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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of May 28, 2020

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter CPart 60Subpart Cf → §60.35f


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 60—STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES
Subpart Cf—Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills


§60.35f   Test methods and procedures.

For approval, a state plan must include provisions in this section to calculate the landfill NMOC emission rate or to conduct a surface emission monitoring demonstration.

(a)(1) NMOC Emission Rate. The landfill owner or operator must calculate the NMOC emission rate using either Equation 1 provided in paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section or Equation 2 provided in paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section. Both Equation 1 and Equation 2 may be used if the actual year-to-year solid waste acceptance rate is known, as specified in paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section, for part of the life of the landfill and the actual year-to-year solid waste acceptance rate is unknown, as specified in paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section, for part of the life of the landfill. The values to be used in both Equation 1 and Equation 2 are 0.05 per year for k, 170 cubic meters per megagram for Lo, and 4,000 parts per million by volume as hexane for the CNMOC. For landfills located in geographical areas with a 30-year annual average precipitation of less than 25 inches, as measured at the nearest representative official meteorologic site, the k value to be used is 0.02 per year.

(i)(A) Equation 1 must be used if the actual year-to-year solid waste acceptance rate is known.

eCFR graphic er29au16.000.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

MNMOC = Total NMOC emission rate from the landfill, megagrams per year.

k = Methane generation rate constant, year−1.

Lo = Methane generation potential, cubic meters per megagram solid waste.

Mi = Mass of solid waste in the ith section, megagrams.

ti = Age of the ith section, years.

CNMOC = Concentration of NMOC, parts per million by volume as hexane.

3.6 × 10−9 = Conversion factor.

(B) The mass of nondegradable solid waste may be subtracted from the total mass of solid waste in a particular section of the landfill when calculating the value for Mi if documentation of the nature and amount of such wastes is maintained.

(ii)(A) Equation 2 must be used if the actual year-to-year solid waste acceptance rate is unknown.

eCFR graphic er29au16.001.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

MNMOC = Mass emission rate of NMOC, megagrams per year.

Lo = Methane generation potential, cubic meters per megagram solid waste.

R = Average annual acceptance rate, megagrams per year.

k = Methane generation rate constant, year −1.

t = Age of landfill, years.

CNMOC = Concentration of NMOC, parts per million by volume as hexane.

c = Time since closure, years; for an active landfill c = 0 and e−kc = 1.

3.6 × 10−9 = Conversion factor.

(B) The mass of nondegradable solid waste may be subtracted from the total mass of solid waste in a particular section of the landfill when calculating the value of R, if documentation of the nature and amount of such wastes is maintained.

(2) Tier 1. The owner or operator must compare the calculated NMOC mass emission rate to the standard of 34 megagrams per year.

(i) If the NMOC emission rate calculated in paragraph (a)(1) of this section is less than 34 megagrams per year, then the owner or operator must submit an NMOC emission rate report according to §60.38f(c), and must recalculate the NMOC mass emission rate annually as required under §60.33f(e).

(ii) If the NMOC emission rate calculated in paragraph (a)(1) of this section is equal to or greater than 34 megagrams per year, then the landfill owner or operator must either:

(A) Submit a gas collection and control system design plan within 1 year as specified in §60.38f(d) and install and operate a gas collection and control system within 30 months according to §60.33f(b) and (c);

(B) Determine a site-specific NMOC concentration and recalculate the NMOC emission rate using the Tier 2 procedures provided in paragraph (a)(3) of this section; or

(C) Determine a site-specific methane generation rate constant and recalculate the NMOC emission rate using the Tier 3 procedures provided in paragraph (a)(4) of this section.

(3) Tier 2. The landfill owner or operator must determine the site-specific NMOC concentration using the following sampling procedure. The landfill owner or operator must install at least two sample probes per hectare, evenly distributed over the landfill surface that has retained waste for at least 2 years. If the landfill is larger than 25 hectares in area, only 50 samples are required. The probes should be evenly distributed across the sample area. The sample probes should be located to avoid known areas of nondegradable solid waste. The owner or operator must collect and analyze one sample of landfill gas from each probe to determine the NMOC concentration using Method 25 or 25C of appendix A of this part. Taking composite samples from different probes into a single cylinder is allowed; however, equal sample volumes must be taken from each probe. For each composite, the sampling rate, collection times, beginning and ending cylinder vacuums, or alternative volume measurements must be recorded to verify that composite volumes are equal. Composite sample volumes should not be less than one liter unless evidence can be provided to substantiate the accuracy of smaller volumes. Terminate compositing before the cylinder approaches ambient pressure where measurement accuracy diminishes. If more than the required number of samples is taken, all samples must be used in the analysis. The landfill owner or operator must divide the NMOC concentration from Method 25 or 25C by six to convert from CNMOC as carbon to CNMOC as hexane. If the landfill has an active or passive gas removal system in place, Method 25 or 25C samples may be collected from these systems instead of surface probes provided the removal system can be shown to provide sampling as representative as the two sampling probe per hectare requirement. For active collection systems, samples may be collected from the common header pipe. The sample location on the common header pipe must be before any gas moving, condensate removal, or treatment system equipment. For active collection systems, a minimum of three samples must be collected from the header pipe.

(i) Within 60 days after the date of determining the NMOC concentration and corresponding NMOC emission rate, the owner or operator must submit the results according to §60.38f(j)(2).

(ii) The landfill owner or operator must recalculate the NMOC mass emission rate using Equation 1 or Equation 2 provided in paragraph (a)(1)(i) or (ii) of this section using the average site-specific NMOC concentration from the collected samples instead of the default value provided in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(iii) If the resulting NMOC mass emission rate is less than 34 megagrams per year, then the owner or operator must submit a periodic estimate of NMOC emissions in an NMOC emission rate report according to §60.38f(c), and must recalculate the NMOC mass emission rate annually as required under §60.33f(e). The site-specific NMOC concentration must be retested every 5 years using the methods specified in this section.

(iv) If the NMOC mass emission rate as calculated using the Tier 2 site-specific NMOC concentration is equal to or greater than 34 megagrams per year, the owner or operator must either:

(A) Submit a gas collection and control system design plan within 1 year as specified in §60.38f(d) and install and operate a gas collection and control system within 30 months according to §60.33f(b) and (c);

(B) Determine a site-specific methane generation rate constant and recalculate the NMOC emission rate using the site-specific methane generation rate using the Tier 3 procedures specified in paragraph (a)(4) of this section; or

(C) Conduct a surface emission monitoring demonstration using the Tier 4 procedures specified in paragraph (a)(6) of this section.

(4) Tier 3. The site-specific methane generation rate constant must be determined using the procedures provided in Method 2E of appendix A of this part. The landfill owner or operator must estimate the NMOC mass emission rate using Equation 1 or Equation 2 in paragraph (a)(1)(i) or (ii) of this section and using a site-specific methane generation rate constant, and the site-specific NMOC concentration as determined in paragraph (a)(3) of this section instead of the default values provided in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. The landfill owner or operator must compare the resulting NMOC mass emission rate to the standard of 34 megagrams per year.

(i) If the NMOC mass emission rate as calculated using the Tier 2 site-specific NMOC concentration and Tier 3 site-specific methane generation rate is equal to or greater than 34 megagrams per year, the owner or operator must either:

(A) Submit a gas collection and control system design plan within 1 year as specified in §60.38f(d) and install and operate a gas collection and control system within 30 months according to §60.33f(b) and (c); or

(B) Conduct a surface emission monitoring demonstration using the Tier 4 procedures specified in paragraph (a)(6) of this section.

(ii) If the NMOC mass emission rate is less than 34 megagrams per year, then the owner or operator must recalculate the NMOC mass emission rate annually using Equation 1 or Equation 2 in paragraph (a)(1) of this section and using the site-specific Tier 2 NMOC concentration and Tier 3 methane generation rate constant and submit a periodic NMOC emission rate report as provided in §60.38f(c). The calculation of the methane generation rate constant is performed only once, and the value obtained from this test must be used in all subsequent annual NMOC emission rate calculations.

(5) Other methods. The owner or operator may use other methods to determine the NMOC concentration or a site-specific methane generation rate constant as an alternative to the methods required in paragraphs (a)(3) and (4) of this section if the method has been approved by the Administrator.

(6) Tier 4. The landfill owner or operator must demonstrate that surface methane emissions are below 500 parts per million. Surface emission monitoring must be conducted on a quarterly basis using the following procedures. Tier 4 is allowed only if the landfill owner or operator can demonstrate that NMOC emissions are greater than or equal to 34 Mg/yr but less than 50 Mg/yr using Tier 1 or Tier 2. If both Tier 1 and Tier 2 indicate NMOC emissions are 50 Mg/yr or greater, then Tier 4 cannot be used. In addition, the landfill must meet the criteria in paragraph (a)(6)(viii) of this section.

(i) The owner or operator must measure surface concentrations of methane along the entire perimeter of the landfill and along a pattern that traverses the landfill at no more than 30-meter intervals using an organic vapor analyzer, flame ionization detector, or other portable monitor meeting the specifications provided in §60.36f(d).

(ii) The background concentration must be determined by moving the probe inlet upwind and downwind at least 30 meters from the waste mass boundary of the landfill.

(iii) Surface emission monitoring must be performed in accordance with section 8.3.1 of Method 21 of appendix A of this part, except that the probe inlet must be placed no more than 5 centimeters above the landfill surface; the constant measurement of distance above the surface should be based on a mechanical device such as with a wheel on a pole.

(A) The owner or operator must use a wind barrier, similar to a funnel, when onsite average wind speed exceeds 4 miles per hour or 2 meters per second or gust exceeding 10 miles per hour. Average on-site wind speed must also be determined in an open area at 5-minute intervals using an on-site anemometer with a continuous recorder and data logger for the entire duration of the monitoring event. The wind barrier must surround the SEM monitor, and must be placed on the ground, to ensure wind turbulence is blocked. SEM cannot be conducted if average wind speed exceeds 25 miles per hour.

(B) Landfill surface areas where visual observations indicate elevated concentrations of landfill gas, such as distressed vegetation and cracks or seeps in the cover, and all cover penetrations must also be monitored using a device meeting the specifications provided in §60.36f(d).

(iv) Each owner or operator seeking to comply with the Tier 4 provisions in paragraph (a)(6) of this section must maintain records of surface emission monitoring as provided in §60.39f(g) and submit a Tier 4 surface emissions report as provided in §60.38f(d)(4)(iii).

(v) If there is any measured concentration of methane of 500 parts per million or greater from the surface of the landfill, the owner or operator must submit a gas collection and control system design plan within 1 year of the first measured concentration of methane of 500 parts per million or greater from the surface of the landfill according to §60.38f(d) and install and operate a gas collection and control system according to §60.33f(b) and (c) within 30 months of the most recent NMOC emission rate report in which the NMOC emission rate equals or exceeds 34 megagrams per year based on Tier 2.

(vi) If after four consecutive quarterly monitoring periods at a landfill, other than a closed landfill, there is no measured concentration of methane of 500 parts per million or greater from the surface of the landfill, the owner or operator must continue quarterly surface emission monitoring using the methods specified in this section.

(vii) If after four consecutive quarterly monitoring periods at a closed landfill there is no measured concentration of methane of 500 parts per million or greater from the surface of the landfill, the owner or operator must conduct annual surface emission monitoring using the methods specified in this section.

(viii) If a landfill has installed and operates a collection and control system that is not required by this subpart, then the collection and control system must meet the following criteria:

(A) The gas collection and control system must have operated for at least 6,570 out of 8,760 hours preceding the Tier 4 surface emissions monitoring demonstration.

(B) During the Tier 4 surface emissions monitoring demonstration, the gas collection and control system must operate as it normally would to collect and control as much landfill gas as possible.

(b) After the installation and startup of a collection and control system in compliance with this subpart, the owner or operator must calculate the NMOC emission rate for purposes of determining when the system can be capped, removed, or decommissioned as provided in §60.33f(f), using Equation 3:

eCFR graphic er29au16.002.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

MNMOC = Mass emission rate of NMOC, megagrams per year.

QLFG = Flow rate of landfill gas, cubic meters per minute.

CNMOC = NMOC concentration, parts per million by volume as hexane.

(1) The flow rate of landfill gas, QLFG, must be determined by measuring the total landfill gas flow rate at the common header pipe that leads to the control system using a gas flow measuring device calibrated according to the provisions of section 10 of Method 2E of appendix A of this part.

(2) The average NMOC concentration, CNMOC, must be determined by collecting and analyzing landfill gas sampled from the common header pipe before the gas moving or condensate removal equipment using the procedures in Method 25 or Method 25C of appendix A of this part. The sample location on the common header pipe must be before any condensate removal or other gas refining units. The landfill owner or operator must divide the NMOC concentration from Method 25 or Method 25C by six to convert from CNMOC as carbon to CNMOC as hexane.

(3) The owner or operator may use another method to determine landfill gas flow rate and NMOC concentration if the method has been approved by the Administrator.

(i) Within 60 days after the date of calculating the NMOC emission rate for purposes of determining when the system can be capped or removed, the owner or operator must submit the results according to §60.38f(j)(2).

(ii) [Reserved]

(c) When calculating emissions for Prevention of Significant Deterioration purposes, the owner or operator of each MSW landfill subject to the provisions of this subpart must estimate the NMOC emission rate for comparison to the Prevention of Significant Deterioration major source and significance levels in §51.166 or §52.21 of this chapter using Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Volume I: Stationary Point and Area Sources (AP-42) or other approved measurement procedures.

(d) For the performance test required in §60.33f(c)(1), the net heating value of the combusted landfill gas as determined in §60.18(f)(3) is calculated from the concentration of methane in the landfill gas as measured by Method 3C. A minimum of three 30-minute Method 3C samples are determined. The measurement of other organic components, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide is not applicable. Method 3C may be used to determine the landfill gas molecular weight for calculating the flare gas exit velocity under §60.18(f)(4).

(1) Within 60 days after the date of completing each performance test (as defined in §60.8), the owner or operator must submit the results of the performance tests required by paragraph (b) or (d) of this section, including any associated fuel analyses, according to §60.38f(j)(1).

(2) [Reserved]

(e) For the performance test required in §60.33f(c)(2), Method 25 or 25C (Method 25C may be used at the inlet only) of appendix A of this part must be used to determine compliance with the 98 weight-percent efficiency or the 20 parts per million by volume outlet NMOC concentration level, unless another method to demonstrate compliance has been approved by the Administrator as provided by §60.38f(d)(2). Method 3, 3A, or 3C must be used to determine oxygen for correcting the NMOC concentration as hexane to 3 percent. In cases where the outlet concentration is less than 50 ppm NMOC as carbon (8 ppm NMOC as hexane), Method 25A should be used in place of Method 25. Method 18 may be used in conjunction with Method 25A on a limited basis (compound specific, e.g., methane) or Method 3C may be used to determine methane. The methane as carbon should be subtracted from the Method 25A total hydrocarbon value as carbon to give NMOC concentration as carbon. The landfill owner or operator must divide the NMOC concentration as carbon by 6 to convert the CNMOC as carbon to CNMOC as hexane. Equation 4 must be used to calculate efficiency:

eCFR graphic er29au16.003.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

NMOCin = Mass of NMOC entering control device.

NMOCout = Mass of NMOC exiting control device.

(1) Within 60 days after the date of completing each performance test (as defined in §60.8), the owner or operator must submit the results of the performance tests, including any associated fuel analyses, according to §60.38f(j)(1).

(2) [Reserved]

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