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e-CFR data is current as of September 24, 2020

Title 14Chapter ISubchapter CPart 25Subpart C → Subject Group


Title 14: Aeronautics and Space
PART 25—AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES
Subpart C—Structure


Ground Loads

§25.471   General.

(a) Loads and equilibrium. For limit ground loads—

(1) Limit ground loads obtained under this subpart are considered to be external forces applied to the airplane structure; and

(2) In each specified ground load condition, the external loads must be placed in equilibrium with the linear and angular inertia loads in a rational or conservative manner.

(b) Critical centers of gravity. The critical centers of gravity within the range for which certification is requested must be selected so that the maximum design loads are obtained in each landing gear element. Fore and aft, vertical, and lateral airplane centers of gravity must be considered. Lateral displacements of the c.g. from the airplane centerline which would result in main gear loads not greater than 103 percent of the critical design load for symmetrical loading conditions may be selected without considering the effects of these lateral c.g. displacements on the loading of the main gear elements, or on the airplane structure provided—

(1) The lateral displacement of the c.g. results from random passenger or cargo disposition within the fuselage or from random unsymmetrical fuel loading or fuel usage; and

(2) Appropriate loading instructions for random disposable loads are included under the provisions of §25.1583(c)(1) to ensure that the lateral displacement of the center of gravity is maintained within these limits.

(c) Landing gear dimension data. Figure 1 of appendix A contains the basic landing gear dimension data.

[Amdt. 25-23, 35 FR 5673, Apr. 8, 1970]

§25.473   Landing load conditions and assumptions.

(a) For the landing conditions specified in §25.479 to §25.485 the airplane is assumed to contact the ground—

(1) In the attitudes defined in §25.479 and §25.481;

(2) With a limit descent velocity of 10 fps at the design landing weight (the maximum weight for landing conditions at maximum descent velocity); and

(3) With a limit descent velocity of 6 fps at the design take-off weight (the maximum weight for landing conditions at a reduced descent velocity).

(4) The prescribed descent velocities may be modified if it is shown that the airplane has design features that make it impossible to develop these velocities.

(b) Airplane lift, not exceeding airplane weight, may be assumed unless the presence of systems or procedures significantly affects the lift.

(c) The method of analysis of airplane and landing gear loads must take into account at least the following elements:

(1) Landing gear dynamic characteristics.

(2) Spin-up and springback.

(3) Rigid body response.

(4) Structural dynamic response of the airframe, if significant.

(d) The landing gear dynamic characteristics must be validated by tests as defined in §25.723(a).

(e) The coefficient of friction between the tires and the ground may be established by considering the effects of skidding velocity and tire pressure. However, this coefficient of friction need not be more than 0.8.

[Amdt. 25-91, 62 FR 40705, July 29, 1997; Amdt. 25-91, 62 FR 45481, Aug. 27, 1997; Amdt. 25-103, 66 FR 27394, May 16, 2001]

§25.477   Landing gear arrangement.

Sections 25.479 through 25.485 apply to airplanes with conventional arrangements of main and nose gears, or main and tail gears, when normal operating techniques are used.

§25.479   Level landing conditions.

(a) In the level attitude, the airplane is assumed to contact the ground at forward velocity components, ranging from VL1 to 1.25 VL2 parallel to the ground under the conditions prescribed in §25.473 with—

(1) VL1 equal to VS0 (TAS) at the appropriate landing weight and in standard sea level conditions; and

(2) VL2 equal to VS0 (TAS) at the appropriate landing weight and altitudes in a hot day temperature of 41 degrees F. above standard.

(3) The effects of increased contact speed must be investigated if approval of downwind landings exceeding 10 knots is requested.

(b) For the level landing attitude for airplanes with tail wheels, the conditions specified in this section must be investigated with the airplane horizontal reference line horizontal in accordance with Figure 2 of Appendix A of this part.

(c) For the level landing attitude for airplanes with nose wheels, shown in Figure 2 of Appendix A of this part, the conditions specified in this section must be investigated assuming the following attitudes:

(1) An attitude in which the main wheels are assumed to contact the ground with the nose wheel just clear of the ground; and

(2) If reasonably attainable at the specified descent and forward velocities, an attitude in which the nose and main wheels are assumed to contact the ground simultaneously.

(d) In addition to the loading conditions prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section, but with maximum vertical ground reactions calculated from paragraph (a), the following apply:

(1) The landing gear and directly affected attaching structure must be designed for the maximum vertical ground reaction combined with an aft acting drag component of not less than 25% of this maximum vertical ground reaction.

(2) The most severe combination of loads that are likely to arise during a lateral drift landing must be taken into account. In absence of a more rational analysis of this condition, the following must be investigated:

(i) A vertical load equal to 75% of the maximum ground reaction of §25.473 must be considered in combination with a drag and side load of 40% and 25% respectively of that vertical load.

(ii) The shock absorber and tire deflections must be assumed to be 75% of the deflection corresponding to the maximum ground reaction of §25.473(a)(2). This load case need not be considered in combination with flat tires.

(3) The combination of vertical and drag components is considered to be acting at the wheel axle centerline.

[Amdt. 25-91, 62 FR 40705, July 29, 1997; Amdt. 25-91, 62 FR 45481, Aug. 27, 1997]

§25.481   Tail-down landing conditions.

(a) In the tail-down attitude, the airplane is assumed to contact the ground at forward velocity components, ranging from VL1 to VL2 parallel to the ground under the conditions prescribed in §25.473 with—

(1) VL1 equal to VS0 (TAS) at the appropriate landing weight and in standard sea level conditions; and

(2) VL2 equal to VS0 (TAS) at the appropriate landing weight and altitudes in a hot day temperature of 41 degrees F. above standard.

(3) The combination of vertical and drag components considered to be acting at the main wheel axle centerline.

(b) For the tail-down landing condition for airplanes with tail wheels, the main and tail wheels are assumed to contact the ground simultaneously, in accordance with figure 3 of appendix A. Ground reaction conditions on the tail wheel are assumed to act—

(1) Vertically; and

(2) Up and aft through the axle at 45 degrees to the ground line.

(c) For the tail-down landing condition for airplanes with nose wheels, the airplane is assumed to be at an attitude corresponding to either the stalling angle or the maximum angle allowing clearance with the ground by each part of the airplane other than the main wheels, in accordance with figure 3 of appendix A, whichever is less.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-91, 62 FR 40705, July 29, 1997; Amdt. 25-94, 63 FR 8848, Feb. 23, 1998]

§25.483   One-gear landing conditions.

For the one-gear landing conditions, the airplane is assumed to be in the level attitude and to contact the ground on one main landing gear, in accordance with Figure 4 of Appendix A of this part. In this attitude—

(a) The ground reactions must be the same as those obtained on that side under §25.479(d)(1), and

(b) Each unbalanced external load must be reacted by airplane inertia in a rational or conservative manner.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-91, 62 FR 40705, July 29, 1997]

§25.485   Side load conditions.

In addition to §25.479(d)(2) the following conditions must be considered:

(a) For the side load condition, the airplane is assumed to be in the level attitude with only the main wheels contacting the ground, in accordance with figure 5 of appendix A.

(b) Side loads of 0.8 of the vertical reaction (on one side) acting inward and 0.6 of the vertical reaction (on the other side) acting outward must be combined with one-half of the maximum vertical ground reactions obtained in the level landing conditions. These loads are assumed to be applied at the ground contact point and to be resisted by the inertia of the airplane. The drag loads may be assumed to be zero.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-91, 62 FR 40705, July 29, 1997]

§25.487   Rebound landing condition.

(a) The landing gear and its supporting structure must be investigated for the loads occurring during rebound of the airplane from the landing surface.

(b) With the landing gear fully extended and not in contact with the ground, a load factor of 20.0 must act on the unsprung weights of the landing gear. This load factor must act in the direction of motion of the unsprung weights as they reach their limiting positions in extending with relation to the sprung parts of the landing gear.

§25.489   Ground handling conditions.

Unless otherwise prescribed, the landing gear and airplane structure must be investigated for the conditions in §§25.491 through 25.509 with the airplane at the design ramp weight (the maximum weight for ground handling conditions). No wing lift may be considered. The shock absorbers and tires may be assumed to be in their static position.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-23, 35 FR 5673, Apr. 8, 1970]

§25.491   Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.

Within the range of appropriate ground speeds and approved weights, the airplane structure and landing gear are assumed to be subjected to loads not less than those obtained when the aircraft is operating over the roughest ground that may reasonably be expected in normal operation.

[Amdt. 25-91, 62 FR 40705, July 29, 1997]

§25.493   Braked roll conditions.

(a) An airplane with a tail wheel is assumed to be in the level attitude with the load on the main wheels, in accordance with figure 6 of appendix A. The limit vertical load factor is 1.2 at the design landing weight and 1.0 at the design ramp weight. A drag reaction equal to the vertical reaction multiplied by a coefficient of friction of 0.8, must be combined with the vertical ground reaction and applied at the ground contact point.

(b) For an airplane with a nose wheel the limit vertical load factor is 1.2 at the design landing weight, and 1.0 at the design ramp weight. A drag reaction equal to the vertical reaction, multiplied by a coefficient of friction of 0.8, must be combined with the vertical reaction and applied at the ground contact point of each wheel with brakes. The following two attitudes, in accordance with figure 6 of appendix A, must be considered:

(1) The level attitude with the wheels contacting the ground and the loads distributed between the main and nose gear. Zero pitching acceleration is assumed.

(2) The level attitude with only the main gear contacting the ground and with the pitching moment resisted by angular acceleration.

(c) A drag reaction lower than that prescribed in this section may be used if it is substantiated that an effective drag force of 0.8 times the vertical reaction cannot be attained under any likely loading condition.

(d) An airplane equipped with a nose gear must be designed to withstand the loads arising from the dynamic pitching motion of the airplane due to sudden application of maximum braking force. The airplane is considered to be at design takeoff weight with the nose and main gears in contact with the ground, and with a steady-state vertical load factor of 1.0. The steady-state nose gear reaction must be combined with the maximum incremental nose gear vertical reaction caused by the sudden application of maximum braking force as described in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section.

(e) In the absence of a more rational analysis, the nose gear vertical reaction prescribed in paragraph (d) of this section must be calculated according to the following formula:

eCFR graphic er27my98.017.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

VN = Nose gear vertical reaction.

WT = Design takeoff weight.

A = Horizontal distance between the c.g. of the airplane and the nose wheel.

B = Horizontal distance between the c.g. of the airplane and the line joining the centers of the main wheels.

E = Vertical height of the c.g. of the airplane above the ground in the 1.0 g static condition.

μ = Coefficient of friction of 0.80.

f = Dynamic response factor; 2.0 is to be used unless a lower factor is substantiated. In the absence of other information, the dynamic response factor f may be defined by the equation:

eCFR graphic er27my98.018.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

ξ is the effective critical damping ratio of the rigid body pitching mode about the main landing gear effective ground contact point.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-23, 35 FR 5673, Apr. 8, 1970; Amdt. 25-97, 63 FR 29072, May 27, 1998]

§25.495   Turning.

In the static position, in accordance with figure 7 of appendix A, the airplane is assumed to execute a steady turn by nose gear steering, or by application of sufficient differential power, so that the limit load factors applied at the center of gravity are 1.0 vertically and 0.5 laterally. The side ground reaction of each wheel must be 0.5 of the vertical reaction.

§25.497   Tail-wheel yawing.

(a) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of equal magnitude, is assumed.

(b) If there is a swivel, the tail wheel is assumed to be swiveled 90° to the airplane longitudinal axis with the resultant load passing through the axle.

(c) If there is a lock, steering device, or shimmy damper the tail wheel is also assumed to be in the trailing position with the side load acting at the ground contact point.

§25.499   Nose-wheel yaw and steering.

(a) A vertical load factor of 1.0 at the airplane center of gravity, and a side component at the nose wheel ground contact equal to 0.8 of the vertical ground reaction at that point are assumed.

(b) With the airplane assumed to be in static equilibrium with the loads resulting from the use of brakes on one side of the main landing gear, the nose gear, its attaching structure, and the fuselage structure forward of the center of gravity must be designed for the following loads:

(1) A vertical load factor at the center of gravity of 1.0.

(2) A forward acting load at the airplane center of gravity of 0.8 times the vertical load on one main gear.

(3) Side and vertical loads at the ground contact point on the nose gear that are required for static equilibrium.

(4) A side load factor at the airplane center of gravity of zero.

(c) If the loads prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section result in a nose gear side load higher than 0.8 times the vertical nose gear load, the design nose gear side load may be limited to 0.8 times the vertical load, with unbalanced yawing moments assumed to be resisted by airplane inertia forces.

(d) For other than the nose gear, its attaching structure, and the forward fuselage structure, the loading conditions are those prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section, except that—

(1) A lower drag reaction may be used if an effective drag force of 0.8 times the vertical reaction cannot be reached under any likely loading condition; and

(2) The forward acting load at the center of gravity need not exceed the maximum drag reaction on one main gear, determined in accordance with §25.493(b).

(e) With the airplane at design ramp weight, and the nose gear in any steerable position, the combined application of full normal steering torque and vertical force equal to 1.33 times the maximum static reaction on the nose gear must be considered in designing the nose gear, its attaching structure, and the forward fuselage structure.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-23, 35 FR 5673, Apr. 8, 1970; Amdt. 25-46, 43 FR 50595, Oct. 30, 1978; Amdt. 25-91, 62 FR 40705, July 29, 1997]

§25.503   Pivoting.

(a) The airplane is assumed to pivot about one side of the main gear with the brakes on that side locked. The limit vertical load factor must be 1.0 and the coefficient of friction 0.8.

(b) The airplane is assumed to be in static equilibrium, with the loads being applied at the ground contact points, in accordance with figure 8 of appendix A.

§25.507   Reversed braking.

(a) The airplane must be in a three point static ground attitude. Horizontal reactions parallel to the ground and directed forward must be applied at the ground contact point of each wheel with brakes. The limit loads must be equal to 0.55 times the vertical load at each wheel or to the load developed by 1.2 times the nominal maximum static brake torque, whichever is less.

(b) For airplanes with nose wheels, the pitching moment must be balanced by rotational inertia.

(c) For airplanes with tail wheels, the resultant of the ground reactions must pass through the center of gravity of the airplane.

§25.509   Towing loads.

(a) The towing loads specified in paragraph (d) of this section must be considered separately. These loads must be applied at the towing fittings and must act parallel to the ground. In addition—

(1) A vertical load factor equal to 1.0 must be considered acting at the center of gravity;

(2) The shock struts and tires must be in their static positions; and

(3) With WT as the design ramp weight, the towing load, FTOW, is—

(i) 0.3 WT for WT less than 30,000 pounds;

(ii) (6WT + 450,000)/70 for WT between 30,000 and 100,000 pounds; and

(iii) 0.15 WT for WT over 100,000 pounds.

(b) For towing points not on the landing gear but near the plane of symmetry of the airplane, the drag and side tow load components specified for the auxiliary gear apply. For towing points located outboard of the main gear, the drag and side tow load components specified for the main gear apply. Where the specified angle of swivel cannot be reached, the maximum obtainable angle must be used.

(c) The towing loads specified in paragraph (d) of this section must be reacted as follows:

(1) The side component of the towing load at the main gear must be reacted by a side force at the static ground line of the wheel to which the load is applied.

(2) The towing loads at the auxiliary gear and the drag components of the towing loads at the main gear must be reacted as follows:

(i) A reaction with a maximum value equal to the vertical reaction must be applied at the axle of the wheel to which the load is applied. Enough airplane inertia to achieve equilibrium must be applied.

(ii) The loads must be reacted by airplane inertia.

(d) The prescribed towing loads are as follows:

Tow pointPositionLoad
MagnitudeNo.Direction
Main gear0.75 FTOW per main gear unit1
2
3
4
Forward, parallel to drag axis.
Forward, at 30° to drag axis.
Aft, parallel to drag axis.
Aft, at 30° to drag axis.
Auxiliary gearSwiveled forward1.0 FTOW5
6
Forward.
Aft.
   Swiveled aft......do7
8
Forward.
Aft.
   Swiveled 45° from forward0.5 FTOW9
10
Forward, in plane of wheel.
Aft, in plane of wheel.
   Swiveled 45° from aft......do11
12
Forward, in plane of wheel.
Aft, in plane of wheel.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-23, 35 FR 5673, Apr. 8, 1970]

§25.511   Ground load: unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

(a) General. Multiple-wheel landing gear units are assumed to be subjected to the limit ground loads prescribed in this subpart under paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section. In addition—

(1) A tandem strut gear arrangement is a multiple-wheel unit; and

(2) In determining the total load on a gear unit with respect to the provisions of paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section, the transverse shift in the load centroid, due to unsymmetrical load distribution on the wheels, may be neglected.

(b) Distribution of limit loads to wheels; tires inflated. The distribution of the limit loads among the wheels of the landing gear must be established for each landing, taxiing, and ground handling condition, taking into account the effects of the following factors:

(1) The number of wheels and their physical arrangements. For truck type landing gear units, the effects of any seesaw motion of the truck during the landing impact must be considered in determining the maximum design loads for the fore and aft wheel pairs.

(2) Any differentials in tire diameters resulting from a combination of manufacturing tolerances, tire growth, and tire wear. A maximum tire-diameter differential equal to 23 of the most unfavorable combination of diameter variations that is obtained when taking into account manufacturing tolerances, tire growth, and tire wear, may be assumed.

(3) Any unequal tire inflation pressure, assuming the maximum variation to be ±5 percent of the nominal tire inflation pressure.

(4) A runway crown of zero and a runway crown having a convex upward shape that may be approximated by a slope of 112 percent with the horizontal. Runway crown effects must be considered with the nose gear unit on either slope of the crown.

(5) The airplane attitude.

(6) Any structural deflections.

(c) Deflated tires. The effect of deflated tires on the structure must be considered with respect to the loading conditions specified in paragraphs (d) through (f) of this section, taking into account the physical arrangement of the gear components. In addition—

(1) The deflation of any one tire for each multiple wheel landing gear unit, and the deflation of any two critical tires for each landing gear unit using four or more wheels per unit, must be considered; and

(2) The ground reactions must be applied to the wheels with inflated tires except that, for multiple-wheel gear units with more than one shock strut, a rational distribution of the ground reactions between the deflated and inflated tires, accounting for the differences in shock strut extensions resulting from a deflated tire, may be used.

(d) Landing conditions. For one and for two deflated tires, the applied load to each gear unit is assumed to be 60 percent and 50 percent, respectively, of the limit load applied to each gear for each of the prescribed landing conditions. However, for the drift landing condition of §25.485, 100 percent of the vertical load must be applied.

(e) Taxiing and ground handling conditions. For one and for two deflated tires—

(1) The applied side or drag load factor, or both factors, at the center of gravity must be the most critical value up to 50 percent and 40 percent, respectively, of the limit side or drag load factors, or both factors, corresponding to the most severe condition resulting from consideration of the prescribed taxiing and ground handling conditions;

(2) For the braked roll conditions of §25.493 (a) and (b)(2), the drag loads on each inflated tire may not be less than those at each tire for the symmetrical load distribution with no deflated tires;

(3) The vertical load factor at the center of gravity must be 60 percent and 50 percent, respectively, of the factor with no deflated tires, except that it may not be less than 1g; and

(4) Pivoting need not be considered.

(f) Towing conditions. For one and for two deflated tires, the towing load, FTOW, must be 60 percent and 50 percent, respectively, of the load prescribed.

§25.519   Jacking and tie-down provisions.

(a) General. The airplane must be designed to withstand the limit load conditions resulting from the static ground load conditions of paragraph (b) of this section and, if applicable, paragraph (c) of this section at the most critical combinations of airplane weight and center of gravity. The maximum allowable load at each jack pad must be specified.

(b) Jacking. The airplane must have provisions for jacking and must withstand the following limit loads when the airplane is supported on jacks—

(1) For jacking by the landing gear at the maximum ramp weight of the airplane, the airplane structure must be designed for a vertical load of 1.33 times the vertical static reaction at each jacking point acting singly and in combination with a horizontal load of 0.33 times the vertical static reaction applied in any direction.

(2) For jacking by other airplane structure at maximum approved jacking weight:

(i) The airplane structure must be designed for a vertical load of 1.33 times the vertical reaction at each jacking point acting singly and in combination with a horizontal load of 0.33 times the vertical static reaction applied in any direction.

(ii) The jacking pads and local structure must be designed for a vertical load of 2.0 times the vertical static reaction at each jacking point, acting singly and in combination with a horizontal load of 0.33 times the vertical static reaction applied in any direction.

(c) Tie-down. If tie-down points are provided, the main tie-down points and local structure must withstand the limit loads resulting from a 65-knot horizontal wind from any direction.

[Doc. No. 26129, 59 FR 22102, Apr. 28, 1994]

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