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Title 10Chapter IPart 73 → Subject Group


Title 10: Energy
PART 73—PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS


Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit

§73.25   Performance capabilities for physical protection of strategic special nuclear material in transit.

(a) To meet the general performance objective and requirements of §73.20 an in-transit physical protection system shall include the performance capabilities described in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section unless otherwise authorized by the Commission.

(b) Restrict access to and activity in the vicinity of transports and strategic special nuclear material. To achieve this capability the physical protection system shall:

(1) Minimize the vulnerability of the strategic special nuclear material by using the following subfunctions and procedures:

(i) Preplanning itineraries for the movement of strategic special nuclear material;

(ii) Periodically updating knowledge of route conditions for the movement of strategic special nuclear material;

(iii) Maintaining knowledge of the status and position of the strategic special nuclear material en route; and

(iv) Determining and communicating alternative itineraries en route as conditions warrant.

(2) Detect and delay any unauthorized attempt to gain access or introduce unauthorized materials by stealth or force into the vicinity of transports and strategic special nuclear material using the following subsystems and subfunctions:

(i) Controlled access areas to isolate strategic special nuclear material and transports to assure that unauthorized persons shall not have direct access to, and unauthorized materials shall not be introduced into the vicinity of, the transports and strategic special nuclear material, and

(ii) Access detection subsystems and procedures to detect, assess and communicate any unauthorized penetration (or such attempts) of a controlled access area by persons, vehicles or materials so that the response will satisfy the general performance objective and requirements of §73.20(a).

(3) Detect attempts to gain unauthorized access or introduce unauthorized materials into the vicinity of transports by deceit using the following subsystems and subfunctions:

(i) Access authorization controls and procedures to provide current authorization schedules and access criteria for persons, materials and vehicles; and

(ii) Access controls and procedures to verify the identity of persons, materials and vehicles, to assess such identity against current authorization schedules and access criteria before permitting access, and to initiate response measures to deny unauthorized entries.

(c) Prevent or delay unauthorized entry or introduction of unauthorized materials into, and unauthorized removal of, strategic special nuclear material from transports. To achieve this capability the physical protection system shall:

(1) Detect attempts to gain unauthorized entry or introduce unauthorized materials into transports by deceit using the following subsystems and subfunctions:

(i) Access authorization controls and procedures to provide current authorization schedules and entry criteria for access into transports for both persons and materials; and

(ii) Entry controls and procedures to verify the identity of persons and materials and to permit transport entry only to those persons and materials specified by the current authorization schedules and entry criteria.

(2) Detect attempts to gain unauthorized entry or introduce unauthorized material into transports by stealth or force using the following subsystems and subfunctions:

(i) Transport features to delay access to strategic special nuclear material sufficient to permit the detection and response systems to function so as to satisfy the general performance objective and requirements of §73.20(a);

(ii) Inspection and detection subsystems and procedures to detect unauthorized tampering with transports and cargo containers; and

(iii) Surveillance subsystems and procedures to detect, assess and communicate any unauthorized presence of persons or materials and any unauthorized attempt to penetrate the transport so that the response will satisfy the general performance objective and requirements of §73.20(a).

(3) Prevent unauthorized removal of strategic special nuclear material from transports by deceit using the following subsystems and subfunctions:

(i) Authorization controls and procedures to provide current schedules for authorized removal of strategic special nuclear material which specify the persons authorized to remove and receive the material, the authorized times for such removal and receipt and authorized places for such removal and receipt.

(ii) Removal controls and procedures to establish activities for transferring cargo in emergency situations; and

(iii) Removal controls and procedures to permit removal of strategic special nuclear material only after verification of the identity of persons removing or receiving the strategic special nuclear material, and after verification of the identity and integrity of the strategic special nuclear material being removed from transports.

(4) Detect attempts to remove strategic special nuclear material from transports by stealth or force using the following subsystems and subfunctions:

(i) Transport features to delay unauthorized strategic special nuclear material removal attempts sufficient to assist detection and permit a response to satisfy the general performance objective and requirements of §73.20(a); and

(ii) Detection subsystems and procedures to detect, assess and communicate any attempts at unauthorized removal of strategic special nuclear material so that response to the attempt can be such as to satisfy the general performance objective and requirements of §73.20(a).

(d) Respond to safeguards contingencies and emergencies to assure that the two capabilities in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section are achieved, and to engage and impede adversary forces until local law enforcement forces arrive. To achieve this capability, the physical protection system shall:

(1) Respond rapidly and effectively to safeguards contingencies and emergencies using the following subsystems and subfunctions:

(i) A security organization composed of trained and qualifed personnel, including armed escorts, one of whom is designated as escort commander, with procedures for command and control, to execute response functions.

(ii) Assessment procedures to assess the nature and extent of security related incidents.

(iii) A predetermined plan to respond to safeguards contingency events.

(iv) Equipment and procedures to enable responses to security related incidents sufficiently rapid and effective to achieve the predetermined objective of each action.

(v) Equipment, vehicle design features, and procedures to protect security organization personnel, including those at the movement control center, in their performance of assessment and response related functions.

(2) Transmit detection, assessment and other response related information using the following subsystems and subfunctions:

(i) Communications equipment and procedures to rapidly and accurately transmit security information among armed escorts.

(ii) Equipment and procedures for two-way communications between the escort commander and the movement control center to rapidly and accurately transmit assessment information and requests for assistance by local law enforcement forces, and to coordinate such assistance.

(iii) Communications equipment and procedures for the armed escorts and the movement control center personnel to notify local law enforcement forces of the need for assistance.

(3) Establish liaisons with local law enforcement authorities to arrange for assistance en route.

(4) Assure that a single adversary action cannot destroy the capability of armed escorts to notify the local law enforcement forces of the need for assistance.

[44 FR 68188, Nov. 28, 1979]

§73.26   Transportation physical protection systems, subsystems, components, and procedures.

(a) A transportation physical protection system established pursuant to the general performance objectives and requirements of §73.20 and performance capability requirements of §73.25 shall include, but are not necessarily limited to, the measures specified in paragraphs (b) through (l) of this section. The Commission may require, depending on the individual transportation conditions or circumstances, alternate or additional measures deemed necessary to meet the general performance objectives and requirements of §73.20. The Commission also may authorize protection measures other than those required by this section if, in its opinion, the overall level of performance meets the general performance objectives and requirements of §73.20 and the performance capability requirements of §73.25.

(b) Planning and scheduling. (1) Shipments shall be scheduled to avoid regular patterns and preplanned to avoid areas of natural disaster or civil disorders, such as strikes or riots. Such shipments shall be planned in order to avoid storage times in excess of 24 hours and to assure that deliveries occur at a time when the receiver at the final delivery point is present to accept the shipment.

(2) Arrangements shall be made with law enforcement authorities along the route of shipments for their response to an emergency or a call for assistance.

(3) Security arrangements for each shipment shall be approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission prior to the time for the seven-day notice required by §73.72. Information to be supplied to the Commission in addition to the general security plan information is as follows:

(i) Shipper, consignee, carriers, transfer points, modes of shipment,

(ii) Point where escorts will relinquish responsibility or will accept responsibility for the shipment,

(iii) Arrangements made for transfer of shipment security, and

(iv) Security arrangements at point where escorts accept responsibility for an import shipment.

(4) Hand-to-hand receipts shall be completed at origin and destination and at all points enroute where there is a transfer of custody.

(c) Export/import shipments. (1) A licensee who imports a formula quantity of strategic special nuclear material shall make arrangements to assure that the material will be protected in transit as follows:

(i) An individual designated by the licensee or his agent, or as specified by a contract of carriage, shall confirm the container count and examine locks and/or seals for evidence of tampering, at the first place in the United States at which the shipment is discharged from the arriving carrier.

(ii) The shipment must be protected at all times within the geographical limits of the United States as provided in this section and §§73.25 and 73.27. The licensee shall retain each record required by these sections for three years after the close of period for which the licensee possesses the special nuclear material under each license authorizing the licensee to ship this material, and superseded material for three years after each change.

(2) A licensee who exports a formula quantity of strategic special nuclear material shall comply with the requirements of this section and §§73.25 and 73.27, as applicable, up to the first point where the shipment is taken off the transport outside the United States. The licensee shall retain each record required by these sections for three years after the close of period for which the licensee possesses the special nuclear material under each license authorizing the licensee to export this material, and superseded material for three years after each change.

(d) Security organization. (1) The licensee or his agent shall establish a transportation security organization, including armed escorts, armed response personnel or guards, and a movement control center manned and equipped to monitor and control shipments, to communicate with local law enforcement authorities, and to respond to safeguards contingencies.

(2) At least one full time member of the security organization who has the authority to direct the physical protection activities of the security organization shall be on duty at the movement control center during the course of any shipment.

(3) The licensee or the licensee's agent shall establish, maintain, and follow a written management system to provide for the development, revision, implementation, and enforcement of transportation physical protection procedures. The licensee or the agent shall retain as a record the current management system for three years after the close of period for which the licensee possesses the special nuclear material under the license for which the system was developed and, if any portion of the system is superseded, retain the superseded material for three years after each change. The system shall include:

(i) Written security procedures which document the structure of the transportation security organization and which detail the duties of drivers and escorts and other individuals responsible for security; and

(ii) Provision for written approval of such procedures and any revisions thereto by the individual with overall responsibility for the security function.

(4) Neither the licensee nor the licensee's agent shall permit an individual to act as an escort or other security organization member unless the individual has been trained, equipped, and qualified to perform each assigned security job duty in accordance with appendix B, of this part, “General Criteria for Security Personnel.” Upon the request of an authorized representative of the Commission, the licensee or the agent shall demonstrate the ability of the physical security personnel to carry out their assigned duties and responsibilities. Armed escorts shall requalify in accordance with appendix B to this part at least every 12 months. Each requalification must be documented. The licensee or the agent shall retain documentation of the initial qualification for the term of employment and of each requalification as a record for three years from the date of the requalification.

(5) Armed escort and armed response force personnel armament shall include handguns, shotguns, and semiautomatic rifles, as described in appendix B to this part.

(e) Contingency and Response Plans and Procedures. (1) The licensee or the licensee's agent shall establish, maintain, and follow a written safeguards contingency plan for dealing with threats, thefts, and radiological sabotage related to strategic special nuclear material in transit subject to the provisions of this section. This safeguards contingency plan must be in accordance with the criteria in appendix C of this part, “Licensee Safeguards Contingency Plan.” The licensee or the agent shall retain the contingency plan as a record for three years after the close of period for which the licensee possesses the special nuclear material under each license for which the plan is used and superseded material for three years after each change.

(2) Upon detection of abnormal presence or activity of persons or vehicles attempting to penetrate a moving convoy or persons attempting to gain access to a parked cargo vehicle or upon evidence or indication of penetration of the cargo vehicle the armed escorts or other armed response personnel shall:

(i) Determine whether or not a threat exists;

(ii) Assess the extent of the threat, if any;

(iii) Take immediate concurrent measures to neutralize the threat by:

(A) Making the necessary tactical moves to prevent or impede acts of radiological sabotage or theft of strategic special nuclear material, and

(B) Informing local law enforcement agencies of the threat and requesting assistance.

(3) The licensee or his agent shall instruct every armed escort and all armed response personnel to prevent or impede acts of radiological sabotage or theft of strategic special material by using sufficient force to counter the force directed at him including the use of deadly force when armed escorts or armed response personnel have a reasonable belief that it is necessary in self-defense or in the defense of others.

(f) Transfer and storage of strategic special nuclear material for domestic shipments. (1) Strategic special nuclear material shall be placed in a protected area at transfer points if transfer is not immediate from one transport to another. Where a protected area is not available a controlled access area shall be established for the shipment. The transport may serve as a controlled access area.

(2) All transfers shall be protected by at least seven armed escorts or other armed personnel—one of whom shall serve as commander. At least five of the armed personnel (including the commander) shall be available to protect the shipment and at least three of the five shall keep the strategic special nuclear material under continuous surveillance while it is at the transfer point. The two remaining armed personnel shall take up positions at a remote monitoring location. The remote location may be a radio-equipped vehicle or a nearby place, apart from the shipment area, so that a single act cannot remove the capability of the personnel protecting the shipment for calling for assistance. Each of the seven armed escorts or other armed personnel shall be capable of maintaining communication with each other. The commander shall have the capability to communicate with the personnel at the remote location and with local law enforcement agencies for emergency assistance. In addition, the armed escort personnel at the remote location shall have the capability to communicate with the law enforcement agencies and with the shipment movement control center. The commander shall call the remote location at least every 30 minutes to report the status of the shipment. If the calls are not received within the prescribed time, the personnel in the remote location shall request assistance from the law enforcement authorities, notify the shipment movement control center and initiate the appropriate contingency plans. Armed escorts or other armed personnel shall observe the opening of the cargo compartment of the incoming transport and ensure that the shipment is complete by checking locks and seals. A shipment loaded onto or transferred to another transport shall be checked to assure complete loading or transfer. Continuous visual surveillance of the cargo compartment shall be maintained up to the time the transport departs from the terminal. The escorts shall observe the transport until it has departed and shall notify the licensee or his agent of the latest status immediately thereafter.

(g) Access control subsystems and procedures. (1) A numbered picture badge identification procedure shall be used to identify all individuals who will have custody of a shipment. The identification procedure shall require that the individual who has possession of the strategic special nuclear material shall have, in advance, identification picture badges of all individuals who are to assume custody for the shipment. The shipment shall be released only when the individual who has possession of strategic special nuclear material has assured positive identification of all of the persons assuming custody for the shipment by comparing the copies of the identification badges that have been received in advance to the identification badges carried by the individuals who will assume custody of the shipment.

(2) Access to protected areas, controlled access areas, transports, escort vehicles, aircraft, rail cars, and containers where strategic special nuclear material is located shall be limited to individuals who have been properly identified and have been authorized access to these areas.

(3) Strategic special nuclear material shall be shipped in containers that are protected by tamper-indicating seals. The containers also shall be locked if they are not in another locked container or transport. The outermost container or transport also shall be protected by tamper-indicating seals.

(h) Test and maintenance programs. The licensee or his agent shall establish, maintain and follow a test and maintenance program for communications equipment and other physical protection related devices and equipment used pursuant to this section which shall include the following:

(1) Tests and inspections shall be conducted during the installation, and construction of physical protection related subsystems and components to assure that they comply with their respective design criteria and performance specifications.

(2) Preoperational tests and inspections shall be conducted for physical protection related subsystems and components to demonstrate their effectiveness, availability, and reliability with respect to their respective design criteria and performance specifications.

(3) Operational tests and inspections shall be conducted for physical protection related subsystems and components to assure their maintenance in an operable and effective condition.

(4) Preventive maintenance programs shall be established for physical protection related subsystems and components to assure their continued maintenance in an operable and effective condition.

(5) All physical protection related subsystems and components shall be maintained in operable condition. Corrective action procedures and compensatory measures shall be developed and employed to assure that the effectiveness of the physical protection system is not reduced by any single failure or other contingencies affecting the operation of the physical protection related equipment or structures.

(6) The transportation security program must be reviewed at least every 12 months by individuals independent of both security program management and personnel who have direct responsibility for implementation of the security program. The review must include an audit of transportation security procedures and practices, an evaluation of the effectiveness of the transportation physical protection system, an audit of the transportation physical protection system testing and maintenance program, and an audit of commitments established for response by local law enforcement authorities. The results and recommendations of the review, management's findings on whether the transportation security program is currently effective, and any actions taken as a result of recommendations from prior reviews, must be documented in a report to the responsible organization management and to corporate management at least one level higher than that having responsibility for the day-to-day plant operation. These reports must be maintained in an auditable form, available for inspection for a period of 3 years.

(i) Shipment by road. (1) A detailed route plan shall be prepared which shows the routes to be taken, the refueling and rest stops, and the call-in times to the movement control center. All shipments shall be made on primary highways with minimum use of secondary roads. All shipments shall be made without intermediate stops except for refueling, rest or emergency stops.

(2) Cargo compartments of the trucks or trailers shall be locked and protected by tamper-indicating seals.

(3) The shipment shall be protected by one of the following methods:

(i) A specially designed cargo vehicle truck or trailer that reduces the vulnerability to theft. Design features of the truck or trailer shall permit immobilization of the truck or of the cargo-carrying portion of the vehicle and shall provide a deterrent to physical penetration of the cargo compartment. Two separate escort vehicles shall accompany the cargo vehicle. There shall be a total of seven armed escorts with at least two in the cargo vehicle. Escorts may also operate the cargo and escort vehicles.

(ii) An armored car cargo vehicle. Three separate escort vehicles shall accompany such a cargo vehicle. There shall be a total of seven armed escorts, with at least two in the cargo vehicle. Escorts may also operate the cargo and escort vehicles.

(4) All escort vehicles shall be bullet-resisting.

(5) Procedures shall be established to assure that no unauthorized persons or materials are on the cargo vehicle before strategic special nuclear material is loaded, or on the escort vehicles, immediately before the trip begins.

(6) Cargo and escort vehicles shall maintain continuous intraconvoy two-way communication. In addition at least two of the vehicles shall be equipped with radio telephones having the capability of communicating with the movement control center. A redundant means of communication shall also be available. Calls to the movement control center shall be made at least every half hour to convey the status and position of the shipment. In the event no call is received in accordance with these requirements, the licensee or his agent shall immediately notify the law enforcement authorities and the Director, Division of Physical and Cyber Security Policy, Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response, and initiate the appropriate contingency plan.

(7) At refueling, rest, or emergency stops at least seven armed escorts or other armed personnel shall be available to protect the shipment and at least three armed escorts or other armed personnel shall maintain continuous visual surveillance of the cargo compartment.

(8) Transfers to and from other modes of transportation shall be in accordance with paragraph (f) of this section.

(j) Shipment by air. (1) All shipments on commercial cargo aircraft shall be accompanied by two armed escorts who shall be able to converse in a common language with the captain of the aircraft.

(2) Transfers of these shipments shall be minimized and shall be conducted in accordance with paragraph (f) of this section. Such shipments shall be scheduled so that the strategic special nuclear material is loaded last and unloaded first.

(3) At scheduled stops, at least seven armed escorts or other armed personnel shall be available to protect the shipment and at least three armed escorts or other armed personnel shall maintain continuous visual surveillance of the cargo compartment.

(4) Export shipments shall be accompanied by two armed escorts from the last terminal in the United States until the shipment is unloaded at a foreign terminal and primary responsibility for physical protection is assumed by agents of the consignee. While on foreign soil, the escorts may surrender their weapons to legally constituted local authorities. After leaving the last terminal in the United States the shipment shall be scheduled with no intermediate stops.

(5) Import shipments shall be accompanied by two armed escorts at all times within the geographical limits of the United States. These escorts shall provide physical protection for the shipment until relieved by verified agents of the U.S. consignee.

(6) Procedures shall be established to assure that no unauthorized persons or material are on the aircraft before strategic special nuclear material is loaded on board.

(7) Arrangements shall be made at all domestic airports to assure that the seven required armed escorts or other armed personnel are available and that the required security measures will be taken upon landing.

(8) Arrangements shall be made at the foreign terminal at which the shipment is to be unloaded to assure that security measures will be taken on arrival.

(k) Shipment by rail. (1) A shipment by rail shall be escorted by seven armed escorts in the shipment car or an escort car next to the shipment car of the train. At least three escorts shall keep the shipment car under continuous visual surveillance. Escorts shall detrain at stops when practicable and time permits to maintain the shipment cars under continuous visual surveillance and to check car or container locks and seals.

(2) Procedures shall be established to assure that no unauthorized persons or materials are on the shipment or escort car before strategic special nuclear material is loaded on board.

(3) Only containers weighing 5,000 lbs or more shall be shipped on open rail cars.

(4) A voice communication capability between the escorts and the movement control center shall be maintained. A redundant means of continuous communication also shall be available. Calls to the movement control center shall be made at least every half hour to convey the status and position of the shipment. In the event no call is received in accordance with these requirements, the licensee or his agent shall immediately notify the law enforcement authorities and the appropriate Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regional Office listed in appendix A of this part and initiate their contingency plan.

(5) Transfer to and from other modes of transportation shall be in accordance with paragraph (f) of this section.

(l) Shipment by sea. (1) Shipments shall be made only on container-ships. The strategic special nuclear material container(s) shall be loaded into exclusive use cargo containers conforming to American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standard MH5.1—“Basic Requirements for Cargo Containers” (1971) or International Standards Organization (ISO) 1496, “General Cargo Containers” (1978). Locks and seals shall be inspected by the escorts whenever access is possible. The ANSI Standard MH5.1 (1971) and the (ISO) 1496 (1978), have been approved for incorporation by reference by the Director of the Federal Register. A copy of each of these standards is available for inspection at the NRC Library, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738.

(2) All shipments shall be accompanied by two armed escorts who shall be able to converse in a common language with the captain of the ship.

(3) Minimum domestic ports of call shall be scheduled and there shall be no scheduled transfer to other vessels after the shipment leaves the last port in the United States. Transfer to and from other modes of transportation shall be in accordance with paragraph (f) of this section.

(4) At all ports of call the escorts shall ensure that the shipment is not removed. At least two armed escorts or other armed personnel shall maintain continuous visual surveillance of the cargo area where the container is stored up to the time the ship departs.

(5) Export shipments shall be accompanied by two armed escorts from the last port in the United States until the shipment is unloaded at a foreign terminal and prime responsibility for physical protection is assumed by agents of the consignee. While on foreign soil, the escorts may surrender their weapons to legally constituted local authorities.

(6) Import shipments shall be accompanied by two armed escorts at all times within the geographical limits of the United States. These escorts shall provide physical protection for the shipment until relieved by verified agents of the U.S. consignee.

(7) Ship-to-shore communications shall be available, and a ship-to-shore contact shall be made every six hours to relay position information, and the status of the shipment.

(8) Arrangements shall be made at the foreign terminals at which the shipment is to be unloaded to assure that security measures will be taken upon arrival.

[44 FR 68190, Nov. 28, 1979, as amended at 46 FR 2025, Jan. 8, 1981; 53 FR 19257, May 27, 1988; 57 FR 33430, July 29, 1992; 57 FR 61787, Dec. 29, 1992; 59 FR 50689, Oct. 5, 1994; 67 FR 3586, Jan. 25, 2002; 68 FR 14530, Mar. 26, 2003; 68 FR 23575, May 5, 2003; 74 FR 62684, Dec. 1, 2009; 83 FR 58723, Nov. 21, 2018]

§73.27   Notification requirements.

(a)(1) A licensee who delivers formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material to a carrier for transport shall immediately notify the consignee by telephone, telegraph, or teletype, of the time of departure of the shipment, and shall notify or confirm with the consignee the method of transportation, including the names of carriers, and the estimated time of arrival of the shipment at its destination.

(2) In the case of a shipment (f.o.b.) the point where it is delivered to a carrier for transport, a licensee shall, before the shipment is delivered to the carrier, obtain written certification from the licensee who is to take delivery of the shipment at the f.o.b. point that the physical protection arrangements required by §§73.25 and 73.26 for licensed shipments have been made. When a contractor exempt from the requirements for a Commission license is the consignee of a shipment, the licensee shall, before the shipment is delivered to the carrier, obtain written certification from the contractor who is to take delivery of the shipment at the f.o.b. point that the physical protection arrangements required by the United States Department of Energy Order Nos. 5632.1 or 5632.2, as appropriate, have been made.

(3) A licensee who delivers formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material to a carrier for transport or releases such special nuclear material f.o.b. at the point where it is delivered to a carrier for transport shall also make arrangements with the consignee to be notified immediately by telephone and telegraph, teletype, or cable, of the arrival of the shipment at its destination or of any such shipment that is lost or unaccounted for after the estimated time of arrival at its destination.

(b) Each licensee who receives a shipment of formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material shall immediately notify by telephone and telegraph or teletype, the person who delivered the material to a carrier for transport and the Director, Division of Physical and Cyber Security Policy, Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response, of the arrival of the shipment at its destination. When a United States Department of Energy license-exempt contractor is the consignee, the licensee who is the consignor shall notify by telephone and telegraph, or teletype, the Director, Division of Physical and Cyber Security Policy, Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response of the arrival of the shipment at its destination immediately upon being notified of the receipt of the shipment by the license-exempt contractor as arranged pursuant to paragraph (a)(3) of this section. In the event such a shipment fails to arrive at its destination at the estimated time, or in the case of an export shipment, the licensee who exported the shipment, shall immediately notify by telephone and telegraph or teletype, the Director, Division of Physical and Cyber Security Policy, Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response, and the licensee or other person who delivered the material to a carrier for transport. The licensee who made the physical protection arrangements shall also immediately notify by telephone and telegraph, or teletype, the Director, Division of Physical and Cyber Security Policy, Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response of the action being taken to trace the shipment.

(c) Each licensee who makes arrangements for physical protection of a shipment of formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material as required by §§73.25 and 73.26 shall immediately conduct a trace investigation of any shipment that is lost or unaccounted for after the estimated arrival time and file a report with the Commission as specified in §73.71.

[44 FR 68192, Nov. 28, 1979, as amended at 67 FR 3586, Jan. 25, 2002; 68 FR 14530, Mar. 26, 2003; 68 FR 23575, May 5, 2003; 74 FR 62684, Dec. 1, 2009; 83 FR 58723, Nov. 21, 2018]

§73.28   Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials.

Licensees are excepted from the security background check provisions in Section 170I of the AEA if they have not received Orders from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission containing requirements for background checks for trustworthiness and reliability that include fingerprinting and criminal history record checks as a prerequisite for unescorted access to radioactive materials.

[72 FR 3027, Jan. 24, 2007]

§73.35   Requirements for physical protection of irradiated reactor fuel (100 grams or less) in transit.

Each licensee who transports, or delivers to a carrier for transport, in a single shipment, a quantity of irradiated reactor fuel weighing 100 grams (0.22 pounds) or less in net weight of irradiated fuel, exclusive of cladding or other structural or packaging material, which has a total external radiation dose rate in excess of 1 Gray (100 rad) per hour at a distance of 1 meter (3.3 feet) from any accessible surface without intervening shielding, shall follow the physical protection requirements for category 1 quantities of radioactive material in subpart D of part 37 of this chapter.

[78 FR 17021, Mar. 19, 2013]

§73.37   Requirements for physical protection of irradiated reactor fuel in transit.

(a) Performance objectives. (1) Each licensee who transports, or delivers to a carrier for transport, in a single shipment, a quantity of irradiated reactor fuel1 in excess of 100 grams (0.22 lbs) in net weight of irradiated fuel, exclusive of cladding or other structural or packaging material, which has a total external radiation dose rate in excess of 1 Gy (100 rad) per hour at a distance of 1 meter (3.3 feet) from any accessible surface without intervening shielding, shall establish and maintain, or make arrangements for, and assure the proper implementation of, a physical protection system for shipments of such material that will achieve the following objectives:

1For purposes of 10 CFR 73.37, the terms “irradiated reactor fuel” and “spent nuclear fuel” are used interchangeably.

(i) Minimize the potential for theft, diversion, or radiological sabotage of spent nuclear fuel shipments; and

(ii) Facilitate the location and recovery of spent nuclear fuel shipments that may have come under the control of unauthorized persons.

(2) To achieve these objectives, the physical protection system shall:

(i) Provide for early detection and assessment of attempts to gain unauthorized access to, or control over, spent nuclear fuel shipments;

(ii) Delay and impede attempts at theft, diversion, or radiological sabotage of spent nuclear fuel shipments; and

(iii) Provide for notification to the appropriate response forces of any attempts at theft, diversion, or radiological sabotage of a spent nuclear fuel shipment.

(b) General requirements. To achieve the performance objectives of paragraph (a) of this section, a physical protection system established and maintained, or arranged for, by the licensee shall include the following elements:

(1) Preplan and coordinate spent nuclear fuel shipments. Each licensee shall:

(i) Ensure that each armed escort, as defined in §73.2, is instructed on the use of force sufficient to counter the force directed at the person, including the use of deadly force when the armed escort has a reasonable belief that the use of deadly force is necessary in self-defense or in the defense of others, or any other circumstances, as authorized by applicable Federal and State laws. This deadly force training requirement does not apply to members of local law enforcement agencies (LLEAs) performing escort duties for spent nuclear fuel shipments.

(ii) Preplan and coordinate shipment itineraries to ensure that the receiver at the final delivery point is present to accept the shipment.

(iii) Ensure written certification of any transfer of custody.

(iv) Preplan and coordinate shipment information no later than 2 weeks prior to the shipment or prior to the first shipment of a series of shipments with the governor of a State, or the governor's designee, of a shipment of spent nuclear fuel through or across the boundary of the State, in order to:

(A) Minimize intermediate stops and delays;

(B) Arrange for State law enforcement escorts;

(C) Arrange for positional information sharing when requested; and

(D) Develop route information, including the identification of safe havens.

(v) Arrange with local law enforcement authorities along the shipment route, including U.S. ports where vessels carrying spent nuclear fuel shipments are docked, for their response to a security-related emergency or a call for assistance.

(vi) Preplan and coordinate with the NRC to obtain advance approval of the routes used for road and rail shipments of spent nuclear fuel, and of any U.S. ports where vessels carrying spent nuclear fuel shipments are scheduled to stop. In addition to the requirements of this section, routes used for shipping spent nuclear fuel shall comply with the applicable requirements of the DOT regulations in Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (49 CFR), in particular those identified in §71.5 of this chapter. The advance approval application shall provide:

(A) For road shipments, the route shall include locations of safe havens that have been coordinated with the appropriate State(s).

(B) The NRC approval shall be obtained prior to the 10-day advance notification requirement in §73.72 of this part.

(C) Information to be supplied to the NRC shall include, but is not limited to, the following:

(1) Shipper, consignee, carriers, transfer points, modes of shipment; and

(2) A statement of shipment security arrangements, including, if applicable, points where armed escorts transfer responsibility for the shipment.

(vii) Document the preplanning and coordination activities.

(viii) Ensure the protection of Safeguards Information relative to spent nuclear fuel in transit in accordance with §§73.21 and 73.22 of this part, especially the information described in §73.22(a)(2), which would include, at a minimum, the protection of the following information:

(A) The preplanning and coordination activities;

(B) Transportation physical security plan;

(C) Schedules and itineraries for specific spent nuclear fuel shipments until the information is no longer controlled as Safeguards Information, that is until at least 10 days after the shipment has entered or originated within the state; or for the case of a shipment in a series of shipments whose schedules are related, a statement that schedule information must be protected until 10 days after the last shipment in the series has entered or originated within the state and an estimate of the date on which the last shipment in the series will enter or originate within the state;

(D) Vehicle immobilization features, intrusion alarm devices, and communications;

(E) Arrangements with and capabilities of local police response forces, and locations of safe havens identified along the transportation route;

(F) Limitations of communications during transport;

(G) Procedures for response to security contingency events;

(H) Information concerning the tactics and capabilities required to defend against attempted sabotage, or theft and diversion of irradiated reactor fuel, or related information; and

(I) Engineering or safety analyses, security-related procedures or scenarios and other information related to the protection of the transported material if the unauthorized disclosure of such analyses, procedures, scenarios, or other information could reasonably be expected to have a significant adverse effect on the health and safety of the public or the common defense and security by significantly increasing the likelihood of theft, diversion, or sabotage of spent nuclear fuel in transit.

(2) Advance notifications. Prior to the shipment of spent nuclear fuel moving through or across the boundary of any State, outside the confines of the licensee's facility or other place of use or storage, a licensee subject to this section shall provide notification to the NRC, under §73.72 of this part, and the governor of the State(s), or the governor's designee(s), of the spent nuclear fuel shipment. After June 11, 2013, the compliance date of the Tribal notification final rule, a licensee subject to this section shall notify the Tribal official or Tribal official's designee of each participating Tribe referenced in §71.97(c)(3) of this chapter prior to the transport of spent fuel within or across the Tribal reservation. Contact information for each State, including telephone and mailing addresses of governors and governors' designees, and participating Tribes, including telephone and mailing addresses of Tribal officials and Tribal official's designees, is available on the NRC Web site at: https://scp.nrc.gov/special/designee.pdf”. A list of the contact information is also available upon request from the Director, Division of Materials Safety, Security, State, and Tribal Programs, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555. The licensee shall comply with the following criteria in regard to each notification:

(i) Procedures for submitting advance notification. (A) The notification must be in writing and sent to the office of each appropriate governor or the governor's designee and each appropriate Tribal official or the Tribal official's designee.

(B) A notification delivered by mail must be postmarked at least 10 days before transport of a shipment within or through the State or Tribal reservation.

(C) A notification delivered by any other method must reach the office of the governor or the governor's designee and any Tribal official or Tribal official's designee at least 7 days before transport of a shipment within or through the State.

(ii) Information to be furnished in advance notification of shipment. The notification must include the following information:

(A) The name, address, and telephone number of the shipper, carrier and receiver of the shipment and the license number of the shipper and receiver;

(B) A description of the shipment as specified by DOT in 49 CFR 172.202 and 172.203(d); and

(C) A listing of the routes to be used within the State or Tribal reservation.

(iii) Separate enclosure. The licensee shall provide the following information, under §73.22(f)(1), in a separate enclosure to the written notification:

(A) The estimated date and time of departure from the point of origin of the shipment;

(B) The estimated date and time of entry into the State or Tribal reservation;

(C) The estimated date and time of arrival of the shipment at the destination;

(D) For the case of a single shipment whose schedule is not related to the schedule of any subsequent shipment, a statement that schedule information must be protected under the provisions of §§73.21 and 73.22 until at least 10 days after the shipment has entered or originated within the State or Tribal reservation; and

(E) For the case of a shipment in a series of shipments whose schedules are related, a statement that schedule information must be protected under the provisions of §§73.21 and 73.22 of this part until 10 days after the last shipment in the series has entered or originated within the State or Tribal reservation, and an estimate of the date on which the last shipment in the series will enter or originate within the State or Tribal reservation.

(iv) Revision notice. A licensee shall notify by telephone a responsible individual in the office of the governor or in the office of the governor's designee and the office of the Tribal official or in the office of the Tribal official's designee of any schedule change that differs by more than 6 hours from the schedule information previously furnished under paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of this section, and shall inform that individual of the number of hours of advance or delay relative to the written schedule information previously furnished.

(v) Cancellation notice. Each licensee who cancels a shipment for which advance notification has been sent shall send a cancellation notice to the governor or to the governor's designee of each State previously notified, each Tribal official or the Tribal official's designee previously notified, and to the NRC's Director, Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555. The licensee shall state in the notice that it is a cancellation and identify the advance notification that is being canceled.

(vi) Records. The licensee shall retain a copy of the preplanning and coordination activities, advance notification, and any revision or cancellation notice as a record for 3 years under §73.70 of this part.

(3) Transportation physical protection program. (i) The transportation physical protection program established under paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall include armed escorts to protect spent nuclear fuel shipments and a movement control center, as defined in §73.2 of this part, staffed and equipped to monitor and control spent nuclear fuel shipments, to communicate with local law enforcement authorities, and to respond to safeguards contingencies.

(ii) The movement control center must be staffed continuously by at least one individual who will actively monitor the progress of the spent nuclear fuel shipment and who has the authority to coordinate the physical protection activities.

(iii) The movement control center personnel must monitor the shipment continuously, i.e., 24-hours per day, from the time the shipment commences, or if delivered to a carrier for transport, from the time of delivery of the shipment to the carrier, until safe delivery of the shipment at its final destination, and must immediately notify the appropriate agencies in the event of a safeguards event under the provisions of §73.71 of this part.

(iv) The movement control center personnel and the armed escorts must maintain a written log for each spent nuclear fuel shipment, which will include information describing the shipment and significant events that occur during the shipment. The log must be available for review by authorized NRC personnel for a period of at least 3 years following completion of the shipment.

(v) The licensee shall develop, maintain, revise and implement written transportation physical protection procedures which address the following:

(A) Access controls to ensure no unauthorized persons have access to the shipment and Safeguards Information;

(B) Roles and responsibilities of the movement control center personnel, drivers, armed escorts and other individuals relative to the security of the shipment;

(C) Reporting of safeguards events under §73.71 of this part;

(D) Communications protocols that include a strategy for the use of authentication and duress codes, the management of refueling or other stops, detours, and the loss of communications, temporarily or otherwise; and

(E) Normal conditions operating procedures.

(vi) The licensee shall retain as a record the transportation physical protection procedures for 3 years after the close of period for which the licensee possesses the spent nuclear fuel.

(vii) The transportation physical protection program shall:

(A) Provide that escorts (other than members of local law enforcement agencies serving as armed escorts, or ship's officers serving as unarmed escorts) have successfully completed the training required by appendix D of this part, including the equivalent of the weapons training and qualifications program required of guards, as described in sections III and IV of appendix B of this part, to assure that each such individual is fully qualified to use the assigned weapons;

(B) Provide that shipment escorts communicate with the movement control center at random intervals, not to exceed 2 hours, to advise of the status of the shipment for road and rail shipments, and for sea shipments while shipment vessels are docked at U.S. ports; and

(C) Provide that at least one armed escort remains alert at all times, maintains constant visual surveillance of the shipment, and periodically reports to the movement control center at regular intervals not to exceed 30 minutes during periods when the shipment vehicle is stopped, or the shipment vessel is docked.

(4) Contingency and response procedures. (i) In addition to the procedures established under paragraph (b)(3)(v) of this section, the licensee shall establish, maintain, and follow written contingency and response procedures to address threats, thefts, and radiological sabotage related to spent nuclear fuel in transit.

(ii) The licensee shall ensure that personnel associated with the shipment shall be appropriately trained regarding contingency and response procedures.

(iii) The licensee shall retain the contingency and response procedures as a record for 3 years after the close of period for which the licensee possesses the spent nuclear fuel.

(iv) The contingency and response procedures must direct that, upon detection of the abnormal presence of unauthorized persons, vehicles, or vessels in the vicinity of a spent nuclear fuel shipment or upon detection of a deliberately induced situation that has the potential for damaging a spent nuclear fuel shipment, the armed escort will:

(A) Determine whether or not a threat exists;

(B) Assess the extent of the threat, if any;

(C) Implement the procedures developed under paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section;

(D) Take the necessary steps to delay or impede threats, thefts, or radiological sabotage of spent nuclear fuel; and

(E) Inform local law enforcement agencies of the threat and request assistance without delay, but not to exceed 15 minutes after discovery.

(c) Shipments by road. In addition to the provisions of paragraph (b) of this section, the physical protection system for any portion of a spent nuclear fuel shipment by road shall provide that:

(1) The transport vehicle is:

(i) Occupied by at least two individuals, one of whom serves as an armed escort, and escorted by an armed member of the local law enforcement agency in a mobile unit of such agency; or

(ii) Led by a separate vehicle occupied by at least one armed escort, and trailed by a third vehicle occupied by at least one armed escort.

(2) As permitted by law, all armed escorts are equipped with a minimum of two weapons. This requirement does not apply to local law enforcement agency personnel who are performing escort duties.

(3) The transport vehicle and each escort vehicle are equipped with redundant communication abilities that provide 2-way communications between the transport vehicle, the escort vehicle(s), the movement control center, local law enforcement agencies, and one another. To ensure that 2-way communication is possible at all times, alternate communications should not be subject to the same failure modes as the primary communication.

(4) The transport vehicle is equipped with NRC-approved features that permit immobilization of the cab or cargo-carrying portion of the vehicle.

(5) The transport vehicle driver has been familiarized with, and is capable of implementing, transport vehicle immobilization, communications, and other security procedures.

(6) Shipments are continuously and actively monitored by a telemetric position monitoring system or an alternative tracking system reporting to a movement control center. A movement control center shall provide positive confirmation of the location, status, and control over the shipment. The movement control center shall implement preplanned procedures in response to deviations from the authorized route or a notification of actual, attempted, or suspicious activities related to the theft, loss, diversion, or radiological sabotage of a shipment. These procedures shall include, but not be limited to, the identification of and contact information for the appropriate local law enforcement agency along the shipment route.

(d) Shipments by rail. In addition to the provisions of paragraph (b) of this section, the physical protection system for any portion of a spent nuclear fuel shipment by rail shall provide that:

(1) A shipment car is accompanied by two armed escorts (who may be members of a local law enforcement agency), at least one of whom is stationed at a location on the train that will permit observation of the shipment car while in motion.

(2) As permitted by law, all armed escorts are equipped with a minimum of two weapons. This requirement does not apply to local law enforcement agency personnel who are performing escort duties.

(3) The train operator(s) and each escort are equipped with redundant communication abilities that provide 2-way communications between the transport, the escort vehicle(s), the movement control center, local law enforcement agencies, and one another. To ensure that 2-way communication is possible at all times, alternate communications should not be subject to the same failure modes as the primary communication.

(4) Rail shipments are monitored by a telemetric position monitoring system or an alternative tracking system reporting to the licensee, third-party, or railroad movement control center. The movement control center shall provide positive confirmation of the location of the shipment and its status. The movement control center shall implement preplanned procedures in response to deviations from the authorized route or to a notification of actual, attempted, or suspicious activities related to the theft, diversion, or radiological sabotage of a shipment. These procedures shall include, but not be limited to, the identification of and contact information for the appropriate local law enforcement agency along the shipment route.

(e) Shipments by U.S. waters. In addition to the provisions of paragraph (b) of this section, the physical protection system for any portion of a spent nuclear fuel shipment traveling on U.S. waters shall provide that:

(1) A shipment vessel while docked at a U.S. port is protected by:

(i) Two armed escorts stationed on board the shipment vessel, or stationed on the dock at a location that will permit observation of the shipment vessel; or

(ii) A member of a local law enforcement agency, equipped with normal local law enforcement agency radio communications, who is stationed on board the shipment vessel, or on the dock at a location that will permit observation of the shipment vessel.

(2) As permitted by law, all armed escorts are equipped with a minimum of two weapons. This requirement does not apply to local law enforcement agency personnel who are performing escort duties.

(3) A shipment vessel while within U.S. territorial waters shall be accompanied by an individual, who may be an officer of the shipment vessel's crew, who will assure that the shipment is unloaded only as authorized by the licensee.

(4) Each armed escort is equipped with redundant communication abilities that provide 2-way communications between the vessel, the movement control center, local law enforcement agencies, and one another. To ensure that 2-way communication is possible at all times, alternate communications should not be subject to the same failure modes as the primary communication.

(f) Investigations. Each licensee who makes arrangements for the shipment of spent nuclear fuel shall immediately conduct an investigation, in coordination with the receiving licensee, of any shipment that is lost or unaccounted for after the designated no-later-than arrival time in the advance notification.

(g) State officials, State employees, Tribal officials, Tribal employees, and other individuals, whether or not licensees of the NRC, who receive information of the kind specified in paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of this section and any other Safeguards Information as defined in §73.22(a) of this part shall protect that information against unauthorized disclosure as specified in §§73.21 and 73.22 of this part.

[78 FR 29550, May 20, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 75741, Dec. 19, 2014; 80 FR 74981, Dec. 1, 2015; 83 FR 30288, June 28, 2018; 83 FR 58723, Nov. 21, 2018]

§73.38   Personnel access authorization requirements for irradiated reactor fuel in transit.

(a) General. (1) Each licensee who transports, or delivers to a carrier for transport, in a single shipment, a quantity of spent nuclear fuel as described in §73.37(a)(1) of this part shall comply with the requirements of this section, as appropriate, before any spent nuclear fuel is transported or delivered to a carrier for transport.

(2) Each licensee shall establish, implement, and maintain its access authorization program under the requirements of this section.

(i) Each licensee shall be responsible for the continuing effectiveness of the access authorization program.

(ii) Each licensee shall ensure that the access authorization program is reviewed at an appropriate frequency to confirm compliance with the requirements of this section and that prompt comprehensive actions are taken to correct any noncompliance that is identified.

(iii) The review shall evaluate all program performance objectives and requirements.

(iv) Each review report must document conditions that are adverse to the proper performance of the access authorization program, the cause of the condition(s), and when appropriate, recommended corrective actions, and corrective actions taken. The licensee shall review the audit findings and take any additional corrective actions necessary to preclude repetition of the condition, including reassessment of the deficient areas where indicated.

(3) By August 19, 2013, each licensee that is subject to this provision shall implement the requirements of this section through revisions to its physical security plan or transportation security plan.

(b) General performance objective. The licensee's access authorization program must ensure that the individuals specified in paragraph (c) of this section are trustworthy and reliable such that they do not constitute an unreasonable risk to public health and safety or the common defense and security.

(c) Applicability. (1) Licensees shall subject the following individuals to an access authorization program:

(i) Any individual to whom a licensee intends to grant unescorted access to spent nuclear fuel in transit, including employees of a contractor or vendor;

(ii) Any individual whose duties and responsibilities permit the individual to take actions by physical or electronic means that could adversely impact the safety, security, or emergency response to spent nuclear fuel in transit (i.e., movement control personnel, vehicle drivers, or other individuals accompanying spent nuclear fuel shipments);

(iii) Any individual whose duties and responsibilities include implementing a licensee's physical protection program under §73.37, including but not limited to, non-LLEA armed escorts;

(iv) Any individual whose assigned duties and responsibilities provide access to spent nuclear fuel shipment information that is considered to be Safeguards Information under §73.22(a)(2); and

(v) The licensee access authorization program reviewing official.

(2) Fingerprinting, and the identification and criminal history records checks required by Section 149 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and other elements of the background investigation are not required for the following individuals prior to granting access authorization relative to spent nuclear fuel in transit:

(i) Persons identified in §§73.59 and 73.61 of this part;

(ii) Federal, State, and local officials, including inspectors, whose occupational status are consistent with the promotion of common defense and security and the protection of public health and safety relative to spent nuclear fuel in transit;

(iii) Emergency response personnel who are responding to an emergency;

(iv) An individual who has had a favorably adjudicated U.S. Government criminal history records check within the last 5 years, under a comparable U.S. Government program involving fingerprinting and an FBI identification and criminal history records check (e.g. National Agency Check, Transportation Worker Identification Credentials (TWIC) under 49 CFR part 1572, Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco Firearms and Explosives background check and clearances under 27 CFR part 555, Health and Human Services security risk assessments for possession and use of select agents and toxins under 42 CFR part 73, Hazardous Material security threat assessment for hazardous material endorsement to commercial drivers license under 49 CFR part 1572, Customs and Border Patrol's Free and Secure Trade (FAST) Program) provided that he or she makes available the appropriate documentation. Written confirmation from the agency/employer that granted the Federal security clearance or reviewed the criminal history records check must be provided to the licensee. The licensee shall retain this documentation for a period of 3 years from the date the individual no longer requires access authorization relative to spent nuclear fuel in transit; and

(v) Any individual who has an active Federal security clearance, provided that he or she makes available the appropriate documentation. Written confirmation from the agency/employer that granted the Federal security clearance or reviewed the criminal history records check must be provided to the licensee. The licensee shall retain this documentation for a period of 3 years from the date the individual no longer requires access authorization relative to spent nuclear fuel in transit.

(d) Background investigation. Before allowing an individual to have unescorted access or access authorization relative to spent nuclear fuel2 in transit the licensees shall complete a background investigation as defined in §73.2 of this part of the individual seeking to have unescorted access or access authorization. The scope of the investigation must encompass at least the past 10 years, or if 10 years of information is not available then as many years in the past that information is available. The background investigation does not apply to Federal, State or local law enforcement personnel who are performing escort duties. The background investigation must include, but is not limited to, the following elements:

2For purposes of 10 CFR 73.38, the terms “irradiated reactor fuel” as described in 10 CFR 73.37 and “spent nuclear fuel” are used interchangeably.

(1) Informed consent. Licensees shall not initiate any element of a background investigation without the informed and signed consent of the subject individual. This consent shall include authorization to share personal information with appropriate entities. The licensee to whom the individual is applying for access authorization shall inform the individual of his or her right to review information collected to assure its accuracy, and provide the individual with an opportunity to correct any inaccurate or incomplete information that is developed by the licensee.

(i) The subject individual may withdraw his or her consent at any time. Licensees shall inform the individual that:

(A) Withdrawal of his or her consent will remove the individual's application for access authorization under the licensee's access authorization program; and

(B) Other licensees shall have access to information documenting the withdrawal.

(ii) If an individual withdraws his or her consent, licensees may not initiate any elements of the background investigation that were not in progress at the time the individual withdrew his or her consent, but shall complete any background investigation elements that are in progress at the time consent is withdrawn. The licensee shall record the status of the individual's application for access authorization. Additionally, licensees shall collect and maintain the individual's application for access authorization; his or her withdrawal of consent for the background investigation; the reason given by the individual for the withdrawal; and any pertinent information collected from the background investigation elements that were completed. This information must be shared with other licensees under paragraph (l)(4) of this section.

(iii) Licensees shall inform, in writing, any individual who is applying for access authorization that the following actions are sufficient cause for denial or unfavorable termination of access authorization status:

(A) Refusal to provide a signed consent for the background investigation;

(B) Refusal to provide, or the falsification of, any personal history information required under this section, including the failure to report any previous denial or unfavorable termination of access authorization;

(C) Refusal to provide signed consent for the sharing of personal information with other licensees under paragraph (d)(5)(v) of this section; or

(D) Failure to report any arrests or legal actions specified in paragraph (f) of this section.

(2) Personal history disclosure. Any individual who is required to have a background investigation under this section shall disclose the personal history information that is required by the licensee's access authorization program for the reviewing official to make a determination of the individual's trustworthiness and reliability. Refusal to provide, or the falsification of, any personal history information required by this section is sufficient cause for denial or termination of access authorization.

(3) Criminal history. Fingerprinting and an FBI identification and criminal history records check under §73.57 of this part.

(4) Verification of true identity. Licensees shall verify the true identity of an individual who is applying to have access authorization to ensure that the applicant is who they claim to be. A licensee shall review official identification documents (e.g., driver's license, passport, government identification, State, province, or country of birth issued certificate of birth) and compare the documents to personal information data provided by the individual to identify any discrepancy in the information. Licensees shall document the type, expiration, and identification number of the identification, or maintain a photocopy of identifying documents on file under §73.38(c). Licensees shall certify and affirm in writing that the identification was properly reviewed and maintain the certification and all related documents for review upon inspection.

(5) Employment history evaluation. Licensees shall ensure that an employment history evaluation has been completed on a best effort basis, by questioning the individual's present and former employers, and by determining the activities of the individual while unemployed.

(i) For the claimed employment period, the individual must provide the reason for any termination, eligibility for rehire, and other information that could reflect on the individual's trustworthiness and reliability.

(ii) If the claimed employment was military service the individual shall provide a characterization of service, reason for separation, and any disciplinary actions that could affect a trustworthiness and reliability determination.

(iii) If education is claimed in lieu of employment, the individual shall provide any information related to the claimed education that could reflect on the individual's trustworthiness and reliability and, at a minimum, verify that the individual was registered for the classes and received grades that indicate that the individual participated in the educational process during the claimed period.

(iv) If a previous employer, educational institution, or any other entity with which the individual claims to have been engaged fails to provide information or indicates an inability or unwillingness to provide information within 3 business days of the request, the licensee shall:

(A) Document this refusal or unwillingness in the licensee's record of the investigation; and

(B) Obtain a confirmation of employment, educational enrollment and attendance, or other form of engagement claimed by the individual from at least one alternate source that has not been previously used.

(v) When any licensee is seeking the information required for an access authorization decision under this section and has obtained a signed release from the subject individual authorizing the disclosure of such information, other licensees shall make available the personal or access authorization information requested regarding the denial or unfavorable termination of an access authorization.

(vi) In conducting an employment history evaluation, the licensee may obtain information and documents by electronic means, including, but not limited to, telephone, facsimile, or email. Licensees shall make a record of the contents of the telephone call and shall retain that record, and any documents or electronic files obtained electronically, under paragraph (l) of this section.

(6) Credit history evaluation. Licensees shall ensure the evaluation of the full credit history of any individual who is applying for access authorization relative to spent nuclear fuel in transit. A full credit history evaluation must include, but is not limited to, an inquiry to detect potential fraud or misuse of social security numbers or other financial identifiers, and a review and evaluation of all of the information that is provided by a national credit-reporting agency about the individual's credit history. For foreign nationals and U.S. citizens who have resided outside the U.S. and do not have established credit history that covers at least the most recent 7 years in the U.S., the licensee must document all attempts to obtain information regarding the individual's credit history and financial responsibility from some relevant entity located in that other country or countries.

(7) Criminal history review. The licensee shall evaluate the entire criminal history record of an individual who is applying for access authorization to determine whether the individual has a record of criminal activity that may adversely impact his or her trustworthiness and reliability. The scope of the applicant's criminal history review must cover all residences of record for the 10-year period preceding the date of application for access authorization.

(8) Character and reputation determination. Licensees shall ascertain the character and reputation of an individual who has applied for access authorization relative to spent nuclear fuel in transit by conducting reference checks. Reference checks may not be conducted with any person who is known to be a close member of the individual's family, including but not limited to, the individual's spouse, parents, siblings, or children, or any individual who resides in the individual's permanent household. The reference checks must focus on the individual's reputation for trustworthiness and reliability.

(9) Corroboration. The licensee shall also, to the extent possible, obtain independent information to corroborate that provided by the individual (e.g., seek references not supplied by the individual).

(e) Determination of trustworthiness and reliability; Documentation. (1) The licensee shall determine whether to grant, deny, unfavorably terminate, maintain, or administratively withdraw an individual's access authorization based on an evaluation of all of the information required by this section. The licensee may terminate or administratively withdraw an individual's access authorization based on information obtained after the background investigation has been completed and the individual granted access authorization.

(2) The licensee may not permit any individual to have unescorted access or access authorization until all of the information required by this section has been evaluated by the reviewing official and the reviewing official has determined that the individual is trustworthy and reliable. The licensee may deny unescorted access or access authorization to any individual based on disqualifying information obtained at any time during the background investigation.

(f) Protection of information. (1) Licensees shall protect background investigation information from unauthorized disclosure.

(2) Licensees may not disclose the background investigation information collected and maintained to persons other than the subject individual, his/her representative, or to those who have a need to know in performing assigned duties related to the process of granting or denying unescorted access to spent nuclear fuel in transit. No individual authorized to have access to the information may re-disseminate the information to any other individual who does not have a need to know.

(3) The personal information obtained on an individual from a background investigation may be transferred to another licensee:

(i) Upon the individual's written request to the licensee holding the data to re-disseminate the information contained in his/her file; and

(ii) The acquiring licensee verifies information such as name, date of birth, social security number, sex, and other applicable physical characteristics for identification.

(4) The licensee shall make background investigation records obtained under this section available for examination by an authorized representative of the NRC to determine compliance with applicable laws and regulations.

(5) The licensee shall retain all fingerprint and criminal history records received from the FBI, or a copy if the file has been transferred, on an individual (including data indicating no record) for 5 years from the date the individual no longer requires unescorted access or access authorization relative to spent nuclear fuel in transit.

(g) Grandfathering. For purposes of this section, licensees are not required to obtain the fingerprints of any person who has been fingerprinted, pursuant to an NRC order or regulation, for an FBI identification and criminal history records check within the 5 years of the effective date of this rule.

(h) Reinvestigations. Licensees shall conduct fingerprinting and FBI identification and criminal history records check, a criminal history review, and credit history re-evaluation every 10 years for any individual who has unescorted access authorization to spent nuclear fuel in transit. The reinvestigations must be completed within 10 years of the date on which these elements were last completed and should address the 10 years following the previous investigation.

(i) Self-reporting of legal actions. (1) Any individual who has applied for an access authorization or is maintaining an access authorization under this section shall promptly report to the reviewing official, his or her supervisor, or other management personnel designated in licensee procedures any legal action(s) taken by a law enforcement authority or court of law to which the individual has been subject that could result in incarceration or a court order or that requires a court appearance, including but not limited to an arrest, an indictment, the filing of charges, or a conviction, but excluding minor civil actions or misdemeanors such as parking violations or speeding tickets. The recipient of the report shall, if other than the reviewing official, promptly convey the report to the reviewing official. On the day that the report is received, the reviewing official shall evaluate the circumstances related to the reported legal action(s) and re-determine the reported individual's access authorization status.

(2) The licensee shall inform the individual of this obligation, in writing, prior to granting unescorted access or certifying access authorization.

(j) Access authorization procedures. (1) Licensees shall develop, implement, and maintain written procedures for conducting background investigations for persons who are applying for unescorted access or access authorization for spent nuclear fuel in transit.

(2) Licensees shall develop, implement, and maintain written procedures for updating background investigations for persons who are applying for reinstatement of unescorted access or access authorization.

(3) Licensees shall develop, implement, and maintain written procedures to ensure that persons who have been denied unescorted access or access authorization are not allowed access to spent nuclear fuel in transit or information relative to spent nuclear fuel in transit.

(4) Licensees shall develop, implement, and maintain written procedures for the notification of individuals who are denied unescorted access or access authorization for spent nuclear fuel in transit. The procedures shall include provisions for the review, at the request of the affected individual, of a denial or termination of unescorted access or access authorization. The procedure must contain a provision to ensure that the individual is informed of the grounds for the denial or termination of unescorted access or access authorization and allow the individual an opportunity to provide additional relevant information.

(k) Right to correct and complete information. (1) Prior to any final adverse determination, licensees shall provide each individual subject to this section with the right to complete, correct, and explain information obtained as a result of the licensee's background investigation. Confirmation of receipt by the individual of this notification must be maintained by the licensee for a period of 1 year from the date of the notification.

(2) If after reviewing their criminal history record an individual believes that it is incorrect or incomplete in any respect and wishes to change, correct, update, or explain anything in the record, the individual may initiate challenge procedures.

(l) Records. (1) The licensee shall retain documentation regarding the trustworthiness and reliability of individual employees for 5 years from the date the individual no longer requires unescorted access or access authorization relative to spent nuclear fuel in transit.

(2) The licensee shall retain a copy of the current access authorization program procedures as a record for 5 years after the procedure is no longer needed or until the Commission terminates the license, if the license is terminated before the end of the retention period. If any portion of the procedure is superseded, the licensee shall retain the superseded material for 5 years after the record is superseded.

(3) The licensee shall retain the list of persons approved for unescorted access or access authorization and the list of those individuals that have been denied unescorted access or access authorization for 5 years after the list is superseded or replaced.

(4) Licensees who have been authorized to add or manipulate data that is shared with licensees subject to this section shall ensure that data linked to the information about individuals who have applied for unescorted access or access authorization, which is specified in the licensee's access authorization program documents, is retained.

(i) If the shared information used for determining individual's trustworthiness and reliability changes or new or additional information is developed about the individual, the licensees that acquire this information shall correct or augment the data and ensure it is shared with licensees subject to this section. If the changed, additional or developed information has implications for adversely affecting an individual's trustworthiness and reliability, licensees who discovered or obtained the new, additional or changed information, shall, on the day of discovery, inform the reviewing official of any licensee access authorization program under which the individual is maintaining his or her unescorted access or access authorization status of the updated information.

(ii) The reviewing official shall evaluate the shared information and take appropriate actions, which may include denial or unfavorable termination of the individual's unescorted access or access authorization. If the notification of change or updated information cannot be made through usual methods, licensees shall take manual actions to ensure that the information is shared as soon as reasonably possible. Records maintained in any database(s) must be available for the NRC review.

(5) If a licensee administratively withdraws an individual's unescorted access or access authorization status caused by a delay in completing any portion of the background investigation or for a licensee initiated evaluation, or re-evaluation that is not under the individual's control, the licensee shall record this administrative action to withdraw the individual's unescorted access or unescorted access authorization and shall share this information with other licensees subject to this section. However, licensees shall not document this administrative withdrawal as denial or unfavorable termination and shall not respond to a suitable inquiry conducted under the provisions of 10 CFR part 26, a background investigation conducted under the provisions of this section, or any other inquiry or investigation as denial nor unfavorable termination. Upon favorable completion of the background investigation element that caused the administrative withdrawal, the licensee shall immediately ensure that any matter that could link the individual to the administrative action is eliminated from the subject individual's access authorization or personnel record and other records, except if a review of the information obtained or developed causes the reviewing official to unfavorably terminate or deny the individual's unescorted access.

[78 FR 29553, May 20, 2013]

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