Home
gpo.gov
govinfo.gov

e-CFR Navigation Aids

Browse

Simple Search

Advanced Search

 — Boolean

 — Proximity

 

Search History

Search Tips

Corrections

Latest Updates

User Info

FAQs

Agency List

Incorporation By Reference

eCFR logo

Related Resources

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

We invite you to try out our new beta eCFR site at https://ecfr.federalregister.gov. We have made big changes to make the eCFR easier to use. Be sure to leave feedback using the Help button on the bottom right of each page!

e-CFR data is current as of September 24, 2020

Title 14Chapter ISubchapter CPart 25Subpart E → Subject Group


Title 14: Aeronautics and Space
PART 25—AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES
Subpart E—Powerplant


Cooling

§25.1041   General.

The powerplant and auxiliary power unit cooling provisions must be able to maintain the temperatures of powerplant components, engine fluids, and auxiliary power unit components and fluids within the temperature limits established for these components and fluids, under ground, water, and flight operating conditions, and after normal engine or auxiliary power unit shutdown, or both.

[Amdt. 25-38, 41 FR 55467, Dec. 20, 1976]

§25.1043   Cooling tests.

(a) General. Compliance with §25.1041 must be shown by tests, under critical ground, water, and flight operating conditions. For these tests, the following apply:

(1) If the tests are conducted under conditions deviating from the maximum ambient atmospheric temperature, the recorded powerplant temperatures must be corrected under paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section.

(2) No corrected temperatures determined under paragraph (a)(1) of this section may exceed established limits.

(3) For reciprocating engines, the fuel used during the cooling tests must be the minimum grade approved for the engines, and the mixture settings must be those normally used in the flight stages for which the cooling tests are conducted. The test procedures must be as prescribed in §25.1045.

(b) Maximum ambient atmospheric temperature. A maximum ambient atmospheric temperature corresponding to sea level conditions of at least 100 degrees F must be established. The assumed temperature lapse rate is 3.6 degrees F per thousand feet of altitude above sea level until a temperature of −69.7 degrees F is reached, above which altitude the temperature is considered constant at −69.7 degrees F. However, for winterization installations, the applicant may select a maximum ambient atmospheric temperature corresponding to sea level conditions of less than 100 degrees F.

(c) Correction factor (except cylinder barrels). Unless a more rational correction applies, temperatures of engine fluids and powerplant components (except cylinder barrels) for which temperature limits are established, must be corrected by adding to them the difference between the maximum ambient atmospheric temperature and the temperature of the ambient air at the time of the first occurrence of the maximum component or fluid temperature recorded during the cooling test.

(d) Correction factor for cylinder barrel temperatures. Unless a more rational correction applies, cylinder barrel temperatures must be corrected by adding to them 0.7 times the difference between the maximum ambient atmospheric temperature and the temperature of the ambient air at the time of the first occurrence of the maximum cylinder barrel temperature recorded during the cooling test.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-42, 43 FR 2323, Jan. 16, 1978]

§25.1045   Cooling test procedures.

(a) Compliance with §25.1041 must be shown for the takeoff, climb, en route, and landing stages of flight that correspond to the applicable performance requirements. The cooling tests must be conducted with the airplane in the configuration, and operating under the conditions, that are critical relative to cooling during each stage of flight. For the cooling tests, a temperature is “stabilized” when its rate of change is less than two degrees F. per minute.

(b) Temperatures must be stabilized under the conditions from which entry is made into each stage of flight being investigated, unless the entry condition normally is not one during which component and the engine fluid temperatures would stabilize (in which case, operation through the full entry condition must be conducted before entry into the stage of flight being investigated in order to allow temperatures to reach their natural levels at the time of entry). The takeoff cooling test must be preceded by a period during which the powerplant component and engine fluid temperatures are stabilized with the engines at ground idle.

(c) Cooling tests for each stage of flight must be continued until—

(1) The component and engine fluid temperatures stabilize;

(2) The stage of flight is completed; or

(3) An operating limitation is reached.

(d) For reciprocating engine powered airplanes, it may be assumed, for cooling test purposes, that the takeoff stage of flight is complete when the airplane reaches an altitude of 1,500 feet above the takeoff surface or reaches a point in the takeoff where the transition from the takeoff to the en route configuration is completed and a speed is reached at which compliance with §25.121(c) is shown, whichever point is at a higher altitude. The airplane must be in the following configuration:

(1) Landing gear retracted.

(2) Wing flaps in the most favorable position.

(3) Cowl flaps (or other means of controlling the engine cooling supply) in the position that provides adequate cooling in the hot-day condition.

(4) Critical engine inoperative and its propeller stopped.

(5) Remaining engines at the maximum continuous power available for the altitude.

(e) For hull seaplanes and amphibians, cooling must be shown during taxiing downwind for 10 minutes, at five knots above step speed.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-57, 49 FR 6848, Feb. 23, 1984]

Need assistance?