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e-CFR data is current as of January 14, 2021

Title 14Chapter ISubchapter CPart 25Subpart B → Subject Group


Title 14: Aeronautics and Space
PART 25—AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES
Subpart B—Flight


Stalls

§25.201   Stall demonstration.

(a) Stalls must be shown in straight flight and in 30 degree banked turns with—

(1) Power off; and

(2) The power necessary to maintain level flight at 1.5 VSR1 (where VSR1 corresponds to the reference stall speed at maximum landing weight with flaps in the approach position and the landing gear retracted).

(b) In each condition required by paragraph (a) of this section, it must be possible to meet the applicable requirements of §25.203 with—

(1) Flaps, landing gear, and deceleration devices in any likely combination of positions approved for operation;

(2) Representative weights within the range for which certification is requested;

(3) The most adverse center of gravity for recovery; and

(4) The airplane trimmed for straight flight at the speed prescribed in §25.103(b)(6).

(c) The following procedures must be used to show compliance with §25.203;

(1) Starting at a speed sufficiently above the stalling speed to ensure that a steady rate of speed reduction can be established, apply the longitudinal control so that the speed reduction does not exceed one knot per second until the airplane is stalled.

(2) In addition, for turning flight stalls, apply the longitudinal control to achieve airspeed deceleration rates up to 3 knots per second.

(3) As soon as the airplane is stalled, recover by normal recovery techniques.

(d) The airplane is considered stalled when the behavior of the airplane gives the pilot a clear and distinctive indication of an acceptable nature that the airplane is stalled. Acceptable indications of a stall, occurring either individually or in combination, are—

(1) A nose-down pitch that cannot be readily arrested;

(2) Buffeting, of a magnitude and severity that is a strong and effective deterrent to further speed reduction; or

(3) The pitch control reaches the aft stop and no further increase in pitch attitude occurs when the control is held full aft for a short time before recovery is initiated.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-84, 60 FR 30750, June 9, 1995; Amdt. 25-108, 67 FR 70827, Nov. 26, 2002]

§25.203   Stall characteristics.

(a) It must be possible to produce and to correct roll and yaw by unreversed use of the aileron and rudder controls, up to the time the airplane is stalled. No abnormal nose-up pitching may occur. The longitudinal control force must be positive up to and throughout the stall. In addition, it must be possible to promptly prevent stalling and to recover from a stall by normal use of the controls.

(b) For level wing stalls, the roll occurring between the stall and the completion of the recovery may not exceed approximately 20 degrees.

(c) For turning flight stalls, the action of the airplane after the stall may not be so violent or extreme as to make it difficult, with normal piloting skill, to effect a prompt recovery and to regain control of the airplane. The maximum bank angle that occurs during the recovery may not exceed—

(1) Approximately 60 degrees in the original direction of the turn, or 30 degrees in the opposite direction, for deceleration rates up to 1 knot per second; and

(2) Approximately 90 degrees in the original direction of the turn, or 60 degrees in the opposite direction, for deceleration rates in excess of 1 knot per second.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-84, 60 FR 30750, June 9, 1995]

§25.207   Stall warning.

(a) Stall warning with sufficient margin to prevent inadvertent stalling with the flaps and landing gear in any normal position must be clear and distinctive to the pilot in straight and turning flight.

(b) The warning must be furnished either through the inherent aerodynamic qualities of the airplane or by a device that will give clearly distinguishable indications under expected conditions of flight. However, a visual stall warning device that requires the attention of the crew within the cockpit is not acceptable by itself. If a warning device is used, it must provide a warning in each of the airplane configurations prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section at the speed prescribed in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section. Except for the stall warning prescribed in paragraph (h)(3)(ii) of this section, the stall warning for flight in icing conditions must be provided by the same means as the stall warning for flight in non-icing conditions.

(c) When the speed is reduced at rates not exceeding one knot per second, stall warning must begin, in each normal configuration, at a speed, VSW, exceeding the speed at which the stall is identified in accordance with §25.201(d) by not less than five knots or five percent CAS, whichever is greater. Once initiated, stall warning must continue until the angle of attack is reduced to approximately that at which stall warning began.

(d) In addition to the requirement of paragraph (c) of this section, when the speed is reduced at rates not exceeding one knot per second, in straight flight with engines idling and at the center-of-gravity position specified in §25.103(b)(5), VSW, in each normal configuration, must exceed VSR by not less than three knots or three percent CAS, whichever is greater.

(e) In icing conditions, the stall warning margin in straight and turning flight must be sufficient to allow the pilot to prevent stalling (as defined in §25.201(d)) when the pilot starts a recovery maneuver not less than three seconds after the onset of stall warning. When demonstrating compliance with this paragraph, the pilot must perform the recovery maneuver in the same way as for the airplane in non-icing conditions. Compliance with this requirement must be demonstrated in flight with the speed reduced at rates not exceeding one knot per second, with—

(1) The most critical of the takeoff ice and final takeoff ice accretions defined in Appendices C and O of this part, as applicable, in accordance with §25.21(g), for each configuration used in the takeoff phase of flight;

(2) The most critical of the en route ice accretion(s) defined in Appendices C and O of this part, as applicable, in accordance with §25.21(g), for the en route configuration;

(3) The most critical of the holding ice accretion(s) defined in Appendices C and O of this part, as applicable, in accordance with §25.21(g), for the holding configuration(s);

(4) The most critical of the approach ice accretion(s) defined in Appendices C and O of this part, as applicable, in accordance with §25.21(g), for the approach configuration(s); and

(5) The most critical of the landing ice accretion(s) defined in Appendices C and O of this part, as applicable, in accordance with §25.21(g), for the landing and go-around configuration(s).

(f) The stall warning margin must be sufficient in both non-icing and icing conditions to allow the pilot to prevent stalling when the pilot starts a recovery maneuver not less than one second after the onset of stall warning in slow-down turns with at least 1.5 g load factor normal to the flight path and airspeed deceleration rates of at least 2 knots per second. When demonstrating compliance with this paragraph for icing conditions, the pilot must perform the recovery maneuver in the same way as for the airplane in non-icing conditions. Compliance with this requirement must be demonstrated in flight with—

(1) The flaps and landing gear in any normal position;

(2) The airplane trimmed for straight flight at a speed of 1.3 VSR; and

(3) The power or thrust necessary to maintain level flight at 1.3 VSR.

(g) Stall warning must also be provided in each abnormal configuration of the high lift devices that is likely to be used in flight following system failures (including all configurations covered by Airplane Flight Manual procedures).

(h) The following stall warning margin is required for flight in icing conditions before the ice protection system has been activated and is performing its intended function. Compliance must be shown using the most critical of the ice accretion(s) defined in Appendix C, part II, paragraph (e) of this part and Appendix O, part II, paragraph (d) of this part, as applicable, in accordance with §25.21(g). The stall warning margin in straight and turning flight must be sufficient to allow the pilot to prevent stalling without encountering any adverse flight characteristics when:

(1) The speed is reduced at rates not exceeding one knot per second;

(2) The pilot performs the recovery maneuver in the same way as for flight in non-icing conditions; and

(3) The recovery maneuver is started no earlier than:

(i) One second after the onset of stall warning if stall warning is provided by the same means as for flight in non-icing conditions; or

(ii) Three seconds after the onset of stall warning if stall warning is provided by a different means than for flight in non-icing conditions.

(i) In showing compliance with paragraph (h) of this section, if stall warning is provided by a different means in icing conditions than for non-icing conditions, compliance with §25.203 must be shown using the accretion defined in appendix C, part II(e) of this part. Compliance with this requirement must be shown using the demonstration prescribed by §25.201, except that the deceleration rates of §25.201(c)(2) need not be demonstrated.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-7, 30 FR 13118, Oct. 15, 1965; Amdt. 25-42, 43 FR 2322, Jan. 16, 1978; Amdt. 25-108, 67 FR 70827, Nov. 26, 2002; Amdt. 25-121, 72 FR 44668, Aug. 8, 2007; Amdt. 25-129, 74 FR 38339, Aug. 3, 2009; Amdt. 25-140, 79 FR 65526, Nov. 4, 2014]

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