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e-CFR data is current as of September 24, 2020

Title 14Chapter ISubchapter CPart 25Subpart C → Subject Group


Title 14: Aeronautics and Space
PART 25—AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES
Subpart C—Structure


Water Loads

§25.521   General.

(a) Seaplanes must be designed for the water loads developed during takeoff and landing, with the seaplane in any attitude likely to occur in normal operation, and at the appropriate forward and sinking velocities under the most severe sea conditions likely to be encountered.

(b) Unless a more rational analysis of the water loads is made, or the standards in ANC-3 are used, §§25.523 through 25.537 apply.

(c) The requirements of this section and §§25.523 through 25.537 apply also to amphibians.

§25.523   Design weights and center of gravity positions.

(a) Design weights. The water load requirements must be met at each operating weight up to the design landing weight except that, for the takeoff condition prescribed in §25.531, the design water takeoff weight (the maximum weight for water taxi and takeoff run) must be used.

(b) Center of gravity positions. The critical centers of gravity within the limits for which certification is requested must be considered to reach maximum design loads for each part of the seaplane structure.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-23, 35 FR 5673, Apr. 8, 1970]

§25.525   Application of loads.

(a) Unless otherwise prescribed, the seaplane as a whole is assumed to be subjected to the loads corresponding to the load factors specified in §25.527.

(b) In applying the loads resulting from the load factors prescribed in §25.527, the loads may be distributed over the hull or main float bottom (in order to avoid excessive local shear loads and bending moments at the location of water load application) using pressures not less than those prescribed in §25.533(b).

(c) For twin float seaplanes, each float must be treated as an equivalent hull on a fictitious seaplane with a weight equal to one-half the weight of the twin float seaplane.

(d) Except in the takeoff condition of §25.531, the aerodynamic lift on the seaplane during the impact is assumed to be 23 of the weight of the seaplane.

§25.527   Hull and main float load factors.

(a) Water reaction load factors nW must be computed in the following manner:

(1) For the step landing case

eCFR graphic ec28se91.036.gif

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(2) For the bow and stern landing cases

eCFR graphic ec28se91.037.gif

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(b) The following values are used:

(1) nW = water reaction load factor (that is, the water reaction divided by seaplane weight).

(2) C1 = empirical seaplane operations factor equal to 0.012 (except that this factor may not be less than that necessary to obtain the minimum value of step load factor of 2.33).

(3) VS0 = seaplane stalling speed in knots with flaps extended in the appropriate landing position and with no slipstream effect.

(4) β = angle of dead rise at the longitudinal station at which the load factor is being determined in accordance with figure 1 of appendix B.

(5) W= seaplane design landing weight in pounds.

(6) K1 = empirical hull station weighing factor, in accordance with figure 2 of appendix B.

(7) rx = ratio of distance, measured parallel to hull reference axis, from the center of gravity of the seaplane to the hull longitudinal station at which the load factor is being computed to the radius of gyration in pitch of the seaplane, the hull reference axis being a straight line, in the plane of symmetry, tangential to the keel at the main step.

(c) For a twin float seaplane, because of the effect of flexibility of the attachment of the floats to the seaplane, the factor K1 may be reduced at the bow and stern to 0.8 of the value shown in figure 2 of appendix B. This reduction applies only to the design of the carrythrough and seaplane structure.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-23, 35 FR 5673, Apr. 8, 1970]

§25.529   Hull and main float landing conditions.

(a) Symmetrical step, bow, and stern landing. For symmetrical step, bow, and stern landings, the limit water reaction load factors are those computed under §25.527. In addition—

(1) For symmetrical step landings, the resultant water load must be applied at the keel, through the center of gravity, and must be directed perpendicularly to the keel line;

(2) For symmetrical bow landings, the resultant water load must be applied at the keel, one-fifth of the longitudinal distance from the bow to the step, and must be directed perpendicularly to the keel line; and

(3) For symmetrical stern landings, the resultant water load must be applied at the keel, at a point 85 percent of the longitudinal distance from the step to the stern post, and must be directed perpendicularly to the keel line.

(b) Unsymmetrical landing for hull and single float seaplanes. Unsymmetrical step, bow, and stern landing conditions must be investigated. In addition—

(1) The loading for each condition consists of an upward component and a side component equal, respectively, to 0.75 and 0.25 tan β times the resultant load in the corresponding symmetrical landing condition; and

(2) The point of application and direction of the upward component of the load is the same as that in the symmetrical condition, and the point of application of the side component is at the same longitudinal station as the upward component but is directed inward perpendicularly to the plane of symmetry at a point midway between the keel and chine lines.

(c) Unsymmetrical landing; twin float seaplanes. The unsymmetrical loading consists of an upward load at the step of each float of 0.75 and a side load of 0.25 tan β at one float times the step landing load reached under §25.527. The side load is directed inboard, perpendicularly to the plane of symmetry midway between the keel and chine lines of the float, at the same longitudinal station as the upward load.

§25.531   Hull and main float takeoff condition.

For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float—

(a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and

(b) A downward inertia load, corresponding to a load factor computed from the following formula, must be applied:

eCFR graphic ec28se91.038.gif

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where—

n = inertia load factor;

CTO = empirical seaplane operations factor equal to 0.004;

VS1 = seaplane stalling speed (knots) at the design takeoff weight with the flaps extended in the appropriate takeoff position;

β = angle of dead rise at the main step (degrees); and

W = design water takeoff weight in pounds.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-23, 35 FR 5673, Apr. 8, 1970]

§25.533   Hull and main float bottom pressures.

(a) General. The hull and main float structure, including frames and bulkheads, stringers, and bottom plating, must be designed under this section.

(b) Local pressures. For the design of the bottom plating and stringers and their attachments to the supporting structure, the following pressure distributions must be applied:

(1) For an unflared bottom, the pressure at the chine is 0.75 times the pressure at the keel, and the pressures between the keel and chine vary linearly, in accordance with figure 3 of appendix B. The pressure at the keel (psi) is computed as follows:

eCFR graphic ec28se91.039.gif

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where—

Pk = pressure (p.s.i.) at the keel;

C2 = 0.00213;

K2 = hull station weighing factor, in accordance with figure 2 of appendix B;

VS1 = seaplane stalling speed (Knots) at the design water takeoff weight with flaps extended in the appropriate takeoff position; and

βk = angle of dead rise at keel, in accordance with figure 1 of appendix B.

(2) For a flared bottom, the pressure at the beginning of the flare is the same as that for an unflared bottom, and the pressure between the chine and the beginning of the flare varies linearly, in accordance with figure 3 of appendix B. The pressure distribution is the same as that prescribed in paragraph (b)(1) of this section for an unflared bottom except that the pressure at the chine is computed as follows:

eCFR graphic ec28se91.040.gif

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where—

Pch = pressure (p.s.i.) at the chine;

C3 = 0.0016;

K2 = hull station weighing factor, in accordance with figure 2 of appendix B;

VS1 = seaplane stalling speed at the design water takeoff weight with flaps extended in the appropriate takeoff position; and

β = angle of dead rise at appropriate station.

The area over which these pressures are applied must simulate pressures occurring during high localized impacts on the hull or float, but need not extend over an area that would induce critical stresses in the frames or in the overall structure.

(c) Distributed pressures. For the design of the frames, keel, and chine structure, the following pressure distributions apply:

(1) Symmetrical pressures are computed as follows:

eCFR graphic ec28se91.041.gif

View or download PDF

where—

P = pressure (p.s.i.);

C4 = 0.078 C1 (with C1 computed under §25.527);

K2 = hull station weighing factor, determined in accordance with figure 2 of appendix B;

VS0 = seaplane stalling speed (Knots) with landing flaps extended in the appropriate position and with no slipstream effect; and

VS0 = seaplane stalling speed with landing flaps extended in the appropriate position and with no slipstream effect; and β = angle of dead rise at appropriate station.

(2) The unsymmetrical pressure distribution consists of the pressures prescribed in paragraph (c)(1) of this section on one side of the hull or main float centerline and one-half of that pressure on the other side of the hull or main float centerline, in accordance with figure 3 of appendix B.

These pressures are uniform and must be applied simultaneously over the entire hull or main float bottom. The loads obtained must be carried into the sidewall structure of the hull proper, but need not be transmitted in a fore and aft direction as shear and bending loads.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-23, 35 FR 5673, Apr. 8, 1970]

§25.535   Auxiliary float loads.

(a) General. Auxiliary floats and their attachments and supporting structures must be designed for the conditions prescribed in this section. In the cases specified in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section, the prescribed water loads may be distributed over the float bottom to avoid excessive local loads, using bottom pressures not less than those prescribed in paragraph (g) of this section.

(b) Step loading. The resultant water load must be applied in the plane of symmetry of the float at a point three-fourths of the distance from the bow to the step and must be perpendicular to the keel. The resultant limit load is computed as follows, except that the value of L need not exceed three times the weight of the displaced water when the float is completely submerged:

eCFR graphic ec28se91.042.gif

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where—

L = limit load (lbs.);

C5 = 0.0053;

VS0 = seaplane stalling speed (knots) with landing flaps extended in the appropriate position and with no slipstream effect;

W = seaplane design landing weight in pounds;

βS = angle of dead rise at a station 34 of the distance from the bow to the step, but need not be less than 15 degrees; and

ry = ratio of the lateral distance between the center of gravity and the plane of symmetry of the float to the radius of gyration in roll.

(c) Bow loading. The resultant limit load must be applied in the plane of symmetry of the float at a point one-fourth of the distance from the bow to the step and must be perpendicular to the tangent to the keel line at that point. The magnitude of the resultant load is that specified in paragraph (b) of this section.

(d) Unsymmetrical step loading. The resultant water load consists of a component equal to 0.75 times the load specified in paragraph (a) of this section and a side component equal to 3.25 tan β times the load specified in paragraph (b) of this section. The side load must be applied perpendicularly to the plane of symmetry of the float at a point midway between the keel and the chine.

(e) Unsymmetrical bow loading. The resultant water load consists of a component equal to 0.75 times the load specified in paragraph (b) of this section and a side component equal to 0.25 tan β times the load specified in paragraph (c) of this section. The side load must be applied perpendicularly to the plane of symmetry at a point midway between the keel and the chine.

(f) Immersed float condition. The resultant load must be applied at the centroid of the cross section of the float at a point one-third of the distance from the bow to the step. The limit load components are as follows:

eCFR graphic ec28se91.043.gif

View or download PDF

where—

ρ = mass density of water (slugs/ft.2);

V = volume of float (ft.2);

Cx = coefficient of drag force, equal to 0.133;

Cy = coefficient of side force, equal to 0.106;

K = 0.8, except that lower values may be used if it is shown that the floats are incapable of submerging at a speed of 0.8 VS0 in normal operations;

VS0 = seaplane stalling speed (knots) with landing flaps extended in the appropriate position and with no slipstream effect; and

g = acceleration due to gravity (ft./sec.2).

(g) Float bottom pressures. The float bottom pressures must be established under §25.533, except that the value of K2 in the formulae may be taken as 1.0. The angle of dead rise to be used in determining the float bottom pressures is set forth in paragraph (b) of this section.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-23, 35 FR 5673, Apr. 8, 1970]

§25.537   Seawing loads.

Seawing design loads must be based on applicable test data.

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