct. 25, 1979; Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29782, July 20, 1990; Amdt. 25-114, 69 FR 24502, May 3, 2004; Amdt. 25-116, 69 FR 62788, Oct. 27, 2004]

§25.810   Emergency egress assist means and escape routes.

(a) Each non over-wing Type A, Type B or Type C exit, and any other non over-wing landplane emergency exit more than 6 feet from the ground with the airplane on the ground and the landing gear extended, must have an approved means to assist the occupants in descending to the ground.

(1) The assisting means for each passenger emergency exit must be a self-supporting slide or equivalent; and, in the case of Type A or Type B exits, it must be capable of carrying simultaneously two parallel lines of evacuees. In addition, the assisting means must be designed to meet the following requirements—

(i) It must be automatically deployed and deployment must begin during the interval between the time the exit opening means is actuated from inside the airplane and the time the exit is fully opened. However, each passenger emergency exit which is also a passenger entrance door or a service door must be provided with means to prevent deployment of the assisting means when it is opened from either the inside or the outside under nonemergency conditions for normal use.

(ii) Except for assisting means installed at Type C exits, it must be automatically erected within 6 seconds after deployment is begun. Assisting means installed at Type C exits must be automatically erected within 10 seconds from the time the opening means of the exit is actuated.

(iii) It must be of such length after full deployment that the lower end is self-supporting on the ground and provides safe evacuation of occupants to the ground after collapse of one or more legs of the landing gear.

(iv) It must have the capability, in 25-knot winds directed from the most critical angle, to deploy and, with the assistance of only one person, to remain usable after full deployment to evacuate occupants safely to the ground.

(v) For each system installation (mockup or airplane installed), five consecutive deployment and inflation tests must be conducted (per exit) without failure, and at least three tests of each such five-test series must be conducted using a single representative sample of the device. The sample devices must be deployed and inflated by the system's primary means after being subjected to the inertia forces specified in §25.561(b). If any part of the system fails or does not function properly during the required tests, the cause of the failure or malfunction must be corrected by positive means and after that, the full series of five consecutive deployment and inflation tests must be conducted without failure.

(2) The assisting means for flightcrew emergency exits may be a rope or any other means demonstrated to be suitable for the purpose. If the assisting means is a rope, or an approved device equivalent to a rope, it must be—

(i) Attached to the fuselage structure at or above the top of the emergency exit opening, or, for a device at a pilot's emergency exit window, at another approved location if the stowed device, or its attachment, would reduce the pilot's view in flight;

(ii) Able (with its attachment) to withstand a 400-pound static load.

(b) Assist means from the cabin to the wing are required for each type A or Type B exit located above the wing and having a stepdown unless the exit without an assist-means can be shown to have a rate of passenger egress at least equal to that of the same type of non over-wing exit. If an assist means is required, it must be automatically deployed and automatically erected concurrent with the opening of the exit. In the case of assist means installed at Type C exits, it must be self-supporting within 10 seconds from the time the opening means of the exits is actuated. For all other exit types, it must be self-supporting 6 seconds after deployment is begun.

(c) An escape route must be established from each overwing emergency exit, and (except for flap surfaces suitable as slides) covered with a slip resistant surface. Except where a means for channeling the flow of evacuees is provided—

(1) The escape route from each Type A or Type B passenger emergency exit, or any common escape route from two Type III passenger emergency exits, must be at least 42 inches wide; that from any other passenger emergency exit must be at least 24 inches wide; and

(2) The escape route surface must have a reflectance of at least 80 percent, and must be defined by markings with a surface-to-marking contrast ratio of at least 5:1.

(d) Means must be provided to assist evacuees to reach the ground for all Type C exits located over the wing and, if the place on the airplane structure at which the escape route required in paragraph (c) of this section terminates is more than 6 feet from the ground with the airplane on the ground and the landing gear extended, for all other exit types.

(1) If the escape route is over the flap, the height of the terminal edge must be measured with the flap in the takeoff or landing position, whichever is higher from the ground.

(2) The assisting means must be usable and self-supporting with one or more landing gear legs collapsed and under a 25-knot wind directed from the most critical angle.

(3) The assisting means provided for each escape route leading from a Type A or B emergency exit must be capable of carrying simultaneously two parallel lines of evacuees; and, the assisting means leading from any other exit type must be capable of carrying as many parallel lines of evacuees as there are required escape routes.

(4) The assisting means provided for each escape route leading from a Type C exit must be automatically erected within 10 seconds from the time the opening means of the exit is actuated, and that provided for the escape route leading from any other exit type must be automatically erected within 10 seconds after actuation of the erection system.

(e) If an integral stair is installed in a passenger entry door that is qualified as a passenger emergency exit, the stair must be designed so that, under the following conditions, the effectiveness of passenger emergency egress will not be impaired:

(1) The door, integral stair, and operating mechanism have been subjected to the inertia forces specified in §25.561(b)(3), acting separately relative to the surrounding structure.

(2) The airplane is in the normal ground attitude and in each of the attitudes corresponding to collapse of one or more legs of the landing gear.

[Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29782, July 20, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 25-88, 61 FR 57958, Nov. 8, 1996; 62 FR 1817, Jan. 13, 1997; Amdt. 25-114, 69 FR 24502, May 3, 2004]

§25.811   Emergency exit marking.

(a) Each passenger emergency exit, its means of access, and its means of opening must be conspicuously marked.

(b) The identity and location of each passenger emergency exit must be recognizable from a distance equal to the width of the cabin.

(c) Means must be provided to assist the occupants in locating the exits in conditions of dense smoke.

(d) The location of each passenger emergency exit must be indicated by a sign visible to occupants approaching along the main passenger aisle (or aisles). There must be—

(1) A passenger emergency exit locator sign above the aisle (or aisles) near each passenger emergency exit, or at another overhead location if it is more practical because of low headroom, except that one sign may serve more than one exit if each exit can be seen readily from the sign;

(2) A passenger emergency exit marking sign next to each passenger emergency exit, except that one sign may serve two such exits if they both can be seen readily from the sign; and

(3) A sign on each bulkhead or divider that prevents fore and aft vision along the passenger cabin to indicate emergency exits beyond and obscured by the bulkhead or divider, except that if this is not possible the sign may be placed at another appropriate location.

(e) The location of the operating handle and instructions for opening exits from the inside of the airplane must be shown in the following manner:

(1) Each passenger emergency exit must have, on or near the exit, a marking that is readable from a distance of 30 inches.

(2) Each Type A, Type B, Type C or Type I passenger emergency exit operating handle must—

(i) Be self-illuminated with an initial brightness of at least 160 microlamberts; or

(ii) Be conspicuously located and well illuminated by the emergency lighting even in conditions of occupant crowding at the exit.

(3) [Reserved]

(4) Each Type A, Type B, Type C, Type I, or Type II passenger emergency exit with a locking mechanism released by rotary motion of the handle must be marked—

(i) With a red arrow, with a shaft at least three-fourths of an inch wide and a head twice the width of the shaft, extending along at least 70 degrees of arc at a radius approximately equal to three-fourths of the handle length.

(ii) So that the centerline of the exit handle is within ±1 inch of the projected point of the arrow when the handle has reached full travel and has released the locking mechanism, and

(iii) With the word “open” in red letters 1 inch high, placed horizontally near the head of the arrow.

(f) Each emergency exit that is required to be openable from the outside, and its means of opening, must be marked on the outside of the airplane. In addition, the following apply:

(1) The outside marking for each passenger emergency exit in the side of the fuselage must include a 2-inch colored band outlining the exit.

(2) Each outside marking including the band, must have color contrast to be readily distinguishable from the surrounding fuselage surface. The contrast must be such that if the reflectance of the darker color is 15 percent or less, the reflectance of the lighter color must be at least 45 percent. “Reflectance” is the ratio of the luminous flux reflected by a body to the luminous flux it receives. When the reflectance of the darker color is greater than 15 percent, at least a 30-percent difference between its reflectance and the reflectance of the lighter color must be provided.

(3) In the case of exists other than those in the side of the fuselage, such as ventral or tailcone exists, the external means of opening, including instructions if applicable, must be conspicuously marked in red, or bright chrome yellow if the background color is such that red is inconspicuous. When the opening means is located on only one side of the fuselage, a conspicuous marking to that effect must be provided on the other side.

(g) Each sign required by paragraph (d) of this section may use the word “exit” in its legend in place of the term “emergency exit”.

[Amdt. 25-15, 32 FR 13264, Sept. 20, 1967, as amended by Amdt. 25-32, 37 FR 3970, Feb. 24, 1972; Amdt. 25-46, 43 FR 50597, Oct. 30, 1978; 43 FR 52495, Nov. 13, 1978; Amdt. 25-79, 58 FR 45229, Aug. 26, 1993; Amdt. 25-88, 61 FR 57958, Nov. 8, 1996]

§25.812   Emergency lighting.

(a) An emergency lighting system, independent of the main lighting system, must be installed. However, the sources of general cabin illumination may be common to both the emergency and the main lighting systems if the power supply to the emergency lighting system is independent of the power supply to the main lighting system. The emergency lighting system must include:

(1) Illuminated emergency exit marking and locating signs, sources of general cabin illumination, interior lighting in emergency exit areas, and floor proximity escape path marking.

(2) Exterior emergency lighting.

(b) Emergency exit signs—

(1) For airplanes that have a passenger seating configuration, excluding pilot seats, of 10 seats or more must meet the following requirements:

(i) Each passenger emergency exit locator sign required by §25.811(d)(1) and each passenger emergency exit marking sign required by §25.811(d)(2) must have red letters at least 112 inches high on an illuminated white background, and must have an area of at least 21 square inches excluding the letters. The lighted background-to-letter contrast must be at least 10:1. The letter height to stroke-width ratio may not be more than 7:1 nor less than 6:1. These signs must be internally electrically illuminated with a background brightness of at least 25 foot-lamberts and a high-to-low background contrast no greater than 3:1.

(ii) Each passenger emergency exit sign required by §25.811(d)(3) must have red letters at least 112 inches high on a white background having an area of at least 21 square inches excluding the letters. These signs must be internally electrically illuminated or self-illuminated by other than electrical means and must have an initial brightness of at least 400 microlamberts. The colors may be reversed in the case of a sign that is self-illuminated by other than electrical means.

(2) For airplanes that have a passenger seating configuration, excluding pilot seats, of nine seats or less, that are required by §25.811(d)(1), (2), and (3) must have red letters at least 1 inch high on a white background at least 2 inches high. These signs may be internally electrically illuminated, or self-illuminated by other than electrical means, with an initial brightness of at least 160 microlamberts. The colors may be reversed in the case of a sign that is self-illuminated by other than electrical means.

(c) General illumination in the passenger cabin must be provided so that when measured along the centerline of main passenger aisle(s), and cross aisle(s) between main aisles, at seat arm-rest height and at 40-inch intervals, the average illumination is not less than 0.05 foot-candle and the illumination at each 40-inch interval is not less than 0.01 foot-candle. A main passenger aisle(s) is considered to extend along the fuselage from the most forward passenger emergency exit or cabin occupant seat, whichever is farther forward, to the most rearward passenger emergency exit or cabin occupant seat, whichever is farther aft.

(d) The floor of the passageway leading to each floor-level passenger emergency exit, between the main aisles and the exit openings, must be provided with illumination that is not less than 0.02 foot-candle measured along a line that is within 6 inches of and parallel to the floor and is centered on the passenger evacuation path.

(e) Floor proximity emergency escape path marking must provide emergency evacuation guidance for passengers when all sources of illumination more than 4 feet above the cabin aisle floor are totally obscured. In the dark of the night, the floor proximity emergency escape path marking must enable each passenger to—

(1) After leaving the passenger seat, visually identify the emergency escape path along the cabin aisle floor to the first exits or pair of exits forward and aft of the seat; and

(2) Readily identify each exit from the emergency escape path by reference only to markings and visual features not more than 4 feet above the cabin floor.

(f) Except for subsystems provided in accordance with paragraph (h) of this section that serve no more than one assist means, are independent of the airplane's main emergency lighting system, and are automatically activated when the assist means is erected, the emergency lighting system must be designed as follows.

(1) The lights must be operable manually from the flight crew station and from a point in the passenger compartment that is readily accessible to a normal flight attendant seat.

(2) There must be a flight crew warning light which illuminates when power is on in the airplane and the emergency lighting control device is not armed.

(3) The cockpit control device must have an “on,” “off,” and “armed” position so that when armed in the cockpit or turned on at either the cockpit or flight attendant station the lights will either light or remain lighted upon interruption (except an interruption caused by a transverse vertical separation of the fuselage during crash landing) of the airplane's normal electric power. There must be a means to safeguard against inadvertent operation of the control device from the “armed” or “on” positions.

(g) Exterior emergency lighting must be provided as follows:

(1) At each overwing emergency exit the illumination must be—

(i) Not less than 0.03 foot-candle (measured normal to the direction of the incident light) on a 2-square-foot area where an evacuee is likely to make his first step outside the cabin;

(ii) Not less than 0.05 foot-candle (measured normal to the direction of the incident light) for a minimum width of 42 inches for a Type A overwing emergency exit and two feet for all other overwing emergency exits along the 30 percent of the slip-resistant portion of the escape route required in §25.810(c) that is farthest from the exit; and

(iii) Not less than 0.03 foot-candle on the ground surface with the landing gear extended (measured normal to the direction of the incident light) where an evacuee using the established escape route would normally make first contact with the ground.

(2) At each non-overwing emergency exit not required by §25.810(a) to have descent assist means the illumination must be not less than 0.03 foot-candle (measured normal to the direction of the incident light) on the ground surface with the landing gear extended where an evacuee is likely to make first contact with the ground outside the cabin.

(h) The means required in §§25.810(a)(1) and (d) to assist the occupants in descending to the ground must be illuminated so that the erected assist means is visible from the airplane.

(1) If the assist means is illuminated by exterior emergency lighting, it must provide illumination of not less than 0.03 foot-candle (measured normal to the direction of the incident light) at the ground end of the erected assist means where an evacuee using the established escape route would normally make first contact with the ground, with the airplane in each of the attitudes corresponding to the collapse of one or more legs of the landing gear.

(2) If the emergency lighting subsystem illuminating the assist means serves no other assist means, is independent of the airplane's main emergency lighting system, and is automatically activated when the assist means is erected, the lighting provisions—

(i) May not be adversely affected by stowage; and

(ii) Must provide illumination of not less than 0.03 foot-candle (measured normal to the direction of incident light) at the ground and of the erected assist means where an evacuee would normally make first contact with the ground, with the airplane in each of the attitudes corresponding to the collapse of one or more legs of the landing gear.

(i) The energy supply to each emergency lighting unit must provide the required level of illumination for at least 10 minutes at the critical ambient conditions after emergency landing.

(j) If storage batteries are used as the energy supply for the emergency lighting system, they may be recharged from the airplane's main electric power system: Provided, That, the charging circuit is designed to preclude inadvertent battery discharge into charging circuit faults.

(k) Components of the emergency lighting system, including batteries, wiring relays, lamps, and switches must be capable of normal operation after having been subjected to the inertia forces listed in §25.561(b).

(l) The emergency lighting system must be designed so that after any single transverse vertical separation of the fuselage during crash landing—

(1) Not more than 25 percent of all electrically illuminated emergency lights required by this section are rendered inoperative, in addition to the lights that are directly damaged by the separation;

(2) Each electrically illuminated exit sign required under §25.811(d)(2) remains operative exclusive of those that are directly damaged by the separation; and

(3) At least one required exterior emergency light for each side of the airplane remains operative exclusive of those that are directly damaged by the separation.

[Amdt. 25-15, 32 FR 13265, Sept. 20, 1967, as amended by Amdt. 25-28, 36 FR 16899, Aug. 26, 1971; Amdt. 25-32, 37 FR 3971, Feb. 24, 1972; Amdt. 25-46, 43 FR 50597, Oct. 30, 1978; Amdt. 25-58, 49 FR 43186, Oct. 26, 1984; Amdt. 25-88, 61 FR 57958, Nov. 8, 1996; Amdt. 25-116, 69 FR 62788, Oct. 27, 2004; Amdt. 25-128, 74 FR 25645, May 29, 2009]

§25.813   Emergency exit access.

Each required emergency exit must be accessible to the passengers and located where it will afford an effective means of evacuation. Emergency exit distribution must be as uniform as practical, taking passenger distribution into account; however, the size and location of exits on both sides of the cabin need not be symmetrical. If only one floor level exit per side is prescribed, and the airplane does not have a tailcone or ventral emergency exit, the floor level exit must be in the rearward part of the passenger compartment, unless another location affords a more effective means of passenger evacuation. Where more than one floor level exit per side is prescribed, at least one floor level exit per side must be located near each end of the cabin, except that this provision does not apply to combination cargo/passenger configurations. In addition—

(a) There must be a passageway leading from the nearest main aisle to each Type A, Type B, Type C, Type I, or Type II emergency exit and between individual passenger areas. Each passageway leading to a Type A or Type B exit must be unobstructed and at least 36 inches wide. Passageways between individual passenger areas and those leading to Type I, Type II, or Type C emergency exits must be unobstructed and at least 20 inches wide. Unless there are two or more main aisles, each Type A or B exit must be located so that there is passenger flow along the main aisle to that exit from both the forward and aft directions. If two or more main aisles are provided, there must be unobstructed cross-aisles at least 20 inches wide between main aisles. There must be—

(1) A cross-aisle which leads directly to each passageway between the nearest main aisle and a Type A or B exit; and

(2) A cross-aisle which leads to the immediate vicinity of each passageway between the nearest main aisle and a Type 1, Type II, or Type III exit; except that when two Type III exits are located within three passenger rows of each other, a single cross-aisle may be used if it leads to the vicinity between the passageways from the nearest main aisle to each exit.

(b) Adequate space to allow crewmember(s) to assist in the evacuation of passengers must be provided as follows:

(1) Each assist space must be a rectangle on the floor, of sufficient size to enable a crewmember, standing erect, to effectively assist evacuees. The assist space must not reduce the unobstructed width of the passageway below that required for the exit.

(2) For each Type A or B exit, assist space must be provided at each side of the exit regardless of whether an assist means is required by §25.810(a).

(3) For each Type C, I or II exit installed in an airplane with seating for more than 80 passengers, an assist space must be provided at one side of the passageway regardless of whether an assist means is required by §25.810(a).

(4) For each Type C, I or II exit, an assist space must be provided at one side of the passageway if an assist means is required by §25.810(a).

(5) For any tailcone exit that qualifies for 25 additional passenger seats under the provisions of §25.807(g)(9)(ii), an assist space must be provided, if an assist means is required by §25.810(a).

(6) There must be a handle, or handles, at each assist space, located to enable the crewmember to steady himself or herself:

(i) While manually activating the assist means (where applicable) and,

(ii) While assisting passengers during an evacuation.

(c) The following must be provided for each Type III or Type IV exit—(1) There must be access from the nearest aisle to each exit. In addition, for each Type III exit in an airplane that has a passenger seating configuration of 60 or more—

(i) Except as provided in paragraph (c)(1)(ii), the access must be provided by an unobstructed passageway that is at least 10 inches in width for interior arrangements in which the adjacent seat rows on the exit side of the aisle contain no more than two seats, or 20 inches in width for interior arrangements in which those rows contain three seats. The width of the passageway must be measured with adjacent seats adjusted to their most adverse position. The centerline of the required passageway width must not be displaced more than 5 inches horizontally from that of the exit.

(ii) In lieu of one 10- or 20-inch passageway, there may be two passageways, between seat rows only, that must be at least 6 inches in width and lead to an unobstructed space adjacent to each exit. (Adjacent exits must not share a common passageway.) The width of the passageways must be measured with adjacent seats adjusted to their most adverse position. The unobstructed space adjacent to the exit must extend vertically from the floor to the ceiling (or bottom of sidewall stowage bins), inboard from the exit for a distance not less than the width of the narrowest passenger seat installed on the airplane, and from the forward edge of the forward passageway to the aft edge of the aft passageway. The exit opening must be totally within the fore and aft bounds of the unobstructed space.

(2) In addition to the access—

(i) For airplanes that have a passenger seating configuration of 20 or more, the projected opening of the exit provided must not be obstructed and there must be no interference in opening the exit by seats, berths, or other protrusions (including any seatback in the most adverse position) for a distance from that exit not less than the width of the narrowest passenger seat installed on the airplane.

(ii) For airplanes that have a passenger seating configuration of 19 or fewer, there may be minor obstructions in this region, if there are compensating factors to maintain the effectiveness of the exit.

(3) For each Type III exit, regardless of the passenger capacity of the airplane in which it is installed, there must be placards that—

(i) Are readable by all persons seated adjacent to and facing a passageway to the exit;

(ii) Accurately state or illustrate the proper method of opening the exit, including the use of handholds; and

(iii) If the exit is a removable hatch, state the weight of the hatch and indicate an appropriate location to place the hatch after removal.

(d) If it is necessary to pass through a passageway between passenger compartments to reach any required emergency exit from any seat in the passenger cabin, the passageway must be unobstructed. However, curtains may be used if they allow free entry through the passageway.

(e) No door may be installed between any passenger seat that is occupiable for takeoff and landing and any passenger emergency exit, such that the door crosses any egress path (including aisles, crossaisles and passageways).

(f) If it is necessary to pass through a doorway separating any crewmember seat (except those seats on the flightdeck), occupiable for takeoff and landing, from any emergency exit, the door must have a means to latch it in the open position. The latching means must be able to withstand the loads imposed upon it when the door is subjected to the ultimate inertia forces, relative to the surrounding structure, listed in §25.561(b).

[Amdt. 25-1, 30 FR 3204, Mar. 9, 1965, as amended by Amdt. 25-15, 32 FR 13265, Sept. 20, 1967; Amdt. 25-32, 37 FR 3971, Feb. 24, 1972; Amdt. 25-46, 43 FR 50597, Oct. 30, 1978; Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29783, July 20, 1990; Amdt. 25-76, 57 FR 19244, May 4, 1992; Amdt. 25-76, 57 FR 29120, June 30, 1992; Amdt. 25-88, 61 FR 57958, Nov. 8, 1996; Amdt. 25-116, 69 FR 62788, Oct. 27, 2004; Amdt. 25-128, 74 FR 25645, May 29, 2009]

§25.815   Width of aisle.

The passenger aisle width at any point between seats must equal or exceed the values in the following table:

Passenger seating capacityMinimum passenger aisle width (inches)
Less than 25 in. from floor25 in. and more from floor
10 or less11215
11 through 191220
20 or more1520

1A narrower width not less than 9 inches may be approved when substantiated by tests found necessary by the Administrator.

[Amdt. 25-15, 32 FR 13265, Sept. 20, 1967, as amended by Amdt. 25-38, 41 FR 55466, Dec. 20, 1976]

§25.817   Maximum number of seats abreast.

On airplanes having only one passenger aisle, no more than three seats abreast may be placed on each side of the aisle in any one row.

[Amdt. 25-15, 32 FR 13265, Sept. 20, 1967]

§25.819   Lower deck service compartments (including galleys).

For airplanes with a service compartment located below the main deck, which may be occupied during taxi or flight but not during takeoff or landing, the following apply:

(a) There must be at least two emergency evacuation routes, one at each end of each lower deck service compartment or two having sufficient separation within each compartment, which could be used by each occupant of the lower deck service compartment to rapidly evacuate to the main deck under normal and emergency lighting conditions. The routes must provide for the evacuation of incapacitated persons, with assistance. The use of the evacuation routes may not be dependent on any powered device. The routes must be designed to minimize the possibility of blockage which might result from fire, mechanical or structural failure, or persons standing on top of or against the escape routes. In the event the airplane's main power system or compartment main lighting system should fail, emergency illumination for each lower deck service compartment must be automatically provided.

(b) There must be a means for two-way voice communication between the flight deck and each lower deck service compartment, which remains available following loss of normal electrical power generating system.

(c) There must be an aural emergency alarm system, audible during normal and emergency conditions, to enable crewmembers on the flight deck and at each required floor level emergency exit to alert occupants of each lower deck service compartment of an emergency situation.

(d) There must be a means, readily detectable by occupants of each lower deck service compartment, that indicates when seat belts should be fastened.

(e) If a public address system is installed in the airplane, speakers must be provided in each lower deck service compartment.

(f) For each occupant permitted in a lower deck service compartment, there must be a forward or aft facing seat which meets the requirements of §25.785(d), and must be able to withstand maximum flight loads when occupied.

(g) For each powered lift system installed between a lower deck service compartment and the main deck for the carriage of persons or equipment, or both, the system must meet the following requirements:

(1) Each lift control switch outside the lift, except emergency stop buttons, must be designed to prevent the activation of the life if the lift door, or the hatch required by paragraph (g)(3) of this section, or both are open.

(2) An emergency stop button, that when activated will immediately stop the lift, must be installed within the lift and at each entrance to the lift.

(3) There must be a hatch capable of being used for evacuating persons from the lift that is openable from inside and outside the lift without tools, with the lift in any position.

[Amdt. 25-53, 45 FR 41593, June 19, 1980; 45 FR 43154, June 26, 1980; Amdt. 25-110; 68 FR 36883, June 19, 2003]

§25.820   Lavatory doors.

All lavatory doors must be designed to preclude anyone from becoming trapped inside the lavatory. If a locking mechanism is installed, it must be capable of being unlocked from the outside without the aid of special tools.

[Doc. No. 2003-14193, 69 FR 24502, May 3, 2004]

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