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e-CFR data is current as of November 25, 2020

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter CPart 60Subpart CCCC → §60.2165


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 60—STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES (CONTINUED)
Subpart CCCC—Standards of Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units


§60.2165   What monitoring equipment must I install and what parameters must I monitor?

(a) If you are using a wet scrubber to comply with the emission limitation under §60.2105, you must install, calibrate (to manufacturers' specifications), maintain, and operate devices (or establish methods) for monitoring the value of the operating parameters used to determine compliance with the operating limits listed in table 2 of this subpart. These devices (or methods) must measure and record the values for these operating parameters at the frequencies indicated in table 2 of this subpart at all times except as specified in §60.2170(a).

(b) If you use a fabric filter to comply with the requirements of this subpart and you do not use a PM CPMS or PM CEMS for monitoring PM compliance, you must install, calibrate, maintain, and continuously operate a bag leak detection system as specified in paragraphs (b)(1) through (8) of this section:

(1) You must install and operate a bag leak detection system for each exhaust stack of the fabric filter;

(2) Each bag leak detection system must be installed, operated, calibrated, and maintained in a manner consistent with the manufacturer's written specifications and recommendations;

(3) The bag leak detection system must be certified by the manufacturer to be capable of detecting particulate matter emissions at concentrations of 10 milligrams per actual cubic meter or less;

(4) The bag leak detection system sensor must provide output of relative or absolute particulate matter loadings;

(5) The bag leak detection system must be equipped with a device to continuously record the output signal from the sensor;

(6) The bag leak detection system must be equipped with an alarm system that will alert automatically an operator when an increase in relative particulate matter emissions over a preset level is detected. The alarm must be located where it is observed easily by plant operating personnel;

(7) For positive pressure fabric filter systems, a bag leak detection system must be installed in each baghouse compartment or cell. For negative pressure or induced air fabric filters, the bag leak detector must be installed downstream of the fabric filter; and

(8) Where multiple detectors are required, the system's instrumentation and alarm may be shared among detectors.

(c) If you are using something other than a wet scrubber, activated carbon, selective non-catalytic reduction, an electrostatic precipitator, or a dry scrubber to comply with the emission limitations under §60.2105, you must install, calibrate (to the manufacturers' specifications), maintain, and operate the equipment necessary to monitor compliance with the site-specific operating limits established using the procedures in §60.2115.

(d) If you use activated carbon injection to comply with the emission limitations in this subpart, you must measure the minimum mercury sorbent flow rate once per hour.

(e) If you use selective noncatalytic reduction to comply with the emission limitations, you must complete the following:

(1) Following the date on which the initial performance test is completed or is required to be completed under §60.2125, whichever date comes first, ensure that the affected facility does not operate above the maximum charge rate, or below the minimum secondary chamber temperature (if applicable to your CISWI) or the minimum reagent flow rate measured as 3-hour block averages at all times; and

(2) Operation of the affected facility above the maximum charge rate, below the minimum secondary chamber temperature and below the minimum reagent flow rate simultaneously constitute a violation of the nitrogen oxides emissions limit.

(f) If you use an electrostatic precipitator to comply with the emission limits of this subpart and you do not use a PM CPMS for monitoring PM compliance, you must monitor the secondary power to the electrostatic precipitator collection plates and maintain the 3-hour block averages at or above the operating limits established during the mercury or particulate matter performance test.

(g) For waste-burning kilns not equipped with a wet scrubber or dry scrubber, you must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a CEMS for monitoring hydrogen chloride emissions discharged to the atmosphere, as specified in §60.2145(j), and record the output of the system. You may substitute use of a HCl CEMS for conducting the HCl initial and annual testing with EPA Method 321 at 40 CFR part 63, appendix A. For units other than waste-burning kilns not equipped with a wet scrubber or dry scrubber, a facility may substitute use of a hydrogen chloride CEMS for conducting the hydrogen chloride initial and annual performance test. For units equipped with a hydrogen chloride CEMS, you are not required to monitor the minimum hydrogen chloride sorbent flow rate, the minimum scrubber liquor pH, or the monitoring minimum injection rate.

(h) To demonstrate compliance with the particulate matter emissions limit, a facility may substitute use of a particulate matter CEMS for conducting the PM initial and annual performance test. For units equipped with a particulate matter CEMS, you are not required to use other CMS for monitoring PM compliance (e.g., bag leak detectors, ESP secondary power, PM scrubber pressure).

(i) To demonstrate initial and continuous compliance with the dioxin/furan emissions limit, a facility may substitute use of a continuous automated sampling system for the dioxin/furan initial and annual performance tests. You must record the output of the system and analyze the sample according to EPA Method 23 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7 of this part. This option to use a continuous automated sampling system takes effect on the date a final performance specification applicable to dioxin/furan from continuous monitors is published in the Federal Register. The owner or operator who elects to continuously sample dioxin/furan emissions instead of sampling and testing using EPA Method 23 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7 must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a continuous automated sampling system and must comply with the requirements specified in §60.58b(p) and (q). A facility may substitute continuous dioxin/furan monitoring for the minimum sorbent flow rate, if activated carbon sorbent injection is used solely for compliance with the dioxin/furan emission limit.

(j) To demonstrate initial and continuous compliance with the mercury emissions limit, a facility may substitute use of a mercury CEMS or an integrated sorbent trap monitoring system for the mercury initial and annual performance test. The owner or operator who elects to continuously measure mercury emissions instead of sampling and testing using EPA Reference Method 29 or 30B at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-8, ASTM D6784-02 (Reapproved 2008) (incorporated by reference, see §60.17), or an approved alternative method for measuring mercury emissions, must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate the mercury CEMS or integrated sorbent trap monitoring system and must comply with performance specification 12A or performance specification 12B, respectively, and quality assurance procedure 5. For the purposes of emissions calculations when using an integrated sorbent trap monitoring system, the mercury concentration determined for each sampling period must be assigned to each hour during the sampling period. Waste-burning kilns must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a mercury CEMS or an integrated sorbent trap monitoring system as specified in §60.2145(j). For units equipped with a mercury CEMS or an integrated sorbent trap monitoring system, you are not required to monitor the minimum sorbent flow rate, if activated carbon sorbent injection is used solely for compliance with the mercury emission limit.

(k) To demonstrate initial and continuous compliance with the nitrogen oxides emissions limit, a facility may substitute use of a CEMS for the nitrogen oxides initial and annual performance test to demonstrate compliance with the nitrogen oxides emissions limits. For units equipped with a nitrogen oxides CEMS, you are not required to monitor the charge rate, secondary chamber temperature, and reagent flow for selective noncatalytic reduction, if applicable:

(1) Install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a CEMS for measuring nitrogen oxides emissions discharged to the atmosphere and record the output of the system. The requirements under performance specification 2 of appendix B of this part, the quality assurance procedure 1 of appendix F of this part and the procedures under §60.13 must be followed for installation, evaluation, and operation of the CEMS; and

(2) Compliance with the emission limit for nitrogen oxides must be determined based on the 30-day rolling average of the hourly emission concentrations using CEMS outlet data, as outlined in §60.2145(u).

(l) To demonstrate initial and continuous compliance with the sulfur dioxide emissions limit, a facility may substitute use of a CEMS for the sulfur dioxide initial and annual performance test to demonstrate compliance with the sulfur dioxide emissions limits:

(1) Install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a CEMS for measuring sulfur dioxide emissions discharged to the atmosphere and record the output of the system. The requirements under performance specification 2 of appendix B of this part, the quality assurance requirements of procedure one of appendix F of this part and procedures under §60.13 must be followed for installation, evaluation, and operation of the CEMS; and

(2) Compliance with the sulfur dioxide emission limit shall be determined based on the 30-day rolling average of the hourly arithmetic average emission concentrations using CEMS outlet data, as outlined in §60.2145(u).

(m) For energy recovery units over 10 MMBtu/hr but less than 250 MMBtu/hr annual average heat input rates that do not use a wet scrubber, fabric filter with bag leak detection system, an electrostatic precipitator, particulate matter CEMS, or particulate matter CPMS you must install, operate, certify, and maintain a continuous opacity monitoring system according to the procedures in paragraphs (m)(1) through (5) of this section by the compliance date specified in §60.2105. Energy recovery units that use a CEMS to demonstrate initial and continuing compliance according to the procedures in §60.2165(n) are not required to install a continuous opacity monitoring system and must perform the annual performance tests for the opacity consistent with §60.2145(f):

(1) Install, operate, and maintain each continuous opacity monitoring system according to performance specification 1 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix B;

(2) Conduct a performance evaluation of each continuous opacity monitoring system according to the requirements in §60.13 and according to PS-1 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix B;

(3) As specified in §60.13(e)(1), each continuous opacity monitoring system must complete a minimum of one cycle of sampling and analyzing for each successive 10-second period and one cycle of data recording for each successive 6-minute period;

(4) Reduce the continuous opacity monitoring system data as specified in §60.13(h)(1); and

(5) Determine and record all the 6-minute averages (and 1-hour block averages as applicable) collected.

(n) For coal and liquid/gas energy recovery units, incinerators, and small remote incinerators, an owner or operator may elect to install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a CEMS for monitoring particulate matter emissions discharged to the atmosphere and record the output of the system. The owner or operator of an affected facility who continuously monitors particulate matter emissions instead of conducting performance testing using EPA Method 5 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-3 or monitoring with a particulate matter CPMS according to paragraph (r) of this section, must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a PM CEMS and must comply with the requirements specified in paragraphs (n)(1) through (10) of this section:

(1) The PM CEMS must be installed, evaluated, and operated in accordance with the requirements of performance specification 11 of appendix B of this part and quality assurance requirements of procedure 2 of appendix F of this part and §60.13. Use Method 5 or Method 5I of appendix A of this part for the PM CEMS correlation testing;

(2) The initial performance evaluation must be completed no later than 180 days after the date of initial startup of the affected facility, as specified under §60.2125 or within 180 days of notification to the Administrator of use of the continuous monitoring system if the owner or operator was previously determining compliance by Method 5 performance tests, whichever is later;

(3) The owner or operator of an affected facility may request that compliance with the particulate matter emission limit be determined using carbon dioxide measurements corrected to an equivalent of 7 percent oxygen. The relationship between oxygen and carbon dioxide levels for the affected facility must be established according to the procedures and methods specified in §60.2145(t)(4)(i) through (iv);

(4) The owner or operator of an affected facility must conduct an initial performance test for particulate matter emissions. If PM CEMS are elected for demonstrating compliance, and the initial performance test has not yet been conducted, then initial compliance must be determined by using the CEMS specified in paragraph (n) of this section to measure particulate matter. You must calculate a 30-day rolling average of 1-hour arithmetic average emission concentrations, including CEMS data during startup and shutdown, as defined in this subpart, using equation 19-19 in section 12.4.1 of EPA Reference Method 19 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7;

(5) Continuous compliance with the particulate matter emission limit must be determined based on the 30-day rolling average calculated using equation 19-19 in section 12.4.1 of EPA Reference Method 19 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7 from the 1-hour arithmetic average CEMS outlet data;

(6) At a minimum, valid continuous monitoring system hourly averages must be obtained as specified in §60.2170(e);

(7) The 1-hour arithmetic averages required under paragraph (n)(5) of this section must be expressed in milligrams per dry standard cubic meter corrected to 7 percent oxygen (dry basis) and must be used to calculate the 30-day rolling average emission concentrations. CEMS data during startup and shutdown, as defined in this subpart, are not corrected to 7 percent oxygen, and are measured at stack oxygen content. The 1-hour arithmetic averages must be calculated using the data points required under §60.13(e)(2);

(8) All valid CEMS data must be used in calculating average emission concentrations even if the minimum CEMS data requirements of paragraph (n)(6) of this section are not met.

(9) The CEMS must be operated according to performance specification 11 in appendix B of this part; and,

(10) Quarterly and yearly accuracy audits and daily drift, system optics, and sample volume checks must be performed in accordance with procedure 2 in appendix F of this part.

(o) To demonstrate initial and continuous compliance with the carbon monoxide emissions limit, you may substitute use of a CEMS for the carbon monoxide initial and annual performance test:

(1) Install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a CEMS for measuring carbon monoxide emissions discharged to the atmosphere and record the output of the system. The requirements under performance specification 4A or 4B of appendix B of this part, the quality assurance procedure 1 of appendix F of this part and the procedures under §60.13 must be followed for installation, evaluation, and operation of the CEMS; and

(2) Compliance with the carbon monoxide emission limit shall be determined based on the 30-day rolling average of the hourly arithmetic average emission concentrations, including CEMS data during startup and shutdown as defined in this subpart, using CEMS outlet data, as outlined in §60.2145(u).

(p) The owner/operator of an affected source with a bypass stack shall install, calibrate (to manufacturers' specifications), maintain, and operate a device or method for measuring the use of the bypass stack including date, time and duration.

(q) For energy recovery units with a design heat input capacity of 100 MMBtu/hr or greater that do not use a carbon monoxide CEMS, you must install, operate, and maintain a oxygen analyzer system as defined in §60.2265 according to the procedures in paragraphs (q)(1) through (4) of this section:

(1) The oxygen analyzer system must be installed by the initial performance test date specified in §60.2140;

(2) You must operate the oxygen trim system within compliance with paragraph (q)(3) of this section at all times;

(3) You must maintain the oxygen level such that the 30-day rolling average that is established as the operating limit for oxygen according to paragraph (q)(4) of this section is not below the lowest hourly average oxygen concentration measured during the most recent CO performance test; and

(4) You must calculate and record a 30-day rolling average oxygen concentration using equation 19-19 in section 12.4.1 of EPA Reference Method 19 of appendix A-7 of this part.

(r) For energy recovery units with annual average heat input rates greater than or equal to 250 MMBtu/hr and waste-burning kilns, you must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a PM CPMS and record the output of the system as specified in paragraphs (r)(1) through (8) of this section. If you elect to use a particulate matter CEMS as specified in paragraph (n) of this section, you are not required to use a PM CPMS to monitor particulate matter emissions. For other energy recovery units, you may elect to use PM CPMS operated in accordance with this section. PM CPMS are suitable in lieu of using other CMS for monitoring PM compliance (e.g., bag leak detectors, ESP secondary power, PM scrubber pressure):

(1) Install, calibrate, operate, and maintain your PM CPMS according to the procedures in your approved site-specific monitoring plan developed in accordance with §60.2145(l) and paragraphs (r)(1)(i) through (iii) of this section:

(i) The operating principle of the PM CPMS must be based on in-stack or extractive light scatter, light scintillation, beta attenuation, or mass accumulation detection of PM in the exhaust gas or representative sample. The reportable measurement output from the PM CPMS must be expressed as milliamps or a digital signal equivalent;

(ii) The PM CPMS must have a cycle time (i.e., period required to complete sampling, measurement, and reporting for each measurement) no longer than 60 minutes; and

(iii) The PM CPMS must be capable of detecting and responding to particulate matter concentration increments no greater than 0.5 mg/actual cubic meter.

(2) During the initial performance test or any such subsequent performance test that demonstrates compliance with the PM limit, you must adjust the site-specific operating limit in accordance with the results of the performance test according to the procedures specified in §60.2110.

(3) Collect PM CPMS hourly average output data for all energy recovery unit or waste-burning kiln operating hours. Express the PM CPMS output as milliamps or the digital signal equivalent.

(4) Calculate the arithmetic 30-day rolling average of all of the hourly average PM CPMS output collected during all energy recovery unit or waste-burning kiln operating hours data (milliamps or digital bits).

(5) You must collect data using the PM CPMS at all times the energy recovery unit or waste-burning kiln is operating and at the intervals specified in paragraph (r)(1)(ii) of this section, except for periods of monitoring system malfunctions, repairs associated with monitoring system malfunctions, required monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities (including, as applicable, calibration checks and required zero and span adjustments), and any scheduled maintenance as defined in your site-specific monitoring plan.

(6) You must use all the data collected during all energy recovery unit or waste-burning kiln operating hours in assessing the compliance with your operating limit except:

(i) Any data collected during monitoring system malfunctions, repairs associated with monitoring system malfunctions, or required monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities conducted during monitoring system malfunctions are not used in calculations (report any such periods in your annual deviation report);

(ii) Any data collected during periods when the monitoring system is out of control as specified in your site-specific monitoring plan, repairs associated with periods when the monitoring system is out of control, or required monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities conducted during out-of-control periods are not used in calculations (report emissions or operating levels and report any such periods in your annual deviation report); and

(iii) Any PM CPMS data recorded during periods of CEMS data during startup and shutdown, as defined in this subpart.

(7) You must record and make available upon request results of PM CPMS system performance audits, as well as the dates and duration of periods from when the PM CPMS is out of control until completion of the corrective actions necessary to return the PM CPMS to operation consistent with your site-specific monitoring plan.

(8) For any deviation of the 30-day rolling average PM CPMS average value from the established operating parameter limit, you must:

(i) Within 48 hours of the deviation, visually inspect the air pollution control device;

(ii) If inspection of the air pollution control device identifies the cause of the deviation, take corrective action as soon as possible and return the PM CPMS measurement to within the established value;

(iii) Within 30 days of the deviation or at the time of the annual compliance test, whichever comes first, conduct a PM emissions compliance test to determine compliance with the PM emissions limit and to verify the operation of the emissions control device(s). Within 45 days of the deviation, you must re-establish the CPMS operating limit. You are not required to conduct additional testing for any deviations that occur between the time of the original deviation and the PM emissions compliance test required under this paragraph; and

(iv) PM CPMS deviations leading to more than four required performance tests in a 12-month process operating period (rolling monthly) constitute a violation of this subpart.

(s) If you use a dry scrubber to comply with the emission limits of this subpart, you must monitor the injection rate of each sorbent and maintain the 3-hour block averages at or above the operating limits established during the hydrogen chloride performance test.

(t) If you are required to monitor clinker production because you comply with the production-rate based mercury limit for your waste-burning kiln, you must:

(1) Determine hourly clinker production by one of two methods:

(i) Install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a permanent weigh scale system to measure and record weight rates in tons-mass per hour of the amount of clinker produced. The system of measuring hourly clinker production must be maintained within ±5 percent accuracy, or

(ii) Install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a permanent weigh scale system to measure and record weight rates in tons-mass per hour of the amount of feed to the kiln. The system of measuring feed must be maintained within ±5 percent accuracy. Calculate your hourly clinker production rate using a kiln-specific feed to clinker ratio based on reconciled clinker production determined for accounting purposes and recorded feed rates. Update this ratio monthly. Note that if this ratio changes at clinker reconciliation, you must use the new ratio going forward, but you do not have to retroactively change clinker production rates previously estimated.

(2) Determine the accuracy of the system of measuring hourly clinker production (or feed mass flow if applicable) before the effective date and during each quarter of source operation.

(3) Conduct accuracy checks in accordance with the procedures outlined in your site-specific monitoring plan under §60.2145(l).

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