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e-CFR data is current as of September 24, 2020

Title 14Chapter ISubchapter CPart 25Subpart F → Subject Group


Title 14: Aeronautics and Space
PART 25—AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES
Subpart F—Equipment


Safety Equipment

§25.1411   General.

(a) Accessibility. Required safety equipment to be used by the crew in an emergency must be readily accessible.

(b) Stowage provisions. Stowage provisions for required emergency equipment must be furnished and must—

(1) Be arranged so that the equipment is directly accessible and its location is obvious; and

(2) Protect the safety equipment from inadvertent damage.

(c) Emergency exit descent device. The stowage provisions for the emergency exit descent devices required by §25.810(a) must be at each exit for which they are intended.

(d) Liferafts. (1) The stowage provisions for the liferafts described in §25.1415 must accommodate enough rafts for the maximum number of occupants for which certification for ditching is requested.

(2) Liferafts must be stowed near exits through which the rafts can be launched during an unplanned ditching.

(3) Rafts automatically or remotely released outside the airplane must be attached to the airplane by means of the static line prescribed in §25.1415.

(4) The stowage provisions for each portable liferaft must allow rapid detachment and removal of the raft for use at other than the intended exits.

(e) Long-range signaling device. The stowage provisions for the long-range signaling device required by §25.1415 must be near an exit available during an unplanned ditching.

(f) Life preserver stowage provisions. The stowage provisions for life preservers described in §25.1415 must accommodate one life preserver for each occupant for which certification for ditching is requested. Each life preserver must be within easy reach of each seated occupant.

(g) Life line stowage provisions. If certification for ditching under §25.801 is requested, there must be provisions to store life lines. These provisions must—

(1) Allow one life line to be attached to each side of the fuselage; and

(2) Be arranged to allow the life lines to be used to enable the occupants to stay on the wing after ditching.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-32, 37 FR 3972, Feb. 24, 1972; Amdt. 25-46, 43 FR 50598, Oct. 30, 1978; Amdt. 25-53, 45 FR 41593, June 19, 1980; Amdt. 25-70, 54 FR 43925, Oct. 27, 1989; Amdt. 25-79, 58 FR 45229, Aug. 26, 1993; Amdt. 25-116, 69 FR 62789, Oct. 27, 2004]

§25.1415   Ditching equipment.

(a) Ditching equipment used in airplanes to be certificated for ditching under §25.801, and required by the operating rules of this chapter, must meet the requirements of this section.

(b) Each liferaft and each life preserver must be approved. In addition—

(1) Unless excess rafts of enough capacity are provided, the buoyancy and seating capacity beyond the rated capacity of the rafts must accommodate all occupants of the airplane in the event of a loss of one raft of the largest rated capacity; and

(2) Each raft must have a trailing line, and must have a static line designed to hold the raft near the airplane but to release it if the airplane becomes totally submerged.

(c) Approved survival equipment must be attached to each liferaft.

(d) There must be an approved survival type emergency locator transmitter for use in one life raft.

(e) For airplanes not certificated for ditching under §25.801 and not having approved life preservers, there must be an approved flotation means for each occupant. This means must be within easy reach of each seated occupant and must be readily removable from the airplane.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-29, 36 FR 18722, Sept. 21, 1971; Amdt. 25-50, 45 FR 38348, June 9, 1980; Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29785, July 20, 1990; Amdt. 25-82, 59 FR 32057, June 21, 1994]

§25.1419   Ice protection.

If the applicant seeks certification for flight in icing conditions, the airplane must be able to safely operate in the continuous maximum and intermittent maximum icing conditions of appendix C. To establish this—

(a) An analysis must be performed to establish that the ice protection for the various components of the airplane is adequate, taking into account the various airplane operational configurations; and

(b) To verify the ice protection analysis, to check for icing anomalies, and to demonstrate that the ice protection system and its components are effective, the airplane or its components must be flight tested in the various operational configurations, in measured natural atmospheric icing conditions and, as found necessary, by one or more of the following means:

(1) Laboratory dry air or simulated icing tests, or a combination of both, of the components or models of the components.

(2) Flight dry air tests of the ice protection system as a whole, or of its individual components.

(3) Flight tests of the airplane or its components in measured simulated icing conditions.

(c) Caution information, such as an amber caution light or equivalent, must be provided to alert the flightcrew when the anti-ice or de-ice system is not functioning normally.

(d) For turbine engine powered airplanes, the ice protection provisions of this section are considered to be applicable primarily to the airframe. For the powerplant installation, certain additional provisions of subpart E of this part may be found applicable.

(e) One of the following methods of icing detection and activation of the airframe ice protection system must be provided:

(1) A primary ice detection system that automatically activates or alerts the flightcrew to activate the airframe ice protection system;

(2) A definition of visual cues for recognition of the first sign of ice accretion on a specified surface combined with an advisory ice detection system that alerts the flightcrew to activate the airframe ice protection system; or

(3) Identification of conditions conducive to airframe icing as defined by an appropriate static or total air temperature and visible moisture for use by the flightcrew to activate the airframe ice protection system.

(f) Unless the applicant shows that the airframe ice protection system need not be operated during specific phases of flight, the requirements of paragraph (e) of this section are applicable to all phases of flight.

(g) After the initial activation of the airframe ice protection system—

(1) The ice protection system must be designed to operate continuously;

(2) The airplane must be equipped with a system that automatically cycles the ice protection system; or

(3) An ice detection system must be provided to alert the flightcrew each time the ice protection system must be cycled.

(h) Procedures for operation of the ice protection system, including activation and deactivation, must be established and documented in the Airplane Flight Manual.

[Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29785, July 20, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 25-121, 72 FR 44669, Aug. 8, 2007; Amdt. 25-129, 74 FR 38339, Aug. 3, 2009]

§25.1420   Supercooled large drop icing conditions.

(a) If certification for flight in icing conditions is sought, in addition to the requirements of §25.1419, an airplane with a maximum takeoff weight less than 60,000 pounds or with reversible flight controls must be capable of operating in accordance with paragraphs (a)(1), (2), or (3), of this section.

(1) Operating safely after encountering the icing conditions defined in Appendix O of this part:

(i) The airplane must have a means to detect that it is operating in Appendix O icing conditions; and

(ii) Following detection of Appendix O icing conditions, the airplane must be capable of operating safely while exiting all icing conditions.

(2) Operating safely in a portion of the icing conditions defined in Appendix O of this part as selected by the applicant:

(i) The airplane must have a means to detect that it is operating in conditions that exceed the selected portion of Appendix O icing conditions; and

(ii) Following detection, the airplane must be capable of operating safely while exiting all icing conditions.

(3) Operating safely in the icing conditions defined in Appendix O of this part.

(b) To establish that the airplane can operate safely as required in paragraph (a) of this section, an applicant must show through analysis that the ice protection for the various components of the airplane is adequate, taking into account the various airplane operational configurations. To verify the analysis, one, or more as found necessary, of the following methods must be used:

(1) Laboratory dry air or simulated icing tests, or a combination of both, of the components or models of the components.

(2) Laboratory dry air or simulated icing tests, or a combination of both, of models of the airplane.

(3) Flight tests of the airplane or its components in simulated icing conditions, measured as necessary to support the analysis.

(4) Flight tests of the airplane with simulated ice shapes.

(5) Flight tests of the airplane in natural icing conditions, measured as necessary to support the analysis.

(c) For an airplane certified in accordance with paragraph (a)(2) or (3) of this section, the requirements of §25.1419(e), (f), (g), and (h) must be met for the icing conditions defined in Appendix O of this part in which the airplane is certified to operate.

(d) For the purposes of this section, the following definitions apply:

(1) Reversible Flight Controls. Flight controls in the normal operating configuration that have force or motion originating at the airplane's control surface (for example, through aerodynamic loads, static imbalance, or trim or servo tab inputs) that is transmitted back to flight deck controls. This term refers to flight deck controls connected to the pitch, roll, or yaw control surfaces by direct mechanical linkages, cables, or push-pull rods in such a way that pilot effort produces motion or force about the hinge line.

(2) Simulated Icing Test. Testing conducted in simulated icing conditions, such as in an icing tunnel or behind an icing tanker.

(3) Simulated Ice Shape. Ice shape fabricated from wood, epoxy, or other materials by any construction technique.

[Amdt. 25-140, 79 FR 65528, Nov. 4, 2014]

§25.1421   Megaphones.

If a megaphone is installed, a restraining means must be provided that is capable of restraining the megaphone when it is subjected to the ultimate inertia forces specified in §25.561(b)(3).

[Amdt. 25-41, 42 FR 36970, July 18, 1977]

§25.1423   Public address system.

A public address system required by this chapter must—

(a) Be powerable when the aircraft is in flight or stopped on the ground, after the shutdown or failure of all engines and auxiliary power units, or the disconnection or failure of all power sources dependent on their continued operation, for—

(1) A time duration of at least 10 minutes, including an aggregate time duration of at least 5 minutes of announcements made by flight and cabin crewmembers, considering all other loads which may remain powered by the same source when all other power sources are inoperative; and

(2) An additional time duration in its standby state appropriate or required for any other loads that are powered by the same source and that are essential to safety of flight or required during emergency conditions.

(b) Be capable of operation within 3 seconds from the time a microphone is removed from its stowage.

(c) Be intelligible at all passenger seats, lavatories, and flight attendant seats and work stations.

(d) Be designed so that no unused, unstowed microphone will render the system inoperative.

(e) Be capable of functioning independently of any required crewmember interphone system.

(f) Be accessible for immediate use from each of two flight crewmember stations in the pilot compartment.

(g) For each required floor-level passenger emergency exit which has an adjacent flight attendant seat, have a microphone which is readily accessible to the seated flight attendant, except that one microphone may serve more than one exit, provided the proximity of the exits allows unassisted verbal communication between seated flight attendants.

[Doc. No. 26003, 58 FR 45229, Aug. 26, 1993, as amended by Amdt. 25-115, 69 FR 40527, July 2, 2004]

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