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e-CFR data is current as of November 25, 2020

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter RPart 745Subpart Q → §745.327


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 745—LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES
Subpart Q—State and Indian Tribal Programs


§745.327   State or Indian Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement programs.

(a) Approval of compliance and enforcement programs. A State or Indian Tribe seeking authorization of a lead-based paint program can apply for and receive either interim or final approval of the compliance and enforcement program portion of its lead-based paint program. Indian Tribes are not required to exercise criminal enforcement jurisdiction as a condition for program authorization.

(1) Interim approval. Interim approval of the compliance and enforcement program portion of the State or Tribal lead-based paint program may be granted by EPA only once, and subject to a specific expiration date.

(i) To be considered adequate for purposes of obtaining interim approval for the compliance and enforcement program portion of a State or Tribal lead-based paint program, a State or Indian Tribe must, in its application described at §745.324(a):

(A) Demonstrate it has the legal authority and ability to immediately implement the elements in paragraph (b) of this section. This demonstration shall include a statement that the State or Indian Tribe, during the interim approval period, shall carry out a level of compliance monitoring and enforcement necessary to ensure that the State or Indian Tribe addresses any significant risks posed by noncompliance with lead-based paint activity requirements.

(B) Present a plan with time frames identified for implementing in the field each element in paragraph (c) of this section. All elements of paragraph (c) of this section must be fully implemented no later than 3 years from the date of EPA's interim approval of the compliance and enforcement program portion of a State or Tribal lead-based paint program. A statement of resources must be included in the State or Tribal plan which identifies what resources the State or Indian Tribe intends to devote to the administration of its lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program.

(C) Agree to submit to EPA the Summary on Progress and Performance of lead-based paint compliance and enforcement activities as described at paragraph (d) of this section.

(ii) Any interim approval granted by EPA for the compliance and enforcement program portion of a State or Tribal lead-based paint program will expire no later than 3 years from the date of EPA's interim approval. One hundred and eighty days prior to this expiration date, a State or Indian Tribe shall apply to EPA for final approval of the compliance and enforcement program portion of a State or Tribal lead-based paint program. Final approval shall be given to any State or Indian Tribe which has in place all of the elements of paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section. If a State or Indian Tribe does not receive final approval for the compliance and enforcement program portion of a State or Tribal lead-based paint program by the date 3 years after the date of EPA's interim approval, the Administrator shall, by such date, initiate the process to withdraw the State or Indian Tribe's authorization pursuant to §745.324(i).

(2) Final approval. Final approval of the compliance and enforcement program portion of a State or Tribal lead-based paint program can be granted by EPA either through the application process described at §745.324(a), or, for States or Indian Tribes which previously received interim approval as described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, through a separate application addressing only the compliance and enforcement program portion of a State or Tribal lead-based paint program.

(i) For the compliance and enforcement program to be considered adequate for final approval through the application described at §745.324(a), a State or Indian Tribe must, in its application:

(A) Demonstrate it has the legal authority and ability to immediately implement the elements in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section.

(B) Submit a statement of resources which identifies what resources the State or Indian Tribe intends to devote to the administration of its lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program.

(C) Agree to submit to EPA the Summary on Progress and Performance of lead-based paint compliance and enforcement activities as described at paragraph (d) of this section.

(ii) For States or Indian Tribes which previously received interim approval as described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, in order for the State or Tribal compliance and enforcement program to be considered adequate for final approval through a separate application addressing only the compliance and enforcement program portion of a State or Tribal lead-based paint program, a State or Indian Tribe must, in its application:

(A) Demonstrate that it has the legal authority and ability to immediately implement the elements in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section.

(B) Submit a statement which identifies the resources the State or Indian Tribe intends to devote to the administration of its lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program.

(C) Agree to submit to EPA the Summary on Progress and Performance of lead-based paint compliance and enforcement activities as described at paragraph (d) of this section.

(D) To the extent not previously submitted through the application described at §745.324(a), submit copies of all applicable State or Tribal statutes, regulations, standards, and other material that provide the State or Indian Tribe with authority to administer and enforce the lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program, and copies of the policies, certifications, plans, reports, and any other documents that demonstrate that the program meets the requirements established in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section.

(b) Standards, regulations, and authority. The standards, regulations, and authority described in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(4) of this section are part of the required elements for the compliance and enforcement portion of a State or Tribal lead-based paint program.

(1) Lead-based paint activities or renovation requirements. State or Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement programs will be considered adequate if the State or Indian Tribe demonstrates, in its application at §745.324(b)(2), that it has established a lead-based paint program that contains all of the elements specified in §745.325 or §745.326, or both, as applicable.

(2) Authority to enter. State or Tribal officials must be able to enter, through consent, warrant, or other authority, premises or facilities where lead-based paint violations may occur for purposes of conducting inspections.

(i) State or Tribal officials must be able to enter premises or facilities where those engaged in training for lead-based paint activities or renovations conduct business.

(ii) For the purposes of enforcing a renovation program, State or Tribal officials must be able to enter a firm's place of business or work site.

(iii) State or Tribal officials must have authority to take samples and review records as part of the lead-based paint inspection process.

(3) Flexible remedies. A State or Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program must provide for a diverse and flexible array of enforcement statutory and regulatory authorities and remedies. At a minimum, these authorities and remedies, which must also be reflected in an enforcement response policy, must include the following:

(i) The authority to issue warning letters, Notices of Noncompliance, Notices of Violation, or the equivalent;

(ii) The authority to assess administrative or civil fines, including a maximum penalty authority for any violation in an amount no less than $5,000 per violation per day;

(iii) The authority to assess the maximum penalties or fines for each instance of violation and, if the violation is continuous, the authority to assess penalties or fines up to the maximum amount for each day of violation, with all penalties assessed or collected being appropriate for the violation after consideration of factors as the State or Tribe determine to be relevant, including the size or viability of the business, enforcement history, risks to human health or the environment posed by the violation, and other similar factors;

(iv) The authority to commence an administrative proceeding or to sue in courts of competent jurisdiction to recover penalties;

(v) The authority to suspend, revoke, or modify the accreditation of any training provider or the certification of any individual or firm;

(vi) The authority to commence an administrative proceeding or to sue in courts of competent jurisdiction to enjoin any threatened or continuing violation of any program requirement, without the necessity of a prior suspension or revocation of a trainer's accreditation or a firm's or individual's certification;

(vii) The authority to apply criminal sanctions, including recovering fines; and

(viii) The authority to enforce its authorized program using a burden of proof standard, including the degree of knowledge or intent of the respondent that is no greater than it is for EPA under TSCA.

(4) Adequate resources. An application must include a statement that identifies the resources that will be devoted by the State or Indian Tribe to the administration of the State or Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program. This statement must address fiscal and personnel resources that will be devoted to the program.

(c) Performance elements. The performance elements described in paragraphs (c)(1) through (c)(7) of this section are part of the required elements for the compliance and enforcement program portion of a State or Tribal lead-based paint program.

(1) Training. A State or Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program must implement a process for training enforcement and inspection personnel and ensure that enforcement personnel and inspectors are well trained. Enforcement personnel must understand case development procedures and the maintenance of proper case files. Inspectors must successfully demonstrate knowledge of the requirements of the particular discipline (e.g., abatement supervisor, and/or abatement worker, and/or lead-based paint inspector, and/or risk assessor, and/or project designer) for which they have compliance monitoring and enforcement responsibilities. Inspectors must also be trained in violation discovery, methods of obtaining consent, evidence gathering, preservation of evidence and chain-of-custody, and sampling procedures. A State or Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program must also implement a process for the continuing education of enforcement and inspection personnel.

(2) Compliance assistance. A State or Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program must provide compliance assistance to the public and the regulated community to facilitate awareness and understanding of and compliance with State or Tribal requirements governing the conduct of lead-based paint activities or renovations. The type and nature of this assistance can be defined by the State or Indian Tribe to achieve this goal.

(3) Sampling techniques. A State or Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program must have the technological capability to ensure compliance with the lead-based paint program requirements. A State or Tribal application for approval of a lead-based paint program must show that the State or Indian Tribe is technologically capable of conducting a lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program. The State or Tribal program must have access to the facilities and equipment necessary to perform sampling and laboratory analysis as needed. This laboratory facility must be a recognized laboratory as defined at §745.223, or the State or Tribal program must implement a quality assurance program that ensures appropriate quality of laboratory personnel and protects the integrity of analytical data.

(4) Tracking tips and complaints. A State or Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program must demonstrate the ability to process and react to tips and complaints or other information indicating a violation.

(5) Targeting inspections. A State or Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program must demonstrate the ability to target inspections to ensure compliance with the lead-based paint program requirements. Such targeting must include a method for obtaining and using notifications of commencement of abatement activities.

(6) Follow up to inspection reports. A State or Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program must demonstrate the ability to reasonably, and in a timely manner, process and follow-up on inspection reports and other information generated through enforcement-related activities associated with a lead-based paint program. The State or Tribal program must be in a position to ensure correction of violations and, as appropriate, effectively develop and issue enforcement remedies/responses to follow up on the identification of violations.

(7) Compliance monitoring and enforcement. A State or Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program must demonstrate, in its application for approval, that it is in a position to implement a compliance monitoring and enforcement program. Such a compliance monitoring and enforcement program must ensure correction of violations, and encompass either planned and/or responsive lead-based paint compliance inspections and development/issuance of State or Tribal enforcement responses which are appropriate to the violations.

(d) Summary on Progress and Performance. The Summary on Progress and Performance described below is part of the required elements for the compliance and enforcement program portion of a State or Tribal lead-based paint program. A State or Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program must submit to the appropriate EPA Regional Administrator a report which summarizes the results of implementing the State or Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program, including a summary of the scope of the regulated community within the State or Indian Tribe (which would include the number of individuals and firms certified in lead-based paint activities and the number of training programs accredited), the inspections conducted, enforcement actions taken, compliance assistance provided, and the level of resources committed by the State or Indian Tribe to these activities. The report shall be submitted according to the requirements at §745.324(h).

(e) Memorandum of Agreement. An Indian Tribe that obtains program approval must establish a Memorandum of Agreement with the Regional Administrator. The Memorandum of Agreement shall be executed by the Indian Tribe's counterpart to the State Director (e.g., the Director of Tribal Environmental Office, Program or Agency). The Memorandum of Agreement must include provisions for the timely and appropriate referral to the Regional Administrator for those criminal enforcement matters where that Indian Tribe does not have the authority (e.g., those addressing criminal violations by non-Indians or violations meriting penalties over $5,000). The Agreement must also identify any enforcement agreements that may exist between the Indian Tribe and any State.

(f) Electronic reporting under State or Indian Tribe programs. States and tribes that choose to receive electronic documents under the authorized state or Indian tribe lead-based paint program, must ensure that the requirements of 40 CFR part 3—(Electronic reporting) are satisfied in their lead-based paint program.

[61 FR 45825, Aug. 29, 1996, as amended at 70 FR 59889, Oct. 13, 2005; 73 FR 21769, Apr. 22, 2008; 76 FR 47946, Aug. 5, 2011]

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