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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of February 20, 2020

Title 50Chapter VIPart 660Subpart C → §660.11


Title 50: Wildlife and Fisheries
PART 660—FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES
Subpart C—West Coast Groundfish Fisheries


§660.11   General definitions.

These definitions are specific to the fisheries covered in subparts C through G of this part.

Acceptable Biological Catch (ABC) means a harvest specification that is set below the overfishing limit to account for scientific uncertainty in the estimate of OFL, and other scientific uncertainty.

Active sampling unit means the portion of the groundfish fleet in which an observer coverage plan is being applied.

Address of Record means the business address a person has provided to NMFS for NMFS use in providing notice of agency actions and other business with that person.

Allocation. (See §600.10 of this chapter)

Annual Catch Limit (ACL) is a harvest specification set equal to or below the ABC threshold in consideration of conservation objectives, socioeconomic concerns, management uncertainty and other factors. The ACL is a harvest limit that includes all sources of fishing-related mortality including landings, discard mortality, research catches, and catches in exempted fishing permit activities. Sector-specific annual catch limits can be specified, especially in cases where a sector has a formal, long-term allocation of the harvestable surplus of a stock or stock complex.

Annual Catch Target (ACT) is a management target set below the annual catch limit and may be used as an accountability measure in cases where there is great uncertainty in inseason catch monitoring to ensure against exceeding an annual catch limit. Since the annual catch target is a target and not a limit it can be used in lieu of harvest guidelines or strategically to accomplish other management objectives. Sector-specific annual catch targets can also be specified to accomplish management objectives.

Base permit means a sablefish-endorsed limited entry permit described at §660.25(b)(3)(i), subpart C, registered for use with a vessel that meets the permit length endorsement requirements appropriate to that vessel, as described at §660.25(b)(3)(iii), subpart C.

Biennial fishing period means a 24-month period beginning at 0001 local time on January 1 and ending at 2400 local time on December 31 of the subsequent year.

B MSY means the biomass level that produces maximum sustainable yield (MSY), as stated in the PCGFMP at Section 4.3.

Calendar day means the day beginning at 0001 hours local time and continuing for 24 consecutive hours.

Calendar year. (see “fishing year”)

Catch, take, harvest. (See §600.10 of this chapter)

Catch monitor means an individual that is certified by NMFS, is deployed to a first receiver, and whose primary duties include: monitoring and verification of the sorting of fish relative to Federal requirements defined in §660.60(h)(6); documentation of the weighing of such fish relative to the requirements of §660.13(b); and verification of first receivers' reporting relative to the requirements defined in §660.113(b)(4).

Catch Monitor Program or Catch Monitor Program Office means the Catch Monitor Program Office of the West Coast Region, National Marine Fisheries Service.

Catch monitor provider means any person that is granted a permit by NMFS to provide certified catch monitors as required in §660.140.

Change in partnership or corporation means the addition of a new shareholder or partner to the corporate or partnership membership. This definition of a “change” will apply to any person added to the corporate or partnership membership since November 1, 2000, including any family member of an existing shareholder or partner. A change in membership is not considered to have occurred if a member dies or becomes legally incapacitated and a trustee is appointed to act on his behalf, nor if the ownership of shares among existing members changes, nor if a member leaves the corporation or partnership and is not replaced. Changes in the ownership of publicly held stock will not be deemed changes in ownership of the corporation.

Closure or closed means, when referring to closure of a fishery or a closed fishery, that taking and retaining, possessing, or landing the particular species or species group covered by the fishing closure is prohibited. Unless otherwise announced in the Federal Register or authorized in this subpart, offloading must begin before the closure time.

Commercial fishing means:

(1) Fishing by a person who possesses a commercial fishing license or is required by law to possess such license issued by one of the states or the Federal Government as a prerequisite to taking, landing and/or sale of fish; or

(2) Fishing that results in or can be reasonably expected to result in sale, barter, trade or other disposition of fish for other than personal consumption.

Commercial harvest guideline means the fishery harvest guideline minus the estimated recreational catch. Limited entry and open access allocations are derived from the commercial harvest guideline.

Conservation area(s) means an enclosed geographic area defined by coordinates expressed in degrees latitude and longitude where NMFS may prohibit fishing with particular gear types. Conservation areas include Groundfish Conservation Areas (GCA), Essential Fish Habitat Conservation Areas (EFHCA) and Deep-sea Ecosystem Conservation Areas (DECA).

(1) Groundfish Conservation Area or GCA means a conservation area created or modified and enforced to control catch of groundfish or protected species. Regulations at §660.60(c)(3) describe the various purposes for which NMFS may implement certain types of GCAs through routine management measures. Regulations at §660.70 further describe and define coordinates for certain GCAs, including: Yelloweye Rockfish Conservation Areas; Cowcod Conservation Areas; waters encircling the Farallon Islands; and waters encircling the Cordell Banks. GCAs also include depth-based closures bounded by lines approximating depth contours, including Bycatch Reduction Areas or BRAs, or bounded by depth contours and lines of latitude, including, Block Area Closures or BACs, and Rockfish Conservation Areas or RCAs, which may be closed to fishing with particular gear types. BRA, BAC, and RCA boundaries may change seasonally according to conservation needs. Regulations at §§660.71 through 660.74 define depth-based closure boundary lines with latitude/longitude coordinates. Regulations at §660.11 describe commonly used geographic coordinates that define lines of latitude. Fishing prohibitions associated with GCAs are in addition to those associated with other conservation areas.

(i) Block Area Closures or BACs are defined at §660.111.

(ii) Bycatch Reduction Areas or BRAs are conservation areas that apply to vessels using midwater groundfish trawl gear during the Pacific whiting primary season, as described at §§660.60(d) and 660.131(c).

(iii) Cordell Banks is defined at §660.70.

(iv) Cowcod Conservation Areas are defined at §660.70.

(v) Farallon Islands is defined at §660.70.

(vi) Rockfish Conservation Areas or RCAs. RCA restrictions are detailed in subparts D through G of this part. RCAs may apply to a single gear type or to a group of gear types such as “trawl RCAs” or “non-trawl RCAs.” Specific latitude and longitude coordinates for RCA boundaries that approximate the depth contours selected for trawl, non-trawl, and recreational RCAs are provided in §§660.71 through 660.74. Also provided in §§660.71 through 660.74, are references to islands and rocks that serve as reference points for the RCAs.

(A) Trawl (Limited Entry and Open Access Non-groundfish Trawl Gears) RCAs. The trawl RCAs are intended to protect a complex of species, such as overfished shelf rockfish species, and have boundaries defined by specific latitude and longitude coordinates approximating depth contours. Boundaries for the limited entry trawl RCA throughout the year are provided in Table 1 (North) subpart D of this part. Boundaries for the open access non-groundfish trawl RCA throughout the year are provided in Table 3 (South) subpart F of this part. Boundaries of the trawl RCAs may be modified by NMFS inseason pursuant to §660.60(c).

(B) Non-Trawl (Limited Entry Fixed Gear and Open Access Non-trawl Gears) RCAs. Non-trawl RCAs are intended to protect a complex of species, such as overfished shelf rockfish species, and have boundaries defined by specific latitude and longitude coordinates approximating depth contours. Boundaries for the non-trawl RCA throughout the year are provided in Table 2 (North) and Table 2 (South) of subpart E of this part, and Table 3 (North) and Table 3 (South) of subpart F of this part, and may be modified by NMFS inseason pursuant to §660.60(c).

(C) Recreational RCAs. Recreational RCAs are closed areas intended to protect overfished rockfish species. Recreational RCAs may either have boundaries defined by general depth contours or boundaries defined by specific latitude and longitude coordinates approximating depth contours. Boundaries for the recreational RCAs throughout the year are provided in the text in subpart G of this part under each state (Washington, Oregon and California) and may be modified by NMFS inseason pursuant to §660.60(c).

(vii) Yelloweye Rockfish Conservation Areas or YRCAs are defined at §660.70.

(2) Essential Fish Habitat Conservation Area or EFHCA means an area created and enforced to contribute to the protection of groundfish essential fish habitat. Regulations at §§660.75 through 660.79 define EFHCA boundaries. Fishing prohibitions associated with EFHCAs, which are found at §§660.12, 660.112, 660.212, and 660.312, are in addition to those prohibitions associated with other conservation areas.

(3) Deep-sea Ecosystem Conservation Area or DECA is the area within the EEZ deeper than 3,500 m (1,914 fm) that is not designated as EFH, defined at §660.75 with latitude and longitude coordinates. The DECA is closed to bottom contact gear for the reasons described under MSA Section 303(b), and contributes to the protection of deep-water habitats including deep-sea corals. Fishing prohibitions associated with DECAs, at §660.12, are in addition to those associated with other conservation areas.

Continuous transiting or transit through means that a fishing vessel crosses a groundfish conservation area or EFH conservation area on a constant heading, along a continuous straight line course, while making way by means of a source of power at all times, other than drifting by means of the prevailing water current or weather conditions.

Corporation means a legal, business entity, including incorporated (INC) and limited liability corporations (LLC).

Council means the Pacific Fishery Management Council, including its Groundfish Management Team (GMT), Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC), Groundfish Advisory Subpanel (GAP), and any other advisory body established by the Council.

Date of landing means the date on which the transfer of fish or offloading of fish from any vessel to a processor or other first receiver begins.

Direct financial interest means any source of income to or capital investment or other interest held by an individual, partnership, or corporation or an individual's spouse, immediate family member or parent that could be influenced by performance or non-performance of observer or catch monitor duties.

Dock ticket means a form accepted by the state to record the landing, receipt, purchase, or transfer of fish.

Electronic fish ticket means a web-based form that is used to send landing data to the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission. Electronic fish tickets are used to collect information similar to the information required in state fish receiving tickets or landing receipts, but do not replace or change any state requirements.

Electronic Monitoring System or EMS means a data collection tool that uses a software operating system connected to an assortment of electronic components, including video recorders, to create a collection of data on vessel activities.

Endorsement means an additional specification affixed to the limited entry permit that further restricts fishery participation or further specifies a harvest privilege, and is non-severable from a limited entry permit.

Entity. (See “Person”)

Essential Fish Habitat or EFH. (See §600.10 of this chapter)

Exclusive Economic Zone or EEZ is defined at §600.10. See also Fishery management area of this section.

First Receiver means a person who receives, purchases, or takes custody, control, or possession of catch onshore directly from a vessel.

Fiscal year means the year beginning at 0001 local time on October 1 and ending at 2400 local time on September 30 of the following year.

Fish. (See §600.10 of this chapter)

Fishery (See §600.10 of this chapter)

Fishery harvest guideline means the harvest guideline or quota after subtracting from the TAC, ACL, or ACT when specified, any allocation or projected catch for the Pacific Coast treaty Indian Tribes, projected research catch, deductions for fishing mortality in non-groundfish fisheries, and deductions for EFPs.

Fishery management area means the EEZ off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California between 3 and 200 nm offshore, and bounded on the north by the Provisional International Boundary between the U.S. and Canada, and bounded on the south by the International Boundary between the U.S. and Mexico. The inner boundary of the fishery management area is a line coterminous with the seaward boundaries of the States of Washington, Oregon, and California (the “3-mile limit”). The outer boundary of the fishery management area is a line drawn in such a manner that each point on it is 200 nm from the baseline from which the territorial sea is measured, or is a provisional or permanent international boundary between the U.S. and Canada or Mexico. All groundfish possessed between 0-200 nm offshore or landed in Washington, Oregon, or California are presumed to have been taken and retained from the EEZ, unless otherwise demonstrated by the person in possession of those fish.

Fishing. (See §600.10 of this chapter)

Fishing gear includes the following types of gear and equipment:

(1) Bottom contact gear means fishing gear designed or modified to make contact with the bottom. This includes, but is not limited to, beam trawl, bottom trawl, dredge, fixed gear, set net, demersal seine, dinglebar gear, and other gear (including experimental gear) designed or modified to make contact with the bottom. Gear used to harvest bottom dwelling organisms (e.g. by hand, rakes, and knives) are also considered bottom contact gear for purposes of this subpart.

(2) Demersal seine means a net designed to encircle fish on the seabed. The demersal seine is characterized by having its net bounded by lead-weighted ropes that are not encircled with bobbins or rollers. Demersal seine gear is fished without the use of steel cables or otter boards (trawl doors). Scottish and Danish Seines are demersal seines. Purse seines, as defined at §600.10 of this chapter, are not demersal seines. Demersal seine gear is included in the definition of bottom trawl gear in paragraph (11)(i) of this definition.

(3) Dredge gear means a gear consisting of a metal frame attached to a holding bag constructed of metal rings or mesh. As the metal frame is dragged upon or above the seabed, fish are pushed up and over the frame, then into the mouth of the holding bag.

(4) Entangling nets include the following types of net gear:

(i) Gillnet. (See §600.10 of this chapter)

(ii) Set net means a stationary, buoyed, and anchored gillnet or trammel net.

(iii) Trammel net means a gillnet made with two or more walls joined to a common float line.

(5) Fixed gear (anchored nontrawl gear) means the following gear types: longline, trap or pot, set net, and stationary hook-and-line (including commercial vertical hook-and-line) gears.

(6) Hook-and-line means one or more hooks attached to one or more lines. It may be stationary (commercial vertical hook-and-line) or mobile (troll).

(i) Bottom longline means a stationary, buoyed, and anchored groundline with hooks attached, so as to fish along the seabed. It does not include pelagic hook-and-line or troll gear.

(A) Snap gear means a type of bottom longline gear where the hook and gangion are attached to the groundline using a mechanical fastener or snap.

(B) [Reserved]

(ii) Commercial vertical hook-and-line means commercial fishing with hook-and-line gear that involves a single line anchored at the bottom and buoyed at the surface so as to fish vertically.

(iii) Dinglebar gear means one or more lines retrieved and set with a troll gurdy or hand troll gurdy, with a terminally attached weight from which one or more leaders with one or more lures or baited hooks are pulled through the water while a vessel is making way.

(iv) Troll gear means a lure or jig towed behind a vessel via a fishing line. Troll gear is used in commercial and recreational fisheries.

(7) Mesh size means the opening between opposing knots, or opposing corners for knotless webbing. Minimum mesh size means the smallest distance allowed between the inside of one knot or corner to the inside of the opposing knot or corner, regardless of twine size.

(8) Nontrawl gear means all legal commercial groundfish gear other than trawl gear.

(9) Spear means a sharp, pointed, or barbed instrument on a shaft.

(10) Trap or pot See §600.10 of this chapter, definition of “trap”. These terms are used as interchangeable synonyms.

(11) Trawl gear means a cone or funnel-shaped net that is towed through the water, and can include a pair trawl that towed simultaneously by two boats. For the purpose of this definition, trawl gear includes groundfish and non-groundfish trawl. See definitions for groundfish trawl and non-groundfish trawls (previously called “exempted trawl”).

(i) Bottom trawl means a trawl in which the otter boards or the footrope of the net are in contact with the seabed. It includes demersal seine gear, and pair trawls fished on the bottom. Any trawl not meeting the requirements for a midwater trawl in §660.130(b), subpart D is a bottom trawl.

(A) Beam trawl gear means a type of trawl gear in which a beam is used to hold the trawl open during fishing. Otter boards or doors are not used.

(B) Large footrope trawl gear means a bottom trawl gear with a footrope diameter larger than 8 inches (20 cm,) and no larger than 19 inches (48 cm) including any rollers, bobbins, or other material encircling or tied along the length of the footrope.

(C) Small footrope trawl gear means a bottom trawl gear with a footrope diameter of 8 inches (20 cm) or smaller, including any rollers, bobbins, or other material encircling or tied along the length of the footrope. Selective flatfish trawl gear that meets the gear component requirements in §660.130(b), subpart D is a type of small footrope trawl gear.

(ii) Midwater (pelagic or off-bottom) trawl means a trawl in which the otter boards and footrope of the net remain above the seabed. It includes pair trawls if fished in midwater. A midwater trawl has no rollers or bobbins on any part of the net or its component wires, ropes, and chains. For additional midwater trawl gear requirements and restrictions, see §660.130(b), subpart D.

(iii) Trawl gear components include:

(A) Breastline means a rope or cable that connects the end of the headrope and the end of the trawl fishing line along the edge of the trawl web closest to the towing point.

(B) Chafing gear means webbing or other material that is attached to the trawl net to protect the net from wear and abrasions either when fishing or hauling on deck.

(C) Codend. (See §600.10 of this chapter)

(D) Double-bar mesh means webbing comprised of two lengths of twine tied into a single knot.

(E) Double-walled codend means a codend constructed of two walls (layers) of webbing.

(F) Footrope means a chain, rope, or wire attached to the bottom front end of the trawl webbing forming the leading edge of the bottom panel of the trawl net, and attached to the fishing line.

(G) Headrope means a chain, rope, or wire attached to the trawl webbing forming the leading edge of the top panel of the trawl net.

(H) Rollers or bobbins means devices made of wood, steel, rubber, plastic, or other hard material that encircle the trawl footrope. These devices are commonly used to either bounce or pivot over seabed obstructions, in order to prevent the trawl footrope and net from snagging on the seabed.

(I) Single-walled codend means a codend constructed of a single wall of webbing knitted with single or double-bar mesh.

(J) Trawl fishing line means a length of chain, rope, or wire rope in the bottom front end of a trawl net to which the webbing or lead ropes are attached.

(K) Trawl riblines means a heavy rope or line that runs down the sides, top, or underside of a trawl net from the mouth of the net to the terminal end of the codend to strengthen the net during fishing.

Fishing or Calendar year means the year beginning at 0001 local time on January 1 and ending at 2400 local time on December 31 of the same year. There are two fishing years in each biennial fishing period.

Fishing trip means a period of time between landings when fishing is conducted.

Fishing vessel. (See §600.10 of this chapter)

Fund means, for the purposes of subparts C through G of this part, the U.S. Treasury's Limited Access System Administration Fund (LASAF) established by the Magnuson-Stevens Act, 16 U.S.C. 1855(h)(5)(B), specifically the LASAF subaccounts associated with the PCGFMP cost recovery programs.

Grandfathered or first generation, when referring to a limited entry sablefish-endorsed permit owner, means those permit owners who owned a sablefish-endorsed limited entry permit prior to November 1, 2000, and are, therefore, exempt from certain requirements of the sablefish permit stacking program within the parameters of the regulations at §660.25(b), subpart C and §660.231, subpart E.

Groundfish means species managed by the PCGFMP, specifically:

(1) Sharks: Leopard shark, Triakis semifasciata; soupfin shark, Galeorhinus zyopterus; spiny dogfish, Squalus suckleyi.

(2) Skates: “Skates” in the PCGFMP include all genera and species in the family Arhynchobatidae that occur off Washington, Oregon, and California, including but not limited to Aleutian skate, Bathyraja aleutica; Bering/sandpaper skate, B. interrupta; big skate, Raja binoculata; California skate, R. inornata; longnose skate, R. rhina; roughtail/black skate, B. trachura.

(3) Ratfish: Ratfish, Hydrolagus colliei.

(4) Morids: Finescale codling, Antimora microlepis.

(5) Grenadiers: “Grenadiers” in the PCGFMP include all genera and species in the family Macrouridae that occur off Washington, Oregon, and California, including but not limited to Giant grenadier, Albatrossia pectoralis; Pacific grenadier, Coryphaenoides acrolepis.

(6) Roundfish: Cabezon, Scorpaenichthys marmoratus; kelp greenling, Hexagrammos decagrammus; lingcod, Ophiodon elongatus; Pacific cod, Gadus macrocephalus; Pacific whiting, Merluccius productus; sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria. Species listed in paragraphs (6)(i) and (ii) of this definition with an area-specific listing are managed within a complex in that area-specific listing.

(i) Between 46°16 N lat. and the U.S. Canada border (Washington): Cabezon, S. marmoratus and kelp greenling, H. decagrammus.

(ii) Between 46°16 N lat. and 42° N lat. (Oregon): Cabezon, S. marmoratus and kelp greenling, H. decagrammus.

(7) Rockfish: “Rockfish” in the PCGFMP include all genera and species of the family Scorpaenidae that occur off Washington, Oregon, and California, even if not listed below, including longspine thornyhead, Sebastolobus altivelis, and shortspine thornyhead, S. alascanus. Where species below are listed both in a geographic category (nearshore, shelf, slope) and as an area-specific listing (north or south of 40°10 N. lat.) those species are managed within a “minor” rockfish complex in that area-specific listing.

(i) Nearshore rockfish includes black rockfish, Sebastes melanops (off Washington and California) and the following nearshore rockfish species managed in “minor rockfish” complexes:

(A) North of 46°16 N lat. (Washington) and between 42°00 N lat. and 40°10 N lat. (northern California): Black and yellow rockfish, S. chrysomelas; blue rockfish, S. mystinus; brown rockfish, S. auriculatus; calico rockfish, S. dalli; China rockfish, S. nebulosus; copper rockfish, S. caurinus; deacon rockfish, S. diaconus, gopher rockfish, S. carnatus; grass rockfish, S. rastrelliger; kelp rockfish, S. atrovirens; olive rockfish, S. serranoides; quillback rockfish, S. maliger; treefish, S. serriceps.

(B) Between 46°16 N lat. and 42° N lat. (Oregon): Black and yellow rockfish, S. chrysomelas; brown rockfish, S. auriculatus; calico rockfish, S. dalli; China rockfish, S. nebulosus; copper rockfish, S. caurinus; gopher rockfish, S. carnatus; grass rockfish, S. rastrelliger; kelp rockfish, S. atrovirens; olive rockfish, S. serranoides; quillback rockfish, S. maliger; treefish, S. serriceps.

(C) Between 46°16 N lat. and 42° N lat. (Oregon): Black rockfish, S. melanops, blue rockfish, S. mystinus, and deacon rockfish, S. diaconus.

(D) South of 40°10 N lat. (Southern California): Nearshore rockfish are divided into three management categories:

(1) Shallow nearshore rockfish consists of black and yellow rockfish, S. chrysomelas; China rockfish, S. nebulosus; gopher rockfish, S. carnatus; grass rockfish, S. rastrelliger; kelp rockfish, S. atrovirens.

(2) Deeper nearshore rockfish consists of black rockfish, S. melanops; blue rockfish, S. mystinus; brown rockfish, S. auriculatus; calico rockfish, S. dalli; copper rockfish, S. caurinus; deacon rockfish, S. diaconus; olive rockfish, S. serranoides; quillback rockfish, S. maliger; treefish, S. serriceps.

(3) California scorpionfish, Scorpaena guttata.

(ii) Shelf rockfish includes bocaccio, Sebastes paucispinis; canary rockfish, S. pinniger; chilipepper, S. goodei; cowcod, S. levis; shortbelly rockfish, S. jordani; widow rockfish, S. entomelas; yelloweye rockfish, S. ruberrimus; yellowtail rockfish, S. flavidus and the following shelf rockfish species managed in “minor rockfish” complexes:

(A) Shelf Rockfish North of 40°10 N. lat.: Bronzespotted rockfish, S. gilli; bocaccio, S. paucispinis; chameleon rockfish, S. phillipsi; chilipepper, S. goodei; cowcod, S. levis; dusky rockfish, S. ciliatus; dwarf-red rockfish, S. rufianus; flag rockfish, S. rubrivinctus; freckled rockfish, S. lentiginosus; greenblotched rockfish, S. rosenblatti; greenspotted rockfish, S. chlorostictus; greenstriped rockfish, S. elongatus; halfbanded rockfish, S. semicinctus; harlequin rockfish, S. variegatus; honeycomb rockfish, S. umbrosus; Mexican rockfish, S. macdonaldi; pink rockfish, S. eos; pinkrose rockfish, S. simulator; pygmy rockfish, S. wilsoni; redstripe rockfish, S. proriger; rosethorn rockfish, S. helvomaculatus; rosy rockfish, S. rosaceus; silvergray rockfish, S. brevispinis; speckled rockfish, S. ovalis; squarespot rockfish, S. hopkinsi; starry rockfish, S. constellatus; stripetail rockfish, S. saxicola; sunset rockfish, S. crocotulus; swordspine rockfish, S. ensifer; tiger rockfish, S. nigrocinctus; vermilion rockfish, S. miniatus.

(B) Shelf Rockfish South of 40°10 N. lat.: Bronzespotted rockfish, S. gilli; chameleon rockfish, S. phillipsi; dusky rockfish, S. ciliatus; dwarf-red rockfish, S. rufianus; flag rockfish, S. rubrivinctus; freckled rockfish, S. lentiginosus; greenblotched rockfish, S. rosenblatti; greenspotted rockfish, S. chlorostictus; greenstriped rockfish, S. elongatus; halfbanded rockfish, S. semicinctus; harlequin rockfish, S. variegatus; honeycomb rockfish, S. umbrosus; Mexican rockfish, S. macdonaldi; pink rockfish, S. eos; pinkrose rockfish, S. simulator; pygmy rockfish, S. wilsoni; redstripe rockfish, S. proriger; rosethorn rockfish, S. helvomaculatus; rosy rockfish, S. rosaceus; silvergray rockfish, S. brevispinis; speckled rockfish, S. ovalis; squarespot rockfish, S. hopkinsi; starry rockfish, S. constellatus; stripetail rockfish, S. saxicola; sunset rockfish, S. crocotulus; swordspine rockfish, S. ensifer; tiger rockfish, S. nigrocinctus; vermilion rockfish, S. miniatus; yellowtail rockfish, S. flavidus.

(iii) Slope rockfish includes darkblotched rockfish, S. crameri; Pacific ocean perch, S. alutus; splitnose rockfish, S. diploproa; and the following slope rockfish species managed in “minor rockfish” complexes:

(A) Slope Rockfish North of 40°10 N. lat.: Aurora rockfish, Sebastes aurora; bank rockfish, S. rufus; blackgill rockfish, S. melanostomus; blackspotted rockfish, S. melanostictus; redbanded rockfish, S. babcocki; rougheye rockfish, S. aleutianus; sharpchin rockfish, S. zacentrus; shortraker rockfish, S. borealis; splitnose rockfish, S. diploproa; yellowmouth rockfish, S. reedi.

(B) Slope Rockfish South of 40°10 N. lat.: Aurora rockfish, Sebastes aurora; bank rockfish, S. rufus; blackgill rockfish, S. melanostomus; blackspotted rockfish, S. melanostictus; Pacific ocean perch, S. alutus; redbanded rockfish, S. babcocki; rougheye rockfish, S. aleutianus; sharpchin rockfish, S. zacentrus; shortraker rockfish, S. borealis; yellowmouth rockfish, S. reedi.

(8) Flatfish: Arrowtooth flounder (arrowtooth turbot), Atheresthes stomias; butter sole, Isopsetta isolepis; curlfin sole, Pleuronichthys decurrens; Dover sole, Microstomus pacificus; English sole, Parophrys vetulus; flathead sole, Hippoglossoides elassodon; Pacific sanddab, Citharichthys sordidus; petrale sole, Eopsetta jordani; rex sole, Glyptocephalus zachirus; rock sole, Lepidopsetta bilineata; sand sole, Psettichthys melanostictus; starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus. Where regulations of subparts C through G of this part refer to landings limits for “other flatfish,” those limits apply to all flatfish cumulatively taken except for those flatfish species specifically listed in Tables 1a and 2a of this subpart. (i.e., “other flatfish” includes butter sole, curlfin sole, flathead sole, Pacific sanddab, rex sole, rock sole, and sand sole.)

(9) “Other Fish”: kelp greenling (Hexagrammos decagrammus) off California and leopard shark (Trakis semifasciata).

(10) “Ecosystem component species” means species that are included in the PCGFMP but are not “in the fishery” and therefore not actively managed and do not require harvest specifications. Ecosystem component species are not targeted in any fishery, not generally retained for sale or personal use, and are not determined to be subject to overfishing, approaching an overfished condition, or overfished, nor are they likely to become subject to overfishing or overfished in the absence of conservation and management measures. Ecosystem component species include: All skates listed here in paragraph (2), except longnose skate and big skate; all grenadiers listed here in paragraph (5); soupfin shark; ratfish; and finescale codling.

Groundfish trawl means trawl gear that is used under the authority of a valid limited entry permit issued under subparts C and D of this part endorsed for trawl gear and which meets the gear requirements specified in subpart D of this part. It does not include any type of trawl gear listed as non-groundfish trawl gear (previously called “exempted gear”).

Harvest guideline means a specified numerical harvest objective that is not a quota. Attainment of a harvest guideline does not require closure of a fishery.

Incidental catch or incidental species means groundfish species caught while fishing for the primary purpose of catching a different species.

Initial Administrative Determination (IAD) means a formal, written determination made by NMFS on an application or permit request, that is subject to an appeal within NMFS.

Joint registration or jointly registered means simultaneously registering both trawl-endorsed and longline or trap/pot-endorsed limited entry permits for use with a single vessel in one of the configurations described at §660.25(b)(4)(iv).

Land or landing means to begin transfer of fish, offloading fish, or to offload fish from any vessel. Once transfer of fish begins, all fish aboard the vessel are counted as part of the landing.

Legal fish means fish legally taken and retained, possessed, or landed in accordance with the provisions of 50 CFR part 660, subparts C through G, the Magnuson-Stevens Act, any document issued under part 660, and any other regulation promulgated or permit issued under the Magnuson-Stevens Act.

Length overall or LOA (with respect to a vessel) means the length overall set forth in the Certificate of Documentation (CG-1270) issued by the USCG for a documented vessel, or in a registration certificate issued by a state or the USCG for an undocumented vessel; for vessels that do not have the LOA stated in an official document, the LOA is the LOA as determined by the USCG or by a marine surveyor in accordance with the USCG method for measuring LOA.

License owner means a person who is the owner of record with NMFS, SFD, Permits Office of a License issued under §660.140, subpart D.

Limited entry fishery means the fishery composed of vessels registered for use with limited entry permits.

Limited entry gear means longline, trap (or pot), or groundfish trawl gear used under the authority of a valid limited entry permit affixed with an endorsement for that gear.

Limited entry permit means:

(1) The Federal permit required to fish in the limited entry “A”-endorsed fishery, and includes any gear, size, or species endorsements affixed to the permit, or

(2) The Federal permit required to receive and process fish as a mothership processor.

Maximum Sustainable Yield or MSY. (See §600.310 of this chapter)

Mobile transceiver unit means a vessel monitoring system or VMS device, as set forth at §660.14, subpart C installed on board a vessel that is used for vessel monitoring and transmitting the vessel's position as required by subpart C.

Non-groundfish fishery means any fishing using non-groundfish trawl gear or nontrawl gear when targeting salmon, HMS, CPS, crab, prawn, or any other species not managed under the PCGFMP. Non-groundfish fishery is sometimes referred to as the incidental open access fishery in which groundfish could be encountered with the gear used, regardless of whether groundfish is retained.

Non-groundfish trawl (previously “exempted” trawl) means any trawl gear other than the Pacific Coast groundfish trawl gear that is authorized for use with a valid groundfish limited entry permit endorsed for trawl gear. Non-groundfish trawl gear includes trawl gear used to fish for pink shrimp, ridgeback prawn, California halibut south of Pt. Arena, and sea cucumbers south of Pt. Arena.

Nontrawl fishery means

(1) For the purpose of allocations at §660.55, subpart C, nontrawl fishery means the limited entry fixed gear fishery, the open access fishery, and the recreational fishery.

(2) For the purposes of all other management measures in subparts C through G of this part, nontrawl fishery means fishing with any legal limited entry fixed gear or open access non-trawl groundfish gear other than trawl gear (groundfish trawl gear and non-groundfish trawl gear), but does not include the recreational fishery.

North-South management area means the management areas defined in paragraph (1) of this definition, or defined and bounded by one or more or the commonly used geographic coordinates set out in paragraph (2) of this definition for the purposes of implementing different management measures in separate geographic areas of the U.S. West Coast.

(1) Management areas—(i) Vancouver. (A) The northeastern boundary is that part of a line connecting the light on Tatoosh Island, WA, with the light on Bonilla Point on Vancouver Island, British Columbia (at 48°35.73 N. lat., 124°43.00 W. long.) south of the International Boundary between the U.S. and Canada (at 48°29.62 N. lat., 124°43.55 W. long.), and north of the point where that line intersects with the boundary of the U.S. territorial sea.

(B) The northern and northwestern boundary is a line connecting the following coordinates in the order listed, which is the provisional international boundary of the EEZ as shown on NOAA/NOS Charts 18480 and 18007:

PointN. Lat.W. Long.
148°29.62124°43.55
248°30.18124°47.22
348°30.37124°50.35
448°30.23124°54.87
548°29.95124°59.23
648°29.73125°00.10
748°28.15125°05.78
848°27.17125°08.42
948°26.78125°09.20
1048°20.27125°22.80
1148°18.37125°29.97
1248°11.08125°53.80
1347°49.25126°40.95
1447°36.78127°11.97
1547°22.00127°41.38
1646°42.08128°51.93
1746°31.78129°07.65

(C) The southern limit is 47°30 N. lat.

(ii) Columbia.

(A) The northern limit is 47°30 N. lat.

(B) The southern limit is 43°00 N. lat.

(iii) Eureka.

(A) The northern limit is 43°00 N. lat.

(B) The southern limit is 40°30 N. lat.

(iv) Monterey.

(A) The northern limit is 40°30 N. lat.

(B) The southern limit is 36°00 N. lat.

(v) Conception.

(A) The northern limit is 36°00 N. lat.

(B) The southern limit is the U.S.-Mexico International Boundary, which is a line connecting the following coordinates in the order listed:

PointN. lat.W. long.
132°35.37117°27.82
232°37.62117°49.52
331°07.97118°36.30
430°32.52121°51.97

(2) Commonly used geographic coordinates.

(i) Cape Alava, WA—48°10.00 N. lat.

(ii) Queets River, WA—47°31.70 N. lat.

(iii) Pt. Chehalis, WA—46°53.30 N. lat.

(iv) Leadbetter Point, WA—46°38.17 N. lat.

(v) Columbia River—46°16.00 N. lat.

(vi) Cape Falcon, OR—45°46.00 N. lat.

(vii) Cape Lookout, OR—45°20.25 N. lat.

(viii) Cascade Head, OR—45°03.83 N. lat.

(ix) Heceta Head, OR—44°08.30 N. lat.

(x) Cape Arago, OR—43°20.83 N. lat.

(xi) Cape Blanco, OR—42°50.00 N. lat.

(xii) Humbug Mountain—42°40.50 N. lat.

(xiii) Marck Arch, OR—42°13.67 N. lat.

(xiv) Oregon/California border—42°00.00 N. lat.

(xv) Cape Mendocino, CA—40°30.00 N. lat.

(xvi) North/South management line—40°10.00 N. lat.

(xvii) Cape Vizcaino, CA—39°44.00 N. lat.

(xviii) Point Arena, CA—38°57.50 N. lat.

(xvix) Point San Pedro, CA—37°35.67 N. lat.

(xx) Pigeon Point, CA—37°11.00 N. lat.

(xxi) Ano Nuevo, CA—37°07.00 N. lat.

(xxii) Point Lopez, CA—36°00.00 N. lat.

(xxiii) Point Conception, CA—34°27.00 N. lat. [Note: Regulations that apply to waters north of 34°27.00 N. lat. are applicable only west of 120°28.00 W. long.; regulations that apply to waters south of 34°27.00 N. lat. also apply to all waters both east of 120°28.00 W. long. and north of 34°27.00 N. lat.]

Observer. (See §600.10 of this chapter—U.S. Observer or Observer)

Observer Program or Observer Program Office means the Observer Program Office of the Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle, Washington. Branch offices within the Observer Program include the West Coast Groundfish Observer Program and the At-sea Hake Observer Program.

Observer provider means any person that is granted a permit by NMFS to provide certified observers as required at §§660.140, 660.150, 660.160, 660.216 or 660.316.

Office of Law Enforcement or OLE refers to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Law Enforcement, Western Division.

Open access fishery means the fishery composed of commercial vessels using open access gear fished pursuant to the harvest guidelines, quotas, and other management measures governing the harvest of open access allocations (detailed in §660.55) or governing the fishing activities of open access vessels (detailed in subpart F of this part). Any commercial vessel that is not registered to a limited entry permit and which takes and retains, possesses or lands groundfish is a participant in the open access groundfish fishery.

Open access gear means all types of fishing gear except:

(1) Longline or trap (or pot) gear fished by a vessel that has a limited entry permit affixed with a gear endorsement for that gear.

(2) Groundfish trawl.

Operate a vessel means any use of a vessel, including, but not limited to, fishing or drifting by means of the prevailing water current or weather conditions.

Operator. (See §600.10)

Optimum yield or OY means the amount of fish that will provide the greatest overall benefit to the Nation, particularly with respect to food production and recreational opportunities, and, taking into account the protection of marine ecosystems, is prescribed as such on the basis of the MSY from the fishery, as reduced by any relevant economic, social, or ecological factor; and, in the case of an overfished fishery, provides for rebuilding to a level consistent with producing the MSY in such fishery. OY may be expressed numerically (as a harvest guideline, quota, or other specification) or non-numerically.

Overage means the amount of fish harvested by a vessel in excess of:

(1) The applicable trip limit for any fishery to which a trip limit applies;

(2) The amount authorized by the applicable permit for trawl fisheries at subpart D of this part;

(3) The amount authorized by the applicable sablefish-endorsed permits for fixed gear sablefish fisheries at subpart E of this part.

Overfishing limit (OFL) is the MSY harvest level or the annual abundance of exploitable biomass of a stock or stock complex multiplied by the maximum fishing mortality threshold or proxy thereof and is an estimate of the catch level above which overfishing is occurring.

Ownership interest means participation in ownership of a corporation, partnership, or other entity:

(1) For sablefish-endorsed permits, ownership interest means participation in ownership of a corporation, partnership, or other entity that owns a sablefish-endorsed permit. Ownership interest does not mean owning stock in a publicly owned corporation.

(2) For the limited entry trawl fishery in subpart D of this part, ownership interest means participation in ownership of a corporation, partnership, or other entity that owns a QS permit, vessel account, MS permit, or an MS/CV-endorsed limited entry permit.

Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan or PCGFMP means the Fishery Management Plan for the Washington, Oregon, and California Groundfish Fishery developed by the Council and approved by the Secretary on January 4, 1982, and as it may be subsequently amended.

Partnership is two or more individuals, partnerships, or corporations, or combinations thereof, who have ownership interest in a permit, including married couples and legally recognized trusts and partnerships, such as limited partnerships (LP), general partnerships (GP), and limited liability partnerships (LLP).

Permit owner means a person who is the owner of record with NMFS, SFD, Permits Office of a limited entry permit. For first receiver site licenses, see definition for “license owner.”

Person, as it applies to limited entry and open access fisheries conducted under, subparts C through F of this part means any individual, corporation, partnership, association or other entity (whether or not organized or existing under the laws of any state), and any Federal, state, or local government, or any entity of any such government that is eligible to own a documented vessel under the terms of 46 U.S.C. 12103(b).

Processing or to process means the preparation or packaging of groundfish to render it suitable for human consumption, retail sale, industrial uses or long-term storage, including, but not limited to, cooking, canning, smoking, salting, drying, filleting, freezing, or rendering into meal or oil, but does not mean heading and gutting unless additional preparation is done. (A vessel that is 75-ft (23-m) or less LOA that harvests whiting and, in addition to heading and gutting, cuts the tail off and freezes the whiting, is not considered to be a catcher/processor nor is it considered to be processing fish (See §660.112(b)(1)(xii)(A))).

(1) At-sea processing means processing that takes place on a vessel or other platform that floats and is capable of being moved from one location to another, whether shore-based or on the water.

(2) Shorebased processing or processing means processing that takes place at a facility that is permanently fixed to land. (Also see the definition for shoreside processing at §660.140, subpart D which defines shoreside processing for the purposes of qualifying for a Shorebased IFQ Program QS permit.) For the purposes of economic data collection in the Shorebased IFQ Program, shorebased processing means either of the following:

(i) Any activity that takes place shoreside; and that involves: Cutting groundfish into smaller portions; or freezing, cooking, smoking, drying groundfish; or packaging that groundfish for resale into 100 pound units or smaller; for sale or distribution into a wholesale or retail market.

(ii) The purchase and redistribution in to a wholesale or retail market of live groundfish from a harvesting vessel.

Processor means a person, vessel, or facility that engages in commercial processing; or receives live groundfish directly from a fishing vessel for retail sale without further processing. (Also see the definition for processors at §660.140, which defines processor for the purposes of qualifying for initial issuance of QS in the Shorebased IFQ Program.)

(1) For the purposes of economic data collection or EDC in the Shorebased IFQ Program, shorebased processor means a person that engages in commercial processing, that is an operation working on U.S. soil or permanently fixed to land, that takes delivery of fish that has not been subject to at-sea processing or shorebased processing; and that thereafter engages that particular fish in shorebased processing; and excludes retailers, such as grocery stores and markets, which receive whole or headed and gutted fish that are then filleted and packaged for retail sale. At §660.114(b), trawl fishery—economic data collection program, the definition of processor is further refined to describe which shorebased processors are required to submit their economic data collection forms.

(2) [Reserved]

Prohibited species means those species and species groups whose retention is prohibited unless authorized by provisions of this section or other applicable law. The following are prohibited species: Any species of salmonid, Pacific halibut, Dungeness crab caught seaward of Washington or Oregon, and groundfish species or species groups under the PCGFMP for which quotas have been achieved and/or the fishery closed.

Protected species means those species, other than prohibited species, that are protected under Federal law, including species listed under the Endangered Species Act, marine mammals protected under the Marine Mammal Protection Act, and bird species protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. Species that are both protected and prohibited are considered prohibited species for purposes of this part.

Quota means a specified numerical harvest objective, the attainment (or expected attainment) of which causes closure of the fishery for that species or species group.

Recreational fishing means fishing with authorized recreational fishing gear for personal use only, and not for sale or barter.

Regional Administrator means the Administrator, West Coast Region, NMFS.

Reserve means a portion of the harvest guideline or quota set aside at the beginning of the fishing year or biennial fishing period to allow for uncertainties in preseason estimates.

Round weight. (See §600.10 of this chapter). Round weight does not include ice, water, or slime.

Sale or sell. (See §600.10 of this chapter)

Scientific research activity. (See §600.10 of this chapter)

Secretary. (See §600.10 of this chapter)

Seabird means those bird species that habitually obtain their food from the sea below the low water mark.

Specification is a numerical or descriptive designation of a management objective, including but not limited to: Acceptable biological catch; optimum yield; harvest guideline; quota; limited entry or open access allocation; a set-aside or allocation for a recreational or treaty Indian fishery; an apportionment of the above to an area, gear, season, fishery, or other subdivision.

Spouse means a person who is legally married to another person as recognized by state law (i.e., one's wife or husband).

Stacking or stacked means registering more than one sablefish-endorsed limited entry permit for use with a single vessel (See §660.25(b)(4)(iii), subpart C).

Sustainable Fisheries Division or SFD means the Assistant Regional Administrator of the Sustainable Fisheries Division, West Coast Region, NMFS, or a designee.

Target fishing means fishing for the primary purpose of catching a particular species or species group (the target species).

Tax-exempt organization means an organization that received a determination letter from the Internal Revenue Service recognizing tax exemption under 26 CFR part 1 (§§1.501 to 1.640).

Totally lost means the vessel being replaced no longer exists in specie, or is absolutely and irretrievably sunk or otherwise beyond the possible control of the owner, or the costs of repair (including recovery) would exceed the value of the vessel after repairs.

Trawl fishery or Limited entry trawl fishery means the groundfish limited entry trawl fishery referred to in subparts C and D, which is composed of vessels registered to a limited entry permit with a trawl endorsement and vessels registered to an MS permit. The trawl fishery is comprised of the following sectors: Catcher/Processor, Mothership, and Shorebased IFQ. The trawl fishery does not include the non-groundfish trawl fisheries, which are all within the open access fishery.

Trip. (See §600.10 of this chapter)

Trip limits. Trip limits are used in the commercial fishery to specify the maximum amount of a fish species or species group that may legally be taken and retained, possessed, or landed, per vessel, per fishing trip, or cumulatively per unit of time, or the number of landings that may be made from a vessel in a given period of time, as follows:

(1) A per trip limit is the total allowable amount of a groundfish species or species group, by weight, or by percentage of weight of legal fish on board, that may be taken and retained, possessed, or landed per vessel from a single fishing trip.

(2) A daily trip limit is the maximum amount of a groundfish species or species group that may be taken and retained, possessed, or landed per vessel in 24 consecutive hours, starting at 0001 hours local time. Only one landing of groundfish may be made in that 24-hour period. Daily trip limits may not be accumulated during multiple day trips.

(3) A weekly trip limit is the maximum amount of a groundfish species or species group that may be taken and retained, possessed, or landed per vessel in 7 consecutive days, starting at 0001 hours local time on Sunday and ending at 2400 hours local time on Saturday. Weekly trip limits may not be accumulated during multiple week trips. If a calendar week falls within two different months or two different cumulative limit periods, a vessel is not entitled to two separate weekly limits during that week.

(4) A cumulative trip limit is the maximum amount of a groundfish species or species group that may be taken and retained, possessed, or landed per vessel in a specified period of time without a limit on the number of landings or trips, unless otherwise specified. The cumulative trip limit periods for limited entry and open access fisheries, which start at 0001 hours local time and end at 2400 hours local time, are as follows, unless otherwise specified:

(i) The 2-month or “major” cumulative limit periods are: January 1-February 28/29, March 1-April 30, May 1-June 30, July 1-August 31, September 1-October 31, and, November 1-December 31.

(ii) One month means the first day through the last day of the calendar month.

(iii) One week means 7 consecutive days, Sunday through Saturday.

Usual and accustomed fishing areas or U&A fishing areas for Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes, occurring within the EEZ, are described at §660.4, subpart A.

Vessel manager means a person or group of persons whom the vessel owner has given authority to oversee all or a portion of groundfish fishing activities aboard the vessel.

Vessel monitoring system or VMS means a vessel monitoring system or mobile transceiver unit as set forth in §660.14, subpart C and approved by NMFS for use on vessels that take (directly or incidentally) species managed under the PCGFMP, as required by this subpart.

Vessel of the United States or U.S. vessel. (See §600.10)

Vessel owner or owner of a vessel, as used in subparts C through G of this part, means a person identified as the current owner in the Certificate of Documentation (CG-1270) issued by the USCG for a documented vessel, or in a registration certificate issued by a state or the USCG for an undocumented vessel.

[75 FR 60897, Oct. 1, 2010, as amended at 75 FR 78373, Dec. 15, 2010; 76 FR 27529, May 11, 2011; 76 FR 53834, Aug. 30, 2011; 76 FR 74733, Dec. 1, 2011; 78 FR 587, Jan. 3, 2013; 78 FR 68767, Nov. 15, 2013; 78 FR 75278, Dec. 11, 2013; 80 FR 12571, Mar. 10, 2015; 80 FR 22279, Apr. 21, 2015; 80 FR 71980, Nov. 18, 2015; 80 FR 77270, Dec. 14, 2015; 81 FR 36807, June 8, 2016; 81 FR 84425, Nov. 23, 2016; 82 FR 9638, Feb. 7, 2017; 82 FR 60569, Dec. 21, 2017; 83 FR 62275, Dec. 3, 2018; 83 FR 63990, Dec. 12, 2018; 84 FR 49961, Sept. 24, 2019; 84 FR 63972, Nov. 19, 2019]

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