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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of June 3, 2020

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter CPart 60Subpart BBa → §60.284a


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 60—STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES
Subpart BBa—Standards of Performance for Kraft Pulp Mill Affected Sources for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After May 23, 2013


§60.284a   Monitoring of emissions and operations.

(a) Any owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate the continuous monitoring systems specified in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section:

(1) A continuous monitoring system to monitor and record the opacity of the gases discharged into the atmosphere from any recovery furnace or lime kiln using an ESP emission control device, except as specified in paragraph (b)(4) of this section. The span of this system must be set at 70-percent opacity. You must install, certify, and operate the continuous opacity monitoring system in accordance with Performance Specification (PS) 1 in appendix B to 40 CFR part 60.

(2) Continuous monitoring systems to monitor and record the concentration of TRS emissions on a dry basis and the percent of oxygen by volume on a dry basis in the gases discharged into the atmosphere from any lime kiln, recovery furnace, digester system, brown stock washer system, multiple-effect evaporator system, or condensate stripper system, except where the provisions of §60.283a(a)(1)(iii) or (iv) apply. You must install, certify, and operate the continuous TRS monitoring system in accordance with Performance Specification (PS) 5 in appendix B to 40 CFR part 60. You must install, certify, and operate the continuous oxygen monitoring system in accordance with Performance Specification (PS) 3 in appendix B to 40 CFR part 60. These systems must be located downstream of the control device(s). The range of the continuous monitoring system must encompass all expected concentration values, including the zero and span values used for calibration. The spans of these continuous monitoring system(s) must be set:

(i) At a TRS concentration of 30 ppm for the TRS continuous monitoring system, except that for any cross recovery furnace the span must be set at 50 ppm.

(ii) At 21-percent oxygen for the continuous oxygen monitoring system.

(b) Any owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate the following continuous parameter monitoring devices specified in paragraphs (b)(1) through (4) of this section.

(1) For any incinerator, a monitoring device for the continuous measurement of the combustion temperature at the point of incineration of effluent gases which are emitted from any digester system, brown stock washer system, multiple effect evaporator system, or condensate stripper system where the provisions of §60.283a(a)(1)(iii) apply. The monitoring device is to be certified by the manufacturer to be accurate within ±1 percent of the temperature being measured.

(2) For any recovery furnace, lime kiln, or smelt dissolving tank using a wet scrubber emission control device:

(i) A monitoring device for the continuous measurement of the pressure drop of the gas stream through the control equipment. The monitoring device is to be certified by the manufacturer to be accurate to within a gage pressure of ±500 Pascals (±2 inches water gage pressure).

(ii) A monitoring device for the continuous measurement of the scrubbing liquid flow rate. The monitoring device used for continuous measurement of the scrubbing liquid flow rate must be certified by the manufacturer to be accurate within ±5 percent of the design scrubbing liquid flow rate.

(iii) As an alternative to pressure drop measurement under paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section, a monitoring device for measurement of fan amperage may be used for smelt dissolving tank dynamic scrubbers that operate at ambient pressure or for low-energy entrainment scrubbers where the fan speed does not vary.

(iv) As an alternative to scrubbing liquid flow rate measurement under paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, a monitoring device for measurement of scrubbing liquid supply pressure may be used. The monitoring device is to be certified by the manufacturer to be accurate within ±15 percent of design scrubbing liquid supply pressure. The pressure sensor or tap is to be located close to the scrubber liquid discharge point. The Administrator may be consulted for approval of alternative locations.

(3) For any recovery furnace or lime kiln using an ESP emission control device, the owner or operator must use the continuous parameter monitoring devices specified in paragraphs (b)(3)(i) and (ii) of this section.

(i) A monitoring device for the continuous measurement of the secondary voltage of each ESP collection field.

(ii) A monitoring device for the continuous measurement of the secondary current of each ESP collection field.

(iii) Total secondary power may be calculated as the product of the secondary voltage and secondary current measurements for each ESP collection field and used to demonstrate compliance as an alternative to the secondary voltage and secondary current measurements.

(4) For any recovery furnace or lime kiln using an ESP followed by a wet scrubber, the owner or operator must use the continuous parameter monitoring devices specified in paragraphs (b)(2) and (3) of this section. The opacity monitoring system specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section is not required for combination ESP/wet scrubber control device systems.

(c) Monitor operation and calculations. Any owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart must follow the procedures for collecting and reducing monitoring data and setting operating limits in paragraphs (c)(1) through (6) of this section. Subpart A of this part specifies methods for reducing continuous opacity monitoring system data.

(1) Any owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart must, except where the provisions of §60.283a(a)(1)(iii) or (iv) apply, perform the following:

(i) Calculate and record on a daily basis 12-hour average TRS concentrations for the two consecutive periods of each operating day. Each 12-hour average must be determined as the arithmetic mean of the appropriate 12 contiguous 1-hour average TRS concentrations provided by each continuous monitoring system installed under paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(ii) Calculate and record on a daily basis 12-hour average oxygen concentrations for the two consecutive periods of each operating day for the recovery furnace and lime kiln. These 12- hour averages must correspond to the 12-hour average TRS concentrations under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section and must be determined as an arithmetic mean of the appropriate 12 contiguous 1-hour average oxygen concentrations provided by each continuous monitoring system installed under paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(iii) Using the following equation, correct all 12-hour average TRS concentrations to 10 volume percent oxygen, except that all 12-hour average TRS concentrations from a recovery furnace must be corrected to 8 volume percent oxygen instead of 10 percent, and all 12-hour average TRS concentrations from a facility to which the provisions of §60.283a(a)(1)(v) apply must not be corrected for oxygen content:

Ccorr = Cmeas × (21−X/21−Y)

Where:

Ccorr = the concentration corrected for oxygen.

Cmeas = the 12-hour average of the measured concentrations uncorrected for oxygen.

X = the volumetric oxygen concentration in percentage to be corrected to (8 percent for recovery furnaces and 10 percent for lime kilns, incinerators, or other devices).

Y = the 12-hour average of the measured volumetric oxygen concentration.

(2) Record at least once each successive 5-minute period all measurements obtained from the continuous monitoring devices installed under paragraph (b)(1) of this section. Calculate 3-hour block averages from the recorded measurements of incinerator temperature. Temperature measurements recorded when no TRS emissions are fired in the incinerator (e.g., during incinerator warm-up and cool-down periods when no TRS emissions are generated or an alternative control device is used) may be omitted from the block average calculation.

(3) Record at least once each successive 15-minute period all measurements obtained from the continuous monitoring devices installed under paragraph (b)(2) through (4) of this section and reduce the data as follows:

(i) Calculate 12-hour block averages from the recorded measurements of wet scrubber pressure drop (or smelt dissolving tank scrubber fan amperage) and liquid flow rate (or liquid supply pressure), as applicable.

(ii) Calculate semiannual averages from the recorded measurements of ESP parameters (secondary voltage and secondary current, or total secondary power) for ESP-controlled recovery furnaces or lime kilns that measure opacity in addition to ESP parameters.

(iii) Calculate 12-hour block averages from the recorded measurements of ESP parameters (secondary voltage and secondary current, or total secondary power) for recovery furnaces or lime kilns with combination ESP/wet scrubber controls.

(4) During the initial performance test required in §60.285a, the owner or operator must establish site-specific operating limits for the monitoring parameters in paragraphs (b)(2) through (4) of this section by continuously monitoring the parameters and determining the arithmetic average value of each parameter during the performance test. The arithmetic average of the measured values for the three test runs establishes your minimum site-specific operating limit for each wet scrubber or ESP parameter. Multiple performance tests may be conducted to establish a range of parameter values. The owner or operator may establish replacement operating limits for the monitoring parameters during subsequent performance tests using the test methods in §60.285a.

(5) You must operate the continuous monitoring systems required in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section to collect data at all required intervals at all times the affected facility is operating except for periods of monitoring system malfunctions or out-of-control periods, repairs associated with monitoring system malfunctions or out-of-control periods, and required monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities including, as applicable, calibration checks and required zero and span adjustments.

(6) You may not use data recorded during monitoring system malfunctions or out-of-control periods, repairs associated with monitoring system malfunctions or out-of-control periods, or required monitoring system quality assurance or control activities in calculations used to report emissions or operating limits. You must use all the data collected during all other periods in assessing the operation of the control device and associated control system.

(7) Except for periods of monitoring system malfunctions, repairs associated with monitoring system malfunctions, and required quality monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities (including, as applicable, system accuracy audits and required zero and span adjustments), failure to collect required data is a deviation of the monitoring requirements.

(d) Excess emissions are defined for this subpart as follows:

(1) For emissions from any recovery furnace, periods of excess emissions are:

(i) All 12-hour averages of TRS concentrations above 5 ppm by volume at 8-percent oxygen for straight kraft recovery furnaces and above 25 ppm by volume at 8-percent oxygen for cross recovery furnaces during times when BLS is fired.

(ii) All 6-minute average opacities that exceed 20 percent during times when BLS is fired.

(2) For emissions from any lime kiln, periods of excess emissions are:

(i) All 12-hour average TRS concentrations above 8 ppm by volume at 10-percent oxygen during times when lime mud is fired.

(ii) All 6-minute average opacities that exceed 20 percent during times when lime mud is fired.

(3) For emissions from any digester system, brown stock washer system, multiple-effect evaporator system, or condensate stripper system, periods of excess emissions are:

(i) All 12-hour average TRS concentrations above 5 ppm by volume at 10-percent oxygen unless the provisions of §60.283a(a)(1)(i), (ii), or (iv) apply; or

(ii) All 3-hour block averages during which the combustion temperature at the point of incineration is less than 650 °C (1200   14 °F), where the provisions of §60.283a(a)(1)(iii) apply and an incinerator is used as the combustion device.

(iii) All times when gases are not routed through the closed-vent system to one of the control devices specified in §60.283a(a)(1)(i) through (iii) and (v).

(4) For any recovery furnace, lime kiln, or smelt dissolving tank controlled with a wet scrubber emission control device that complies with the parameter monitoring requirements specified in §60.284a(b)(2), periods of excess emissions are:

(i) All 12-hour block average scrubbing liquid flow rate (or scrubbing liquid supply pressure) measurements below the minimum site-specific limit established during performance testing during times when BLS or lime mud is fired (as applicable), and

(ii) All 12-hour block average scrubber pressure drop (or fan amperage, if used as an alternative under paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of this section) measurements below the minimum site-specific limit established during performance testing during times when BLS or lime mud is fired (as applicable), except during startup and shutdown.

(5) For any recovery furnace or lime kiln controlled with an ESP followed by a wet scrubber that complies with the parameter monitoring requirements specified in §60.284a(b)(4), periods of excess emissions are:

(i) All 12-hour block average scrubbing liquid flow rate (or scrubbing liquid supply pressure) measurements below the minimum site-specific limit established during performance testing during times when BLS or lime mud is fired (as applicable), and

(ii) All 12-hour block average scrubber pressure drop measurements below the minimum site-specific limit established during performance testing during times when BLS or lime mud is fired (as applicable) except during startup and shutdown,

(iii) All 12-hour block average ESP secondary voltage measurements below the minimum site-specific limit established during performance testing during times when BLS or lime mud is fired (as applicable) including startup and shutdown.

(iv) All 12-hour block average ESP secondary current measurements (or total secondary power values) below the minimum site-specific limit established during performance testing during times when BLS or lime mud is fired (as applicable) except during startup and shutdown.

(e) The Administrator will not consider periods of excess emissions reported under §60.288a(a) to be indicative of a violation of the standards provided the criteria in paragraphs (e)(1) and (2) of this section are met.

(1) The percent of the total number of possible contiguous periods of excess emissions in the semiannual reporting period does not exceed:

(i) One percent for TRS emissions from straight recovery furnaces, provided that the 12-hour average TRS concentration does not exceed 30 ppm corrected to 8-percent oxygen.

(ii) Two percent for average opacities from recovery furnaces, provided that the ESP secondary voltage and secondary current (or total secondary power) averaged over the semiannual period remained above the minimum operating limits established during the performance test.

(iii) One percent for TRS emissions from lime kilns, provided that the 12-hour average TRS concentration does not exceed 22 ppm corrected to 10-percent oxygen.

(iv) One percent for average opacities from lime kilns, provided that the ESP secondary voltage and secondary current (or total secondary power) averaged over the semiannual period remained above the minimum operating limits established during the performance test.

(v) One percent for TRS emissions from cross recovery furnaces, provided that the 12-hour average TRS concentration does not exceed 50 ppm corrected to 8-percent oxygen.

(vi) For closed-vent systems delivering gases to one of the control devices specified in §60.283a(a)(1)(i) through (iii) and (v), the time of excess emissions divided by the total process operating time in the semiannual reporting period does not exceed:

(A) One percent for LVHC closed-vent systems; or

(B) Four percent for HVLC closed-vent systems or for HVLC and LVHC closed-vent systems combined.

(2) The Administrator determines that the affected facility, including air pollution control equipment, is maintained and operated in a manner which is consistent with good air pollution control practice for minimizing emissions during periods of excess emissions.

(3) The 12-hour average TRS concentration uncorrected for oxygen may be considered when determining compliance with the excess emission provisions in paragraphs (e)(1)(i) and (iii) of this section during periods of startup or shutdown when the 12-hour average stack oxygen percentage approaches ambient conditions. If the 12-hour average TRS concentration uncorrected for oxygen is less than the applicable limit (5 ppm for recovery furnaces or 8 ppm for lime kilns) during periods of startup or shutdown when the 12-hour average stack oxygen concentration is 15 percent or greater, then the Administrator will consider the TRS average to be in compliance. This provision only applies during periods of affected facility startup and shutdown.

(f) The procedures under §60.13 must be followed for installation, evaluation, and operation of the continuous monitoring systems required under this section. All continuous monitoring systems must be operated in accordance with the applicable procedures under Performance Specifications 1, 3, and 5 of appendix B of this part.

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