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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of December 5, 2019

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter CPart 59Subpart C → §59.208


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 59—NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS
Subpart C—National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products


§59.208   Charcoal lighter material testing protocol.

(a) Each manufacturer or importer of charcoal lighter material subject to this subpart shall demonstrate compliance with the applicable requirements of §59.203(d) using the procedures specified in this section. Any lighter material that has received certification from California South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) under their Rule 1174, Ignition Method Compliance Certification Testing Protocol, will be considered as having demonstrated compliance with the applicable requirements of this subpart using the procedures in this section.

(b) The manufacturer or importer shall obtain from the testing laboratory conducting the testing, a report of findings, including all raw data sheets/charts and laboratory analytical data. The testing must demonstrate that VOC emissions resulting from the ignition of the barbecue charcoal are, on average, less than or equal to 9 grams per start. The manufacturer or importer shall maintain the report of findings.

(c) When a charcoal lighter material does not fall within the testing guidelines of this protocol, the protocol may be modified following a determination by the Administrator that the modified protocol is an acceptable alternative to the method described in this section and written approval of the Administrator.

(d) Meteorological and environmental criteria. (1) Testing shall be conducted under the following conditions:

(i) Inlet combustion air temperature is 16 to 27 degrees Celsius (60 to 80 degrees Fahrenheit) with a relative humidity of 20 to 80 percent;

(ii) The charcoal and lighter material are stored 72 hours before testing in a location with a relative humidity between 45 and 65 percent, and a temperature between 18 and 24 degrees Celsuis (65 to 75 degrees Fahrenheit); and

(iii) The outside wind speed, including gusts, may be no more than 16 kilometers per hour (10 miles per hour) if the test stack is exhausted outdoors, or, if the test stack is exhausted indoors, indoor air must be stagnant.

(2) Temperature and relative humidity of the combustion air shall be continuously monitored during the test. Temperature and relative humidity of the place where the charcoal and lighter material are stored prior to the test shall be monitored and recorded during the 72 hours immediately prior to the test. If the stack is exhausted outdoors, the continuous outdoor wind speed monitor shall be observed or recorded continuously during testing. If the wind speed monitor is manually observed rather than electronically recorded, the maximum wind speed observed during the test shall be recorded.

(e) Definitions. For the purposes of this test protocol, the following definitions shall apply:

(1) Baseline VOC emissions (Eb) means the 3.6 grams (0.008 pounds) per start of subject VOC mass emissions (calculated as CH2) resulting from the ignition of charcoal by electric probe.

(2) Emission limit for VOC means 9 grams per start of resultant VOC emissions (Er), (expressed as CH2).

(3) Equivalent means equipment that has been demonstrated to meet or exceed the performance, design, and operation specifications of the prescribed equipment. A demonstration that equipment or a test method is a suitable alternative requires written approval from the Administrator prior to compliance testing, based on an evaluation of comparative performance specifications and/or actual performance test data.

(4) Ignition means the ready-to-cook condition of the charcoal determined by the temperature above the charcoal, the organic vapor concentration measured by the continuous organic emission monitor, and percent ash.

(5) Ignition VOC emissions (eI)—means the grams (pounds) per start of total subject VOC mass emissions (expressed as CH2) resulting from the ignition of charcoal by the lighter material undergoing evaluation, including both charcoal and lighter material emissions.

(6) labeled directions means those directions affixed to the charcoal lighter material which specify:

(1) The amount of lighter material to use per kilogram (or pound) of charcoal, unless the lighter material is already impregnated or treated in the charcoal;

(2) How to use or apply the lighter material; and

(3) How and when to light the lighter material.

(7) Percent ash means a qualitative observation of the ratio of visible charcoal surface area ignited (grayish/white ash) to total charcoal surface area times 100.

(8) Reference VOC emissions (Eep)—means the grams (pounds) per start of subject VOC mass emissions (calculated as CH2) resulting from the ignition of charcoal by the reference electric probe during the testing.

(9) Resultant VOC emissions (Er)—means the ignition VOC emission (EI) less the reference VOC emissions (Eep) plus baseline emissions (Eb).

(10) Start means a 25-minute period commencing from the instant that emissions may be released from the lighter material, either by evaporation or combustion, and further characterized such that by the end of said 25-minute period, ignition is achieved.

(f) Test structure, equipment specifications, and reference materials. (1) The test structure is to be located in a building or fabricated total enclosure (i.e., with enclosed sides and top). The enclosure shall be such that there are no constant or intermittent air flows within it that cause fluctuations in the stack velocity and/or disruptions of air flow patterns within the test chamber containing the reference grill . (WARNING: If the stack is vented into the building enclosure, caution must be taken to avoid carbon monoxide poisoning and the reduction of oxygen.)

(2) Test structure components. The following test structure components, as shown in figures 1 and 2 of Appendix A of this subpart, shall be used:

(i) Test chamber—Standard large, prefabricated fireplace manufactured by MarcoΔ,1 Model No. C41CF, with flue damper removed; or a fabricated structure with the same dimensions. Spacers are required at the rear of the test chamber to ensure a constant 5-centimeter (2-inch) distance between the reference grill and the rear wall of the test chamber.

1Note: Mention of trade names or specific products does not constitute endorsement by the EPA.

(ii) Test stack—25-centimeter (10-inch) diameter galvanized steel ducting with velocity traverse port holes located approximately 8 diameters downstream from the stack outlet of the fireplace chamber and sampling ports located approximately 212 diameters downstream of the velocity traverse ports.

(iii) Fan—25-centimeter (10-inch) diameter axial fan (duct fan) capable of maintaining an air velocity of 140 ±9 meters per minute (450 ±30 feet per minute) and located in the stack approximately 3 diameters downstream of the sampling ports.

(iv) Test stack insulation—The stack shall be insulated with fiberglass blanket insulation (or equivalent) with a minimum R-value of 6.4, that totally surrounds the stack from the top of the fireplace to the level of the blower which minimizes temperature gradients in the stack and prevents hydrocarbons from condensing on the stack wall.

(v) Stack mounts—Supports for fixing in position the stack velocity measurement device for measuring reference point velocity readings and the continuous organic emission monitor probe/meter.

(vi) Blower speed control—A rheostat for controlling voltage to the fan.

(3) Test equipment and materials. The following test equipment and materials shall be used:

(i) Continuous recording device—A YEWΔ model 4088 dot matrix, roster scanning chart recorder, Omega strip recorder with a Strawberry Tree Data Acquisition System, or equivalent, shall be used to continuously (6-second cycle) record temperatures, velocity, and continuous organic emission monitor output signals. The recording may be done manually, recording temperature using a digital potentiometer (20-second intervals), reference point velocity with a Pitot tube (20-second intervals), and continuous organic emission monitor readings with the analyzer's meter (10-second intervals).

(ii) Grill temperature probe—A type “K” thermocouple silver soldered to a 7.6 centimeter (3-inch) square brass plate 0.083-centimeter (0.033 inches) thick painted flat black using high temperature (>370 degrees Celsius [>700 degrees Fahrenheit]) paint; set on an adjustable stand to maintain 11 centimeters (4.5 inches) above the maximum height of the briquette pile and made such that it can be removed and replaced within the chamber.

(iii) Stack temperature probe—The KurzΔ digital air velocity meter or a type “K” thermocouple shall be used.

(iv) Stack velocity measurement device—The velocity in meters (feet) per minute for the reference point using a KurzΔ digital air velocity meter, DavisΔ DTA 4000 vane anemometer, or equivalent to method 1A of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A.

(v) Continuous organic emissions monitor—CenturyΔ Model 128 Organic Vapor Analyzer, RatfischΔ RS55 total hydrocarbon analyzer, or equivalent, with response in parts per million (ranges 0 to 10 parts per million, 0 to 100 parts per million, 0 to 1,000 parts per million).

(vi) Temperature and humidity monitor—A chart recorder type with humidity accuracy of ±3 percent from 15 to 85 percent.

(vii) Wind speed and direction monitor—A wind speed and direction device meeting a tolerance of ±10 percent.

(viii) Analytical balance—An electronic scale with a resolution of a ±2 grams.

(ix) Charcoal stacking ring—Rigid metal cylinder 21.6 centimeters (8.5 inches) in diameter with indicators to determine that the pile of briquettes does not exceed 12.7 centimeters (5 inches) in height.

(x) Camera—To document ignition condition of charcoal at the end of each start.

(xi) Particulate filter—NuproΔ inline filter, Catalog Number SS-4FW-2 with 0.64 centimeter ( 14 -inch) Swagelok inlet and outlet or equivalent.

(xii) Barbecue Grill—The charcoal shall be ignited in a WeberΔ “Go Anywhere” barbecue grill (Model Number #121001), 39.4 centimeters × 24 centimeters × 12.7 centimeters (15.5 inch × 9.5 inch × 5.0 inch) with the grate 4.4 centimeters (1.75 inches) above the bottom of the grill, or another grill that meets these specifications. The grill shall be set on its bottom when placed in the test chamber and all grill air vents shall be in full open position.

(xiii) Electric probe—A 600-watt electric probe shall be used for electric probe ignition tests.

(xiv) Untreated charcoal—The laboratory conducting the testing shall purchase “off the shelf” untreated charcoal from a retail outlet. Charcoal shall not be provided by the manufacturer of the charcoal lighter material to be tested or by the charcoal manufacturer. The charcoal to be used is KingsfordΔ “Original Charcoal Briquets.” All untreated charcoal used in the certification testing of a single ignition source is to come from the same lot as indicated by the number printed on the bag.

(xv) Treated or impregnated charcoal—If the charcoal lighter material to be tested is a substance used to treat or impregnate charcoal, the regulated entity shall provide to the laboratory conducting the tests a sample of impregnated charcoal. The sample shall be impregnated or treated barbecue charcoal that is ignited either outside of package or ignited by the package. If commercially available, the independent testing laboratory conducting the test shall purchase “off the shelf” from a retail outlet.

(g) Sampling and analytical methods. (1) Gas volumetric flow rate. Conduct a full velocity traverse using the stack velocity measurement device as shown in figure 3 of this Appendix A to this Subpart, or use Method 1A of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A. Continuously record a velocity reference point reading during each test run using a chart recorder or once every 20 seconds if using Method 1A. Calculate the volumetric flow rate using the gas velocity, moisture content, and the stack cross-sectional area. For the purposes of this protocol, the static pressure shall be assumed to be atmospheric, the molar density correction factor in the stack to be 1.0, and the moisture content to be 2 percent.

(2) Integrated VOC sample. Collect integrated VOC gas samples at the sampling port in the exhaust stack using a 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, Method 25 Total Combustion Analysis (TCA) sampling apparatus consisting of two evacuated 9-liter tanks, each equipped with flow controllers, vacuum gauges, and probes, as shown in figure 4 of Appendix A of this Subpart. Use 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, Method 25, SCAQMD Method 25.1 (incorporated by reference—§59.213 of this subpart), or equivalent, for analysis. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, and non-methane organic carbon are analyzed by the TCA and TCA/Flame Ionization Detector (FID) methods. Oxygen content is determined by gas chromatography using a thermal conductivity detector. Clean particulate filters between use by heating to 760 degrees Celsius (1400 degrees Fahrenheit) while using compressed air as a carrier for cleaning and purging.

(3) Continuous organic emissions monitor. A continuous organic emissions monitor which uses a continuous FID shall be used for each test run to measure the real time organic concentration of the exhaust as methane. Record the emission monitor response in parts per million continuously during the sampling period using a chart recorder or at least once every 10 seconds. The VOC analyzer shall be operated as prescribed in the manufacturer's directions unless otherwise noted in this protocol.

(h) Pretest procedure. (1) Charcoal lighter material—charcoal. Before each test run, remove charcoal from a sealed bag that has been stored for at least 72 hours in a humidity and temperature controlled room which satisfies the requirements of paragraph (d)(1) of this section and weight out 0.9 kilograms (2 pounds) of charcoal briquettes, to the nearest whole briquette over 0.9 kilograms (2 pounds), of uniform shape with no broken pieces using an analytical balance. Reseal the bag. Charcoal must be ignited within 10 minutes after removal from bag. A sealed or resealed bag of charcoal cannot be stored at the test site for greater than 45 minutes. It must be returned to a humidity and temperature controlled room from 72 hours. The lighter material must be purchased, stored, weighed, and handled the same as the barbecue charcoal.

(i) For the reference VOC emission tests using an electric probe, place a single layer of charcoal, slightly larger than the area/circle of the electric probe heating element, onto the grate. Place the heating element on top of this first layer and cover the heating element with the remaining charcoal briquettes.

(ii) For the ignition VOC emissions tests, arrange the briquettes on the barbecue grate in the manner specified by the ignition manufacturer's directions. If these manufacturer's directions do not specify a stacking arrangement for the briquettes, randomly stack the briquettes in a pile using the stacking ring described in paragraph (f)(3)(ix) of this section.

(2) Charcoal lighter material—or impregnated charcoal. Store, handle, weigh, and stack barbecue charcoal that is designed to be lit without the packaging, the same as in paragraph (h)(1) of this section. For those products which require both the package and charcoal be lit, weigh the whole package—do not remove charcoal. Weigh an empty package (not the same one to be used during the test). Subtract the package weight from the overall weight of the package and charcoal. The full package and empty package must be stored, handled, and weighed the same as in paragraph (h)(1) of this section. If the difference (the charcoal weight) is between 0.7 to 1.4 kilograms (1.5 to 3.0 pounds), the test may proceed. The emissions measured (E) in Equation 5 of paragraph (k)(7) of this section must be adjusted to a 0.9 kilogram (2-pound) charge. Place packaged barbecue charcoal on the grate in the manner specified by the manufacturer's directions.

(3) Initial meteorological and environmental criteria in paragraph (d) shall be complied with.

(4) The stack velocity must be set before each day of testing at 140 ±9 meters per minute (450 ±30 feet per minute) by performing a velocity traverse as specified in paragraph (g)(1) of this section. The velocity will be attained by adjusting the axial fan speed using a rheostat.

(5) The fireplace shall be conditioned at the start of each day before sampling tests by using a grill ignited by the electric probe. If a time period of over 60 minutes between sampling test runs occur, the condition step must be repeated.

(6) Before each test run, leak check the continuous organic emissions monitor by blocking the flow to the probe. Allow the instrument to warm up for the duration specified by the manufacturer's directions. Select the 0 to 100 parts per million range. Check the battery level and hydrogen pressure. Zero with hydrocarbon-free air (<0.1 parts per million hydrocarbons as methane) span with 90 parts per million methane in ultra pure air. Zero and span another instrument selection range if needed for test purposes.

(7) Before the testing program begins, establish a point of average concentration of organics in the stack by using a continuous organic emissions monitor and a grill with charcoal ignited by the electric probe 40 minutes after initial release of emissions. Record the continuous organic emissions monitor traverse data.

(8) Prepare the integrated VOC sampling equipment and perform the required leak checks. Fit the probes with nozzles housing two micron particulate filters. Insert the probes and nozzles into the sampling port to draw a sample of the exhaust gas from the point of average organic concentration as determined from the continuous organic emissions monitor sample traverse described in paragraph (h)(4) of this section. Also, position the nozzles such that they point downstream in the stack. Obtain the samples concurrently and continuously over the test run.

(9) Insert the continuous organic emissions monitor probe into the sampling port to draw a sample of the exhaust gas from the point of average organic concentration as determined from the continuous organic emissions monitor sample traverse described in paragraph (h)(7) of this section.

(i) Test procedure. The labeled directions, as defined in paragraph (e) of this section, shall be followed throughout the course of the testing. In cases where the directions are incompatible with this protocol, circumvent the intent of this protocol, or are unclear (subject to different interpretations) and inadequate, the Administrator must be informed in writing of the nature of the conflict, as well as the proposed resolution, prior to commencing testing. When the labeled directions for a charcoal lighter material do not fall within the testing guidelines of this protocol, the protocol may only be modified upon written approval of the Administrator.

(1) Place the bottom of the barbecue grill on the floor of the fireplace, 5 centimeters (2 inches) from the rear wall. Ignite charcoal as specified by manufacturer's labeled directions.

(2) For electric probe ignition, carefully remove probe without disturbing charcoal after 10 minutes of operation.

(3) For fluid ignition, simultaneously match light fluid on charcoal and fluid that has fallen to the bottom of the grill.

(4) Place the grill temperature probe 11 centimeters (4.5 inches) above the top of the charcoal immediately after the charcoal lighter material flame goes out, or before, if the lighter material does not flame.

(5) Conduct at least six test runs for both the electric probe ignition and for the lighter material being evaluated. Alternate these lighter material for all 12 runs. All runs must be conducted over 3 consecutive days or less. Alternatively, baseline emissions testing (using the electric probe) may be applied to other test runs provided the test runs occur within 4 months of the baseline testing. Integrated VOC sampling and continuous organic emissions monitoring begin for each test run when the charcoal lighter material and/or materials start to generate/release organics (this will be the time of pouring for lighter fluids and the time of ignition for most other ignition sources). Option: Because the manufacturer of treated or impregnated charcoal supplies both the lighter material and barbecue charcoal, they may apply the 9 grams VOC per start emission limit as an absolute value without an adjustment for the VOC emissions from an electric probe.

(6) Sampling ends for each test run when all the following conditions are met:

(i) The temperature 11 centimeters (4.5 inches) above the maximum height of the briquette pile, using the grill temperature probe described in paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section, is at least 93 degrees Celsius (200 degrees Fahrenheit);

(ii) The continuous organic emissions monitor is reading below 30 parts per million for at least 2 minutes;

(iii) The test sampling has continued for 25 minutes (but not more) and

(iv) The charcoal surface is 70 percent covered with ash (to be documented with photograph on top and 60 degrees above the horizon).

(7) During the sampling test runs, temperatures (excluding ambient) and continuous organic emission monitor readings shall be recorded and shall comply with the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section. Humidity, wind speed, and ambient temperature readings shall be monitored and shall comply with the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section.

(8) Collect one blank sample for VOC and one ambient air sample during one run of each day per paragraph (k) of this section.

(j) Post-run procedure. (1) Record temperatures (including ambient), humidity, wind speed, and continuous organic emissions monitor reading.

(2) Record the drift using zero and span gases. Leak check and span the continuous organic emissions monitor as described in paragraph (h)(6) of this section for the next run.

(3) Leak check and disassemble the integrated VOC sampling equipment as described in Method 25 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A or SCAQMD Method 25.1 (incorporated by reference—see §59.213 of this subpart), or equivalent.

(4) Thoroughly clean grill surfaces of all residue before conducting next ignition run.

(k) Calculations. Calculations shall be carried out to at least one significant digit beyond that of the acquired data, and then rounded off after final calculation to two significant digits for each run. All rounding off of numbers should be in accordance with the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E 380-93, Standard Practice for Use of the SI International System of Units, procedures (incorporated by reference—see §59.213 of this subpart).

(1) Calculate the average stack reference point temperature during sampling (tsr).

(2) Calculate the average measured velocities (in meters per minute [feet per minute]): Traverse (ut), traverse reference point (utr), and reference point during sampling (usr).

(3) Calculate the corrected average sampling velocity (us) by applying Equation 2:

eCFR graphic er11se98.003.gif

View or download PDF

(4) Calculate the average flow rate (Qs) in cubic meters per minute (cubic feet per minute) by applying Equation 3:

eCFR graphic er11se98.004.gif

View or download PDF

Where

A = Duct cross-sectional area, (square meters [square feet]

(5) Correct the flow rate to dry standard conditions (Qds) by applying Equation 4. Assume the static pressure to be atmospheric and the molar density correction factor to be 1.0

eCFR graphic er11se98.005.gif

View or download PDF

Where

Ts = 289 K (520 R)

TS = 273 K (460 R)

H = Percent moisture-100

= 0.02

(6) Calculate the average total gaseous non-methane organic carbon for each duplicate sample run analyzed.

(7) Calculate the grams (pounds) of VOC as CH2 emitted per start (normalized to 0.9 kilograms [2 pounds] of charcoal) for each run using Equation 5:

eCFR graphic er11se98.006.gif

View or download PDF

Where

E = Emissions of VOC per start for each test run (grams VOC/start [pounds VOC/start])

A = Hydrocarbon molecular weight

= 14.0268 grams per gram-mole (14.0268 pounds per pound-mole)

B = Carbon number

    = 1

C = Average concentration for each duplicate run of total gaseous nonmethane organic compounds as CO2 (parts per million, from lab analysis sheet)

D = Sampling duration

    = 25 minutes

d = Molar density of gas at standard conditions

    = 42.33 gram-mole per cubic meter (0.0026353 pound-mole per cubic foot)

N = Normalized mass (0.9 kilograms [2 pounds])

M = Mass of charge (kilograms [pounds])

(8) Calculate the average VOC emissions for each lighter material tested. Identify and discard statistical outliers. Note a minimum of five valid results are required for a determination. This procedure for eliminating an outlier may only be performed once for each lighter material tested.

(9) Using Equation 6, calculate the resultant VOC emissions per start (Er) and determine if it is less than or equal to the 9 grams VOC per start emission limit.

eCFR graphic er11se98.007.gif

View or download PDF

Where

ei = Average emissions of VOC per start from the charcoal lighter material being evaluated (grams VOC/start [pounds VOC/start] expressed as CH2)

eep = Average reference VOC emissions per start from the ignition by electric probe (grams VOC/start [pounds VOC/start] expressed as CH2)

    = 0 grams VOC/start (0 pounds VOC/start) for treated or impregnated charcoal

Eb = Standard baseline VOC emissions per start from the ignition by electric probe (expressed as CH2)

    = 0 grams VOC/start (0 pounds VOC/start) for treated or impregnated charcoal

    = 3.6 grams VOC/start (0.008 pounds VOC/start) for all other charcoal lighter material

(l) Recordkeeping. A record of the following charcoal lighter material compliance test information shall be kept for at least 5 years:

(1) Real time temperature and continuous organic emissions monitor readings from continuous chart recorder and/or manual reading of temperatures and the continuous organic emissions monitor output.

(2) A description of quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) procedures followed for all measuring equipment and calibration test data.

(3) A description of QA/QC procedures followed for all sampling and analysis equipment and calibration test data.

(4) Time and quantity of blanks and ambient air samples.

(5) Chain of custody for samples.

(6) Labeled directions.

(7) Field notes and data sheets.

(8) Calculation/averaging sheets/printouts.

(9) Sample (in its normal package from the same lot) of barbecue charcoal and lighter material used for testing.

(10) Formulation of lighter material tested (indicate if the information is to be handled confidentially).

(11) Photographs documenting charcoal surface ash coverage.

(m) Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) Requirements. The QA/QC guidelines in the EPA's Quality Assistance Handbook (EPA 600.4-77-027b) shall be followed. In addition, the following procedures shall be used:

(1) A blank sample for VOC shall be performed once each day, during the start period of one of the lighter materials, using the integrated VOC sampling apparatus.

(2) An ambient air sample for VOC shall be taken once each day, during the start period of one of the lighter materials, using the integrated VOC sampling apparatus with NuproΔ 2 micron filters.

(3) Traceability certificates shall be provided for all calibration gases used for the continuous organic emissions monitor and integrated VOC analysis.

(4) Grill temperature probe shall be calibrated using the procedures in ASTM Method E220-86 (incorporated by reference as specified in United States §59.213).

(5) Supply documentation for place of purchase (or origin if experimental) and chain of custody for lighter material tested. Documentation to be included for both treated and impregnated charcoal.

(6) Supply documentation for place of purchase and chain of custody for untreated charcoal.

[63 FR 48815, Sept. 11, 1998; 63 FR 52319, Sept. 30, 1998]

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