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e-CFR data is current as of February 25, 2021

Title 7Subtitle BChapter ISubchapter CPart 58Subpart B → §58.126

Title 7: Agriculture
Subpart B—General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service

§58.126   Buildings.

The building or buildings shall be of sound construction and shall be kept in good repair to prevent the entrance or harboring of rodents, birds, insects, vermin, dogs, and cats. All service pipe openings through outside walls shall be effectively sealed around the opening or provided with tight metal collars.

(a) Outside doors, windows, openings, etc. All openings to the outer air including doors, windows, skylights and transoms shall be effectively protected or screened against the entrance of flies and other insects, rodents, birds, dust and dirt. All outside doors opening into processing rooms shall be in good condition and fit propperly. All hinged, outside screen doors shall open outward. All doors and windows should be kept clean and in good repair. Outside conveyor openings and other special-type outside openings shall be effectively protected to prevent the entrance of flies and rodents, by the use of doors, screens, flaps, fans or tunnels. Outside openings for sanitary pipelines shall be covered when not in use. On new construction window sills should be slanted downward at approximately a 45° angle.

(b) Walls, ceilings, partitions and posts. The walls, ceilings, partitions, and posts of rooms in which milk, or dairy products are processed, manufactured, handled, packaged or stored (except dry storage of packaged finished products and supplies) or in which utensils are washed and stored, shall be smoothly finished with a suitable material of light color, which is substantially impervious to moisture and kept clean. They shall be refinished as often as necessary to maintain a neat, clean surface. For easier cleaning new construction should have rounded cove at the juncture of the wall and floor in all receiving, pasteurizing, manufacturing, packaging and storage rooms.

(c) Floors. The floors of all rooms in which milk, or dairy products are processed, manufactured, packaged or stored or in which utensils are washed shall be constructed of tile properly laid with impervious joint material, concrete, or other equally impervious material. The floors shall be smooth, kept in good repair, graded so that there will be no pools of standing water or milk products after flushing, and all openings to the drains shall be equipped with traps properly constructed and kept in good repair. On new construction, bell and standpipe type traps shall not be used. The plumbing shall be so installed as to prevent the back-up of sewage into the drain lines and to the floor of the plant. Cold storage rooms used for storage of product and starter rooms need not be provided with floor drains if the floor is sloped to drain to an exit.

Sound, smooth, wood floors which can be kept clean, may be used in rooms where new containers and supplies and certain packaged finished products are stored.

(d) Lighting and ventilation. (1) Light shall be ample, natural or artificial, or both, of good quality and well distributed. All rooms in which dairy products are manufactured or packaged or where utensils are washed shall have at least 30 foot-candles of light intensity on all working surfaces. Rooms where dairy products are graded or examined for condition and quality shall have at least 50 foot-candles of light intensity on the working surface. Restrooms and locker rooms should have at least 30 foot-candles of light intensity. In all other rooms there shall be provided at least 5 foot-candles of light intensity when measured at a distance of 30 inches from the floor. Where contamination of product by broken glass is possible, light bulbs and fluorescent tubes shall be protected against breakage.

(2) There shall be adequate heating, ventilation or air conditioning for all rooms and compartments to permit maintenance of sanitary conditions. Exhaust or inlet fans, vents, hoods or temperature and humidity control equipment shall be provided where and when needed, to minimize or control room temperatures, eliminate objectionable odors, and aid in prevention of moisture condensation and mold. Inlet fans should be provided with an adequate air filtering device to eliminate dirt and dust from the incoming air. Ventilation systems shall be cleaned periodically as needed and maintained in good repair. Exhaust outlets shall be screened or provided with self closing louvers to prevent the entrance of insects when not in use.

(e) Rooms and compartments. Rooms and compartments in which any raw material, packaging, ingredient supplies or dairy products are handled, manufactured, packaged or stored shall be so designed, constructed and maintained as to assure desirable room temperatures and clean and orderly operating conditions free from objectionable odors and vapors. Enclosed bulk milk receiving rooms, when present, shall be separated from the processing rooms by a wall. Rooms for receiving can milk shall be separated from the processing rooms by a partition or by suitable arrangement of equipment. Processing rooms shall be kept free from equipment and materials not regularly used.

(1) Coolers and freezers. Coolers and freezers where dairy products are stored shall be clean, reasonably dry and maintained at the proper uniform temperature and humidity to adequately protect the product, and minimize the growth of mold. Adequate circulation of air shall be maintained at all times. They shall be free from rodents, insects, and pests. Shelves shall be kept clean and dry. Refrigeration units shall have provisions for collecting and disposing of condensate.

(2) Supply room. The supply rooms or areas used for the storing of packaging materials; containers, and miscellaneous ingredients shall be kept clean, dry, orderly, free from insects, rodents, and mold, and maintained in good repair. Such items stored therein shall be adequately protected from dust, dirt, or other extraneous material and so arranged on racks, shelves or pallets to permit access to the supplies and cleaning and inspection of the room. Insecticides, rodenticides, cleaning compounds and other nonfood products shall be properly labeled and segregated, and stored in a separate room or cabinet away from milk, dairy products, ingredients or packaging supplies.

(3) Boiler rooms, shop rooms and shop areas. The boiler, and shop rooms shall be separated from other rooms where milk, and dairy products are processed, manufactured, packaged, handled or stored. Shop rooms or areas should be kept orderly and reasonably free from dust and dirt.

(4) Toilet and dressing rooms. Adequate toilet and dressing room facilities shall be conveniently located.

(i) Toilet rooms shall not open directly into any room in which milk or dairy products are processed, manufactured, packaged or stored; doors shall be self-closing; ventilation shall be provided by mechanical means to the outer air; fixtures shall be kept clean and in good repair.

(ii) All employees shall be furnished with a locker or other suitable facility and the lockers and dressing rooms shall be kept clean and orderly. Adequate handwashing facilities shall be provided. Legible signs shall be posted conspicuously in each toilet or dressing room directing employees to wash their hands before returning to work.

(5) Laboratory. (i) Consistent with the size and type of plant and the volume of dairy products manufactured, an adequately equipped laboratory shall be maintained and properly staffed with qualified and trained personnel for quality control and analytical testing. The laboratory should be located reasonably close to the processing activity and be of sufficient size to perform tests necessary in evaluating the quality of raw and finished products.

(ii) Approved laboratories shall be supervised by the USDA resident inspector in all aspects of official testing and in reporting results. Plant laboratory personnel in such plants may be authorized by USDA to perform official duties. The AMS Science and Technology Programs will provide independent auditing of laboratory analysis functions.

(iii) An approved central control laboratory serving more than one plant may be acceptable, if conveniently located to the dairy plants, and if samples and results can be transmitted without undue delay.

(6) Starter facilities. Adequate facilities shall be provided for the handling of starter cultures. The facilities shall not be located near areas where contamination is likely to occur.

(7) Grading and inspection room. When grading or inspection of product is performed the plants shall furnish a room or designated area specifically for this purpose. The room or area shall be suitably located, sufficient in size, well lighted (see §58.126d), ventilated and the temperature shall be not less than 60 °F. It shall be kept clean and dry, free from foreign odors and reasonably free from disturbing elements which would interfere with proper concentration by the grader or inspector. The grading or inspection room or area shall be equipped with a table or desk and convenient facilities for washing hands.

(8) Resident inspector's facilities. In resident plants, an office or space shall be provided for official purposes. The room or space should be conveniently located in or near the approved laboratory, adequate in size, and equipped with desk and a lockable storage supply cabinet, and clothes locker. It shall be well lighted, ventilated or air conditioned, and heated. Custodial service shall be furnished on a regular basis.

(9) Lunch rooms and eating areas. When these areas are provided, they (i) shall be kept clean and orderly, (ii) should not open directly into any room in which milk or dairy products are processed, manufactured or packaged, and (iii) signs shall be posted directing employees to wash their hands before returning to work.

[40 FR 47911, Oct. 10, 1975. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and further redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, as amended at 58 FR 42413, Aug. 9, 1993; 59 FR 24321, May 10, 1994; 59 FR 50121, Sept. 30, 1994; 67 FR 48974, July 29, 2002]

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