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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of February 18, 2020

Title 50Chapter IISubchapter CPart 226 → §226.201

Title 50: Wildlife and Fisheries

§226.201   Critical habitat for the Hawaiian monk seal (Neomonachus schauinslandi).

Critical habitat is designated for Hawaiian monk seals as described in this section. The textual descriptions of critical habitat in this section are the definitive source for determining the critical habitat boundaries.

(a) Critical habitat boundaries. Critical habitat is designated to include all areas in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section and as described in paragraphs (b)(1) and (2) of this section:

(1) Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: Hawaiian monk seal critical habitat areas include all beach areas, sand spits and islets, including all beach crest vegetation to its deepest extent inland, lagoon waters, inner reef waters, and including marine habitat through the water's edge, including the seafloor and all subsurface waters and marine habitat within 10 m of the seafloor, out to the 200-m depth contour line (relative to mean lower low water) around the following 10 areas:

(i) Kure Atoll,

(ii) Midway Islands,

(iii) Pearl and Hermes Reef,

(iv) Lisianski Island,

(v) Laysan Island,

(vi) Maro Reef,

(vii) Gardner Pinnacles,

(viii) French Frigate Shoals,

(ix) Necker Island, and

(x) Nihoa Island.

(2) Main Hawaiian Islands: Hawaiian monk seal critical habitat areas surrounding the following islands listed below are defined in the marine environment by a seaward boundary that extends from the 200-m depth contour line (relative to mean lower low water), including the seafloor and all subsurface waters and marine habitat within 10 m of the seafloor, through the water's edge into the terrestrial environment where the inland boundary extends 5 m (in length) from the shoreline between identified boundary points listed in the table below around the areas listed in paragraphs (a)(2)(i)-(vi) of this section. The shoreline is described by the upper reaches of the wash of the waves, other than storm or seismic waves, at high tide during the season in which the highest wash of the waves occurs, usually evidenced by the edge of vegetation growth or the upper limit of debris (except those areas identified in paragraph (c) of this section). In areas where critical habitat does not extend inland, the designation has a seaward boundary of a line that marks mean lower low water.

AreaIslandTextual description of segmentBoundary pointsLatitudeLongitude
13KauaiSoutheast coast of Kauai (Nomilu Fishpond area through Mahaulepu)KA 11
KA 12
21°5308 N.
21°5334 N.
159°3148 W.
159°2425 W.
13KauaiKawelikoa Point to MolehuKA 21
KA 22
21°5426 N.
21°5448 N.
159°2326 W.
159°2308 W.
13KauaiLydgate Park through Wailua canalKA 31
KA 32
22°0211 N.
22°0241 N.
159°2008 W.
159°2011 W.
13KauaiWailua canal through Waikaea canalKA 41
KA 42
22°0245 N.
22°0414 N.
159°2010 W.
159°1860 W.
13KauaiWaikaea canal through KealiaKA 51
KA 52
22°0415 N.
22°0559 N.
159°1901 W.
159°1808 W.
13KauaiAnahola and Aliomanu areasKA 61
KA 62
22°0746 N.
22°0928 N.
159°1735 W.
159°1818 W.
13KauaiMoloaa Bay through Kepuhi PointKA 71
KA 72
22°1138 N.
22°1252 N.
159°1946 W.
159°2114 W.
13KauaiSoutheast of KilaueaKA 81
KA 82
22°1348 N.
22°1355 N.
159°2352 W.
159°2406 W.
13KauaiWainiha Beach Park through Kee Beach ParkKA 91
KA 92
22°1260 N.
22°1313 N.
159°3230 W.
159°3501 W.
13KauaiMilolii State Park Beach AreaKA 101
KA 102
22°0913 N.
22°0859 N.
159°4252 W.
159°4321 W.
14OahuKeana Point AreaOA 11
OA 12
21°3443 N.
21°3245 N.
158°1537 W.
158°1425 W.
14OahuMaili Beach through Kalaeloa Barbers Point HarborOA 21
OA 22
21°2543 N.
21°1924 N.
158°1048 W.
158°0720 W.
14OahuKalaeloa Barbers Point Harbor through Iroquois PointOA 31
OA 32
21°1918 N.
21°1920 N.
158°0717 W.
157°5817 W.
14OahuDiamond Head areaOA 41
OA 42
21°1527 N.
21°1524 N.
157°4905 W.
157°4745 W.
14OahuHanauma Bay through Sandy BeachOA 51
OA 52
21°1605 N.
21°1745 N.
157°4150 W.
157°3927 W.
14OahuMakapuu Beach AreaOA 61
OA 62
21°1836 N.
21°1858 N.
157°3931 W.
157°3955 W.
14OahuLori Point through Waimea BayOA 71
OA 72
21°4026 N.
21°3818 N.
157°5600 W.
158°0356 W.
14OahuKapapa Island (Kaneohe Bay)OAi 121°2836 N.157°4755 W.
14OahuMokulua—Moku NuiOAi 221°2330 N.157°4156”W.
14OahuMokulua—Moku IkiOAi 321°2316 N.157°4152 W.
14OahuManana (Rabbit Island)OAi 421°1944 N.157°3924 W.
15MolokaiLaau Point AreaMO 11
MO 12
21°0749 N.
21°0521 N.
157°1747 W.
157°1550 W.
15MolokaiKalaupapa AreaMO 21
MO 22
21°1233 N.
21°1128 N.
156°5852 W.
156°5906 W.
15MolokaiMoku HoonikiMOi 121°0759 N.156°4210 W.
15LanaiShipwreck Beach AreaLA 11
LA 12
20°5445 N.
20°5520 N.
156°5345 W.
156°5645 W.
15LanaiNorthwest Lanai (Including Polihua Beach)LA 21
LA 22
20°5542 N.
20°5202 N.
156°5947 W.
157°0233 W.
15LanaiNorth of Kamalapau HarborLA 31
LA 32
20°4838 N.
20°4717 N.
156°5915 W.
156°5924 W.
15LanaiKamalapau Harbor through Kaholo PaliLA 41
LA 42
20°4713 N.
20°4659 N.
156°5927 W.
156°5931 W.
15LanaiKaholo Pali through Manele HarborLA 51
LA 52
20°4413 N.
20°4429 N.
156°5801 W.
156°5315 W.
15LanaiManele Harbor through Nakalahale CliffLA 61
LA 62
20°4435 N.
20°4449 N.
156°5314 W.
156°5216 W.
15LanaiNakalahale Cliff through Lopa BeachLA 71
LA 72
20°4507 N.
20°4821 N.
156°5150 W.
156°4824 W.
15LanaiPuupehe*LAi 120°4404 N.156°5325 W.
15KahoolaweMid-North coast (including Kaukamoku and Ahupuiki)KH 11
KH 12
20°3436 N.
20°3410 N.
156°3736 W.
156°3815 W.
15KahoolaweEastern coast of Kahoolawe (Honokoa through Sailer's Hat)KH 21
KH 22
20°3308 N.
20°3004 N.
156°4035 W.
156°4023 W.
15MauiKuloa Point through Hana Wharf and RampMA 11
MA 12
20°4002 N.
20°4521 N.
156°0227 W.
155°5854 W.
15MauiHana Wharf and Ramp through Kainalimu BayMA 21
MA 22
20°4520 N.
20°4608 N.
155°5856 W.
155°5904 W.
15MauiKeanae Pennisula to Nauailua BayMA 31
MA 32
20°5156 N.
20°5141 N.
156°0846 W.
156°0855 W.
15MauiMaliko Bay through Papaula PointMA 41
MA 42
20°5611 N.
20°5430 N.
156°2111 W.
156°2506 W.
15MauiKahului Harbor West through Waihee Beach ParkMA 51
MA 52
20°5353 N.
20°5604 N.
156°2847 W.
156°3015 W.
15MauiPunalau Beach through to Mala WharfMA 61
MA 62
21°0120 N.
20°5309 N.
156°3728 W.
156°4110 W.
15MauiSoutheast of Mala Wharf through to Lahaina HarborMA 71
MA 72
20°5304 N.
20°5226 N.
156°4112 W.
156°4043 W.
15MauiSoutheast of Lahaina Harbor through to PapalauaMA 81
MA 82
20°5212 N.
20°4734 N.
156°4039 W.
156°3400 W.
15MauiEast of Maalaea Harbor through to Kihei boat rampMA 91
MA 92
20°4732 N.
20°4229 N.
156°3034 W.
156°2646 W.
15MauiSouth of Kihei Boat Ramp through Ahihi BayMA 101
MA 102
20°4227 N.
20°3739 N.
156°2647 W.
156°2640 W.
15MauiLa Perouse Bay from Kalaeloa Point through Pohakueaea PointMA 111
MA 112
20°3543 N.
20°3445 N.
156°2533 W.
156°2329 W.
15MauiMolokini CraterMAi 120°3751 N.156°2943 W.
16HawaiiWaimanu through LaupahoehoenuiHA 11
HA 12
20°0835 N.
20°0954 N.
155°3759 W.
155°3918 W.
16HawaiiKeokea Bay through Kauhola PointHA 21
HA 22
20°1339 N.
20°1444 N.
155°4449 W.
155°4618 W.
16HawaiiKapaa Beach County Park to Mahukona HarborHA 31
HA 32
20°1216 N.
20°1104 N.
155°5406 W.
155°5405 W.
16HawaiiSouth of Mahukona HarborHA 41
HA 42
20°1060 N.
20°1051 N.
155°5403 W.
155°5407 W.
16HawaiiPauoa Bay to Makaiwa Bay areaHA 51
HA 52
19°5703 N.
19°5638 N.
155°5149 W.
155°5210 W.
16HawaiiAnaehoomalu Bay area through Keawaiki Bay areaHA 61
HA 62
19°5442 N.
19°5309 N.
155°5326 W.
155°5434 W.
16HawaiiPuu Alii Bay Area through Mahaiula BayHA 71
HA 72
19°4737 N.
19°4653 N.
156°0133 W.
156°0218 W.
16HawaiiKeahole Point through Kaloko-Honokohau National Historic ParkHA 81
HA 82
19°4354 N.
19°4028 N.
156°0326 W.
156°0134 W.
16HawaiiSouth of Oneo Bay area through to Holualoa Bay areaHA 91
HA 92
19°3810 N.
19°3631 N.
155°5929 W.
155°5841 W.
16HawaiiKahaluu Bay Area through Keauhou Bay AreaHA 101
HA 102
19°3449 N.
19°3343 N.
155°5759 W.
155°5743 W.
16HawaiiKealakekua Bay AreaHA 111
HA 112
19°2838 N.
19°2825 N.
155°5513 W.
155°5510 W.
16HawaiiHonaunau Bay AreaHA 121
HA 122
19°2535 N.
19°2501 N.
155°5502 W.
155°5442 W.
16HawaiiMilolii Bay Area through Honomalino Bay AreaHA 131
HA 132
19°1107 N.
19°1004 N.
155°5429 W.
155°5435 W.
16HawaiiKa Lae National Historic Landmark District through Mahana BayHA 141
HA 142
18°5454 N.
18°5500 N.
155°4059 W.
155°4009 W.
16HawaiiPapakolea Green Sand Beach AreaHA 151
HA 152
18°5610 N.
18°5611 N.
155°3847 W.
155°3845 W.
16HawaiiKaalualu Bay AreaHA 161
HA 162
18°5814 N.
18°5818 N.
155°3701 W.
155°3649 W.
16HawaiiWhittington Beach Area through Punaluu Beach AreaHA 171
HA 172
19°0504 N.
19°0806 N.
155°3303 W.
155°3009 W.
16HawaiiHalape Area through Keauhou Point AreaHA 181
HA 182
19°1614 N.
19°1545 N.
155°1520 W.
155°1359 W.
16HawaiiKapoho Bay AreaHA 191
HA 192
19°2938 N.
19°3010 N.
154°4901 W.
154°4846 W.
16HawaiiLehia Beach Park through to Hilo HarborHA 201
HA 202
19°4407 N.
19°4356 N.
155°0038 W.
155°0302 W.
16HawaiiPapaikou AreaHA 211
HA 212
19°4639 N.
19°4643 N.
155°0518 W.
155°0518 W.
16HawaiiOnomea Bay AreaHA 221
HA 222
19°4833 N.
19°4837 N.
155°0534 W.
155°0522 W.
16HawaiiHakalau AreaHA 231
HA 232
19°5402 N.
19°5405 N.
155°0732 W.
155°0743 W.

(i) Kaula Island,

(ii) Niihau,

(iii) Kauai,

(iv) Oahu,

(v) Maui Nui (including Kahoolawe, Lanai, Maui, and Molokai), and

(vi) Hawaii.

(b) Essential features. The essential features for the conservation of the Hawaiian monk seal are the following:

(1) Terrestrial areas and adjacent shallow, sheltered aquatic areas with characteristics preferred by monk seals for pupping and nursing. Preferred areas that serve an essential service or function for Hawaiian monk seal conservation are defined as those areas where two or more females have given birth or where a single female chooses to return to the same site more than one year. Preferred pupping areas generally include sandy, protected beaches located adjacent to shallow sheltered aquatic areas, where the mother and pup may nurse, rest, swim, thermoregulate, and shelter from extreme weather. Additionally, this habitat area provides relatively protected space for the newly weaned pup to acclimate to life on its own. The newly weaned pup uses these areas for swimming, exploring, socializing, thermoregulatory cooling and the first attempts at foraging. Characteristics of terrestrial pupping habitat may include various substrates such as sand, shallow tide pools, coral rubble, or rocky substrates, as long as these substrates provide accessibility to seals for hauling out. Some preferred sites may also incorporate areas with low lying vegetation used by the pair for shade or cover, or relatively low levels of anthropogenic disturbance. Characteristics of the adjoined sheltered aquatic sites may include reefs, tide pools, gently sloping beaches, and shelves or coves that provide refuge from storm surges and predators.

(2) Marine areas from 0 to 200 m in depth that support adequate prey quality and quantity for juvenile and adult monk seal foraging. Inshore, benthic and offshore teleosts, cephalopods, and crustaceans are commonly described as monk seal prey items. Habitat types that are regularly used for foraging include the sand terraces, talus slopes, submerged reefs and banks, nearby seamounts, barrier reefs, and slopes of reefs and islands. Monk seals focus foraging in bottom habitats on bottom-associated prey species, with most foraging occurring in waters between 0 to 200 m in depth. Habitat conditions, such as water quality, substrate composition and available habitat, should support growth and recruitment of bottom-associated prey species to the extent that monk seal populations are able to successfully forage.

(3) Significant areas used by monk seals for hauling out, resting or molting. Significant haul-out areas are defined by the frequency with which local populations of seals use a stretch of coastline or particular beach. Significant haul-out areas are defined as natural coastlines that are accessible to Hawaiian monk seals and are frequented by Hawaiian monk seals at least 10 percent as often as the highest used haul out site(s) on individual islands, or islets. Significant haul-out areas are essential to Hawaiian monk seal conservation because these areas provide space that supports natural behaviors important to health and development, such as resting, molting, and social interactions. Hawaiian monk seals use terrestrial habitat to haul out for resting, and molting. Certain areas of coastline are more often favored by Hawaiian monk seals for hauling out. These favored areas may be located near preferred foraging areas, allow for relatively undisturbed periods of rest, or allow small numbers of Hawaiian monk seals to socially interact as young seals and reproductive adults. These haul-out sites are generally characterized by sandy beaches, sand spits, or low shelving reef rocks accessible to seals.

(c) Areas not included in critical habitat. Critical habitat does not include the following particular areas where they overlap with the areas described in paragraph (a) of this section:

(1) Pursuant to ESA section 3(5)(A)(i), all cliffs and manmade structures, such as docks, seawalls, piers, fishponds, roads, pipelines, boat ramps, platforms, buildings, ramparts and pilings existing within the legal boundaries on September 21, 2015.

(2) Pursuant to ESA section 4(a)(3)(B) all areas subject to the Marine Corps Base Hawaii, the Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam, and the Pacific Missile Range Facility Integrated Natural Resource Management Plans.

(3) Pursuant to ESA section 4(b)(2) the following areas have been excluded from the designation: The Kingfisher Underwater Training area in marine areas off the northeast coast of Niihau; the Pacific Missile Range Facility Offshore Areas in marine areas off the western coast of Kauai; the Puuloa Underwater Training Range in marine areas outside Pearl Harbor, Oahu; and the Shallow Water Minefield Sonar Training Range off the western coast of Kahoolawe in the Maui Nui area.

(d) Maps of Hawaiian monk seal critical habitat. The following are the overview maps of Hawaiian monk seal critical habitat:

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[80 FR 50974, Aug. 21, 2015]

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