e-CFR Navigation Aids


Simple Search

Advanced Search

 — Boolean

 — Proximity


Search History

Search Tips


Latest Updates

User Info


Agency List

Incorporation By Reference

eCFR logo

Related Resources

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

We invite you to try out our new beta eCFR site at https://ecfr.federalregister.gov. We have made big changes to make the eCFR easier to use. Be sure to leave feedback using the Feedback button on the bottom right of each page!

e-CFR data is current as of January 19, 2021

Title 48Chapter 1Subchapter DPart 25 → §25.001

Title 48: Federal Acquisition Regulations System

25.001   General.

Link to an amendment published at 86 FR 6186, Jan. 19, 2021.

(a) 41 U.S.C. chapter 83, Buy American—

(1) Restricts the purchase of supplies, that are not domestic end products, for use within the United States. A foreign end product may be purchased if the contracting officer determines that the price of the lowest domestic offer is unreasonable or if another exception applies (see Subpart 25.1); and

(2) Requires, with some exceptions, the use of only domestic construction materials in contracts for construction in the United States (see Subpart 25.2).

(b) The restrictions in the Buy American statute are not applicable in acquisitions subject to certain trade agreements (see Subpart 25.4). In these acquisitions, end products and construction materials from certain countries receive nondiscriminatory treatment in evaluation with domestic offers. Generally, the dollar value of the acquisition determines which of the trade agreements applies. Exceptions to the applicability of the trade agreements are described in Subpart 25.4.

(c) The test to determine the country of origin for an end product under the Buy American statute (see the various country “end product” definitions in 25.003) is different from the test to determine the country of origin for an end product under the trade agreements, or the criteria for the representation on end products manufactured outside the United States (see 52.225-18).

(1) The Buy American statute uses a two-part test to define a “domestic end product” or “domestic construction material” (manufactured in the United States and a formula based on cost of domestic components). The component test has been waived for acquisition of commercially available off-the-shelf items.

(2) Under the trade agreements, the test to determine country of origin is “substantial transformation” (i.e., transforming an article into a new and different article of commerce, with a name, character, or use distinct from the original article).

(3) For the representation at 52.225-18, the only criterion is whether the place of manufacture of an end product is in the United States or outside the United States, without regard to the origin of the components.

(4) When using funds appropriated under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Pub. L. 111-5), the definition of “domestic manufactured construction material” requires manufacture in the United States but does not include a requirement with regard to the origin of the components. If the construction material consists wholly or predominantly of iron or steel, the iron or steel must be produced in the United States.

[64 FR 72419, Dec. 27, 1999, as amended at 67 FR 21535, Apr. 30, 2002; 71 FR 20306, Apr. 19, 2006; 71 FR 57377, Sept. 28, 2006; 74 FR 14626, Mar. 31, 2009; 75 FR 38691, July 2, 2010; 75 FR 53165, Aug. 30, 2010; 78 FR 37694, June 21, 2013; 79 FR 24208, Apr. 29, 2014]

Need assistance?