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e-CFR data is current as of August 6, 2020

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter IPart 278 → §278.1


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 278—CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF GRANULAR MINE TAILINGS (CHAT) IN ASPHALT CONCRETE AND PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE IN TRANSPORTATION CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS FUNDED IN WHOLE OR IN PART BY FEDERAL FUNDS


§278.1   Definitions.

(a) Asphalt concrete—a layer, or combination of layers, composed of a compacted mixture of an asphalt binder and mineral aggregate.

(b) Chat—waste material that was formed in the course of milling operations employed to recover lead and zinc from metal-bearing ore minerals in the Tri-State Mining District of Southwest Missouri, Southeast Kansas and Northeast Oklahoma.

(c) Chip seal—a material composed of aggregate placed on top of a layer of an asphalt or asphaltic liquid binder. The aggregate may be rolled into the binder.

(d) Cold mix asphalt—refers to an asphalt and aggregate mixture composed of binders, soaps, or other chemicals which allow its use when cold

(e) Epoxy seal—refers to the mixture of aggregate in epoxy binders. Epoxy seals are typically used as an anti-skid surface on bridge decking

(f) Federal or State response action—State or Federal response action undertaken pursuant to applicable Federal or State environmental laws and with consideration of site-specific risk assessments.

(g) Flowable fill—a cementitious slurry consisting of a mixture of fine aggregate or filler, water, and cementitious materials which is used primarily as a backfill in lieu of compacted earth.

(h) Granular road base—road base typically constructed by spreading aggregates in thin layers of 150 mm (6 inches) to 200 mm (8 inches) and compacting each layer by rolling over it with heavy compaction equipment. The aggregate base layers serve a variety of purposes, including reducing the stress applied to the sub grade layer and providing drainage for the pavement structure. The granular sub base forms the lowest (bottom) layer of the pavement structure and acts as the principal foundation for the subsequent road profile.

(i) Hot Mix Asphalt—a hot mixture of asphalt binder and size-graded aggregate, which can be compacted into a uniform dense mass. Hot mix asphalt also includes hot mix asphalt sub bases and hot mix asphalt bases.

(j) Microsurfacing—polymer-modified slurry seal.

(k) Portland cement concrete (PCC)—pavements consisting of a PCC slab that is usually supported by a granular (made of compacted aggregate) base or sub base.

(l) Pozzolanic—a siliceous material which when combined with calcium hydroxide in the presence of moisture exhibits cementitious properties.

(m) Slurry seal—refers to a material composed of emulsified asphalt, aggregate, and mineral fillers, such as Portland cement or lime which is applied as a thin coating on top of asphalt concrete or Portland cement concrete road surfaces.

(n) Stabilized base—a non-asphaltic road base composed of aggregate mixed with a pozzolanic material which increases the bearing strength of the material.

(o) Transportation construction projects—these activities relate to the construction of roads and highways and include bases, sub bases, road surfaces, bridges, abutments, shoulders, and embankments. They are not related to any residential use.

(p) Tri-State Mining District—the lead-zinc mining areas of Ottawa County, Oklahoma, Cherokee County of southeast Kansas and Jasper, Newton, Lawrence, and Barry Counties of southwest Missouri.

(q) Warm mix asphalt—refers to a mixture of an asphalt binder with aggregate, paraffin or esterfied wax, and mineral additives that allow its use at temperatures much lower than hot mix asphalt.

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