Home
gpo.gov
govinfo.gov

e-CFR Navigation Aids

Browse

Simple Search

Advanced Search

 — Boolean

 — Proximity

 

Search History

Search Tips

Corrections

Latest Updates

User Info

FAQs

Agency List

Incorporation By Reference

eCFR logo

Related Resources

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

We invite you to try out our new beta eCFR site at https://ecfr.federalregister.gov. We???ve made big changes to make the eCFR easier to use. Be sure to leave feedback using the Help button on the bottom right of each page!

e-CFR data is current as of August 6, 2020

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter IPart 257Subpart D → §257.95


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 257—CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND PRACTICES
Subpart D—Standards for the Disposal of Coal Combustion Residuals in Landfills and Surface Impoundments


§257.95   Assessment monitoring program.

(a) Assessment monitoring is required whenever a statistically significant increase over background levels has been detected for one or more of the constituents listed in appendix III to this part.

(b) Within 90 days of triggering an assessment monitoring program, and annually thereafter, the owner or operator of the CCR unit must sample and analyze the groundwater for all constituents listed in appendix IV to this part. The number of samples collected and analyzed for each well during each sampling event must be consistent with §257.93(e), and must account for any unique characteristics of the site, but must be at least one sample from each well.

(c) The owner or operator of a CCR unit may demonstrate the need for an alternative monitoring frequency for repeated sampling and analysis for constituents listed in appendix IV to this part during the active life and the post-closure care period based on the availability of groundwater. If there is not adequate groundwater flow to sample wells semiannually, the alternative frequency shall be no less than annual. The need to vary monitoring frequency must be evaluated on a site-specific basis. The demonstration must be supported by, at a minimum, the information specified in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section.

(1) Information documenting that the need for less frequent sampling. The alternative frequency must be based on consideration of the following factors:

(i) Lithology of the aquifer and unsaturated zone;

(ii) Hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer and unsaturated zone; and

(iii) Groundwater flow rates.

(2) Information documenting that the alternative frequency will be no less effective in ensuring that any leakage from the CCR unit will be discovered within a timeframe that will not materially delay the initiation of any necessary remediation measures.

(3) The owner or operator must obtain a certification from a qualified professional engineer or approval from the Participating State Director or approval from EPA where EPA is the permitting authority stating that the demonstration for an alternative groundwater sampling and analysis frequency meets the requirements of this section. The owner or operator must include the demonstration providing the basis for the alternative monitoring frequency and the certification by a qualified professional engineer or the approval from the Participating State Director or the approval from EPA where EPA is the permitting authority in the annual groundwater monitoring and corrective action report required by §257.90(e).

(d) After obtaining the results from the initial and subsequent sampling events required in paragraph (b) of this section, the owner or operator must:

(1) Within 90 days of obtaining the results, and on at least a semiannual basis thereafter, resample all wells that were installed pursuant to the requirements of §257.91, conduct analyses for all parameters in appendix III to this part and for those constituents in appendix IV to this part that are detected in response to paragraph (b) of this section, and record their concentrations in the facility operating record. The number of samples collected and analyzed for each background well and downgradient well during subsequent semiannual sampling events must be consistent with §257.93(e), and must account for any unique characteristics of the site, but must be at least one sample from each background and downgradient well;

(2) Establish groundwater protection standards for all constituents detected pursuant to paragraph (b) or (d) of this section. The groundwater protection standards must be established in accordance with paragraph (h) of this section; and

(3) Include the recorded concentrations required by paragraph (d)(1) of this section, identify the background concentrations established under §257.94(b), and identify the groundwater protection standards established under paragraph (d)(2) of this section in the annual groundwater monitoring and corrective action report required by §257.90(e).

(e) If the concentrations of all constituents listed in appendices III and IV to this part are shown to be at or below background values, using the statistical procedures in §257.93(g), for two consecutive sampling events, the owner or operator may return to detection monitoring of the CCR unit. The owner or operator must prepare a notification stating that detection monitoring is resuming for the CCR unit. The owner or operator has completed the notification when the notification is placed in the facility's operating record as required by §257.105(h)(7).

(f) If the concentrations of any constituent in appendices III and IV to this part are above background values, but all concentrations are below the groundwater protection standard established under paragraph (h) of this section, using the statistical procedures in §257.93(g), the owner or operator must continue assessment monitoring in accordance with this section.

(g) If one or more constituents in appendix IV to this part are detected at statistically significant levels above the groundwater protection standard established under paragraph (h) of this section in any sampling event, the owner or operator must prepare a notification identifying the constituents in appendix IV to this part that have exceeded the groundwater protection standard. The owner or operator has completed the notification when the notification is placed in the facility's operating record as required by §257.105(h)(8). The owner or operator of the CCR unit also must:

(1) Characterize the nature and extent of the release and any relevant site conditions that may affect the remedy ultimately selected. The characterization must be sufficient to support a complete and accurate assessment of the corrective measures necessary to effectively clean up all releases from the CCR unit pursuant to §257.96. Characterization of the release includes the following minimum measures:

(i) Install additional monitoring wells necessary to define the contaminant plume(s);

(ii) Collect data on the nature and estimated quantity of material released including specific information on the constituents listed in appendix IV of this part and the levels at which they are present in the material released;

(iii) Install at least one additional monitoring well at the facility boundary in the direction of contaminant migration and sample this well in accordance with paragraph (d)(1) of this section; and

(iv) Sample all wells in accordance with paragraph (d)(1) of this section to characterize the nature and extent of the release.

(2) Notify all persons who own the land or reside on the land that directly overlies any part of the plume of contamination if contaminants have migrated off-site if indicated by sampling of wells in accordance with paragraph (g)(1) of this section. The owner or operator has completed the notifications when they are placed in the facility's operating record as required by §257.105(h)(8).

(3) Within 90 days of finding that any of the constituents listed in appendix IV to this part have been detected at a statistically significant level exceeding the groundwater protection standards the owner or operator must either:

(i) Initiate an assessment of corrective measures as required by §257.96; or

(ii) Demonstrate that a source other than the CCR unit caused the contamination, or that the statistically significant increase resulted from error in sampling, analysis, statistical evaluation, or natural variation in groundwater quality. Any such demonstration must be supported by a report that includes the factual or evidentiary basis for any conclusions and must be certified to be accurate by a qualified professional engineer or approval from the Participating State Director or approval from EPA where EPA is the permitting authority. If a successful demonstration is made, the owner or operator must continue monitoring in accordance with the assessment monitoring program pursuant to this section, and may return to detection monitoring if the constituents in Appendix III and Appendix IV of this part are at or below background as specified in paragraph (e) of this section. The owner or operator must also include the demonstration in the annual groundwater monitoring and corrective action report required by §257.90(e), in addition to the certification by a qualified professional engineer or the approval from the Participating State Director or the approval from EPA where EPA is the permitting authority.

(4) If a successful demonstration has not been made at the end of the 90 day period provided by paragraph (g)(3)(ii) of this section, the owner or operator of the CCR unit must initiate the assessment of corrective measures requirements under §257.96.

(5) If an assessment of corrective measures is required under §257.96 by either paragraph (g)(3)(i) or (g)(4) of this section, and if the CCR unit is an existing unlined CCR surface impoundment as determined by §257.71(a), then the CCR unit is subject to the closure requirements under §257.101(a) to retrofit or close. In addition, the owner or operator must prepare a notification stating that an assessment of corrective measures has been initiated.

(h) The owner or operator of the CCR unit must establish a groundwater protection standard for each constituent in appendix IV to this part detected in the groundwater. The groundwater protection standard shall be:

(1) For constituents for which a maximum contaminant level (MCL) has been established under §§141.62 and 141.66 of this title, the MCL for that constituent;

(2) For the following constituents:

(i) Cobalt 6 micrograms per liter (µg/l);

(ii) Lead 15 µg/l;

(iii) Lithium 40 µg/l; and

(iv) Molybdenum 100 µg/l.

(3) For constituents for which the background level is higher than the levels identified under paragraphs (h)(1) and (h)(2) of this section, the background concentration.

(i) The owner or operator of the CCR unit must comply with the recordkeeping requirements specified in §257.105(h), the notification requirements specified in §257.106(h), and the Internet requirements specified in §257.107(h).

[80 FR 21468, Apr. 17, 2015, as amended at 83 FR 36453, July 30, 2018]

Need assistance?