e-CFR Navigation Aids


Simple Search

Advanced Search

 — Boolean

 — Proximity


Search History

Search Tips


Latest Updates

User Info


Agency List

Incorporation By Reference

eCFR logo

Related Resources

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

We invite you to try out our new beta eCFR site at https://ecfr.federalregister.gov. We have made big changes to make the eCFR easier to use. Be sure to leave feedback using the Feedback button on the bottom right of each page!

e-CFR data is current as of March 2, 2021

Title 45Subtitle BChapter XIIISubchapter CPart 1326Subpart B → §1326.19

Title 45: Public Welfare
Subpart B—Protection and Advocacy for Individuals With Developmental Disabilities (PADD)

§1326.19   Definitions.

As used in this subpart and subpart C of this part, the following definitions apply:

Abuse. The term “abuse” means any act or failure to act which was performed, or which was failed to be performed, knowingly, recklessly, or intentionally, and which caused, or may have caused, injury or death to an individual with developmental disabilities, and includes but is not limited to such acts as: Verbal, nonverbal, mental and emotional harassment; rape or sexual assault; striking; the use of excessive force when placing such an individual in bodily restraints; the use of bodily or chemical restraints which is not in compliance with Federal and State laws and regulations, or any other practice which is likely to cause immediate physical or psychological harm or result in long term harm if such practices continue. In addition, the P&A may determine, in its discretion that a violation of an individual's legal rights amounts to abuse, such as if an individual is subject to significant financial exploitation.

American Indian Consortium. The term “American Indian Consortium” means any confederation of 2 or more recognized American Indian Tribes, created through the official resident population of 150,000 enrolled tribal members and a contiguous territory of Indian lands in two or more States.

Complaint. The term “complaint” includes, but is not limited to, any report or communication, whether formal or informal, written or oral, received by the P&A system, including media accounts, newspaper articles, electronic communications, telephone calls (including anonymous calls) from any source alleging abuse or neglect of an individual with a developmental disability.

Designating official. The term “designating official” means the Governor or other State official, who is empowered by the State legislature or Governor to designate the State official or public or private agency to be accountable for the proper use of funds by and conduct of the agency designated to administer the P&A system.

Full investigation. The term “full investigation” means access to service providers, individuals with developmental disabilities and records authorized under these regulations, that are necessary for a P&A system to make a determination about whether alleged or suspected instances of abuse and neglect are taking place or have taken place. Full investigations may be conducted independently or in cooperation with other agencies authorized to conduct similar investigations.

Legal guardian, Conservator, and Legal representative. The terms “legal guardian,” “conservator,” and “legal representative” all mean a parent of a minor, unless the State has appointed another legal guardian under applicable State law, or an individual appointed and regularly reviewed by a State court or agency empowered under State law to appoint and review such officers, and having authority to make all decisions on behalf of individuals with developmental disabilities. It does not include persons acting only as a representative payee, persons acting only to handle financial payments, executors and administrators of estates, attorneys or other persons acting on behalf of an individual with developmental disabilities only in individual legal matters, or officials or their designees responsible for the provision of services, supports, and other assistance to an individual with developmental disabilities.

Neglect. The term “neglect” means a negligent act or omission by an individual responsible for providing services, supports or other assistance which caused or may have caused injury or death to an individual with a developmental disability(ies) or which placed an individual with developmental disability(ies) at risk of injury or death, and includes acts or omissions such as failure to: establish or carry out an appropriate individual program plan or treatment plan (including a discharge plan); provide adequate nutrition, clothing, or health care to an individual with developmental disabilities; or provide a safe environment which also includes failure to maintain adequate numbers of trained staff or failure to take appropriate steps to prevent self-abuse, harassment, or assault by a peer.

Probable cause. The term “probable cause” means a reasonable ground for belief that an individual with developmental disability(ies) has been, or may be, subject to abuse or neglect, or that the health or safety of the individual is in serious and immediate jeopardy. The individual making such determination may base the decision on reasonable inferences drawn from his or her experience or training regarding similar incidents, conditions or problems that are usually associated with abuse or neglect.

State Protection and Advocacy System. The term “State Protection and Advocacy System” is synonymous with the term “P&A” used elsewhere in this regulation, and the terms “System” and “Protection and Advocacy System” used in this part and in subpart C of this part.

Need assistance?