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e-CFR data is current as of August 6, 2020

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter IPart 257Subpart D → §257.90


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 257—CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND PRACTICES
Subpart D—Standards for the Disposal of Coal Combustion Residuals in Landfills and Surface Impoundments


§257.90   Applicability.

(a) All CCR landfills, CCR surface impoundments, and lateral expansions of CCR units are subject to the groundwater monitoring and corrective action requirements under §§257.90 through 257.99, except as provided in paragraph (g) of this section.

(b) Initial timeframes—(1) Existing CCR landfills and existing CCR surface impoundments. No later than October 17, 2017, the owner or operator of the CCR unit must be in compliance with the following groundwater monitoring requirements:

(i) Install the groundwater monitoring system as required by §257.91;

(ii) Develop the groundwater sampling and analysis program to include selection of the statistical procedures to be used for evaluating groundwater monitoring data as required by §257.93;

(iii) Initiate the detection monitoring program to include obtaining a minimum of eight independent samples for each background and downgradient well as required by §257.94(b); and

(iv) Begin evaluating the groundwater monitoring data for statistically significant increases over background levels for the constituents listed in appendix III of this part as required by §257.94.

(2) New CCR landfills, new CCR surface impoundments, and all lateral expansions of CCR units. Prior to initial receipt of CCR by the CCR unit, the owner or operator must be in compliance with the groundwater monitoring requirements specified in paragraph (b)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section. In addition, the owner or operator of the CCR unit must initiate the detection monitoring program to include obtaining a minimum of eight independent samples for each background well as required by §257.94(b).

(c) Once a groundwater monitoring system and groundwater monitoring program has been established at the CCR unit as required by this subpart, the owner or operator must conduct groundwater monitoring and, if necessary, corrective action throughout the active life and post-closure care period of the CCR unit.

(d) In the event of a release from a CCR unit, the owner or operator must immediately take all necessary measures to control the source(s) of releases so as to reduce or eliminate, to the maximum extent feasible, further releases of contaminants into the environment. The owner or operator of the CCR unit must comply with all applicable requirements in §§257.96, 257.97, and 257.98.

(e) Annual groundwater monitoring and corrective action report. For existing CCR landfills and existing CCR surface impoundments, no later than January 31, 2018, and annually thereafter, the owner or operator must prepare an annual groundwater monitoring and corrective action report. For new CCR landfills, new CCR surface impoundments, and all lateral expansions of CCR units, the owner or operator must prepare the initial annual groundwater monitoring and corrective action report no later than January 31 of the year following the calendar year a groundwater monitoring system has been established for such CCR unit as required by this subpart, and annually thereafter. For the preceding calendar year, the annual report must document the status of the groundwater monitoring and corrective action program for the CCR unit, summarize key actions completed, describe any problems encountered, discuss actions to resolve the problems, and project key activities for the upcoming year. For purposes of this section, the owner or operator has prepared the annual report when the report is placed in the facility's operating record as required by §257.105(h)(1). At a minimum, the annual groundwater monitoring and corrective action report must contain the following information, to the extent available:

(1) A map, aerial image, or diagram showing the CCR unit and all background (or upgradient) and downgradient monitoring wells, to include the well identification numbers, that are part of the groundwater monitoring program for the CCR unit;

(2) Identification of any monitoring wells that were installed or decommissioned during the preceding year, along with a narrative description of why those actions were taken;

(3) In addition to all the monitoring data obtained under §§257.90 through 257.98, a summary including the number of groundwater samples that were collected for analysis for each background and downgradient well, the dates the samples were collected, and whether the sample was required by the detection monitoring or assessment monitoring programs;

(4) A narrative discussion of any transition between monitoring programs (e.g., the date and circumstances for transitioning from detection monitoring to assessment monitoring in addition to identifying the constituent(s) detected at a statistically significant increase over background levels); and

(5) Other information required to be included in the annual report as specified in §§257.90 through 257.98.

(f) The owner or operator of the CCR unit must comply with the recordkeeping requirements specified in §257.105(h), the notification requirements specified in §257.106(h), and the internet requirements specified in §257.107(h).

(g) Suspension of groundwater monitoring requirements. (1) The Participating State Director or EPA where EPA is the permitting authority may suspend the groundwater monitoring requirements under §§257.90 through 257.95 for a CCR unit for a period of up to ten years, if the owner or operator provides written documentation that, based on the characteristics of the site in which the CCR unit is located, there is no potential for migration of any of the constituents listed in appendices III and IV to this part from that CCR unit to the uppermost aquifer during the active life of the CCR unit and the post-closure care period. This demonstration must be certified by a qualified professional engineer and approved by the Participating State Director or EPA where EPA is the permitting authority, and must be based upon:

(i) Site-specific field collected measurements, sampling, and analysis of physical, chemical, and biological processes affecting contaminant fate and transport, including at a minimum, the information necessary to evaluate or interpret the effects of the following properties or processes on contaminant fate and transport:

(A) Aquifer Characteristics, including hydraulic conductivity, hydraulic gradient, effective porosity, aquifer thickness, degree of saturation, stratigraphy, degree of fracturing and secondary porosity of soils and bedrock, aquifer heterogeneity, groundwater discharge, and groundwater recharge areas;

(B) Waste Characteristics, including quantity, type, and origin;

(C) Climatic Conditions, including annual precipitation, leachate generation estimates, and effects on leachate quality;

(D) Leachate Characteristics, including leachate composition, solubility, density, the presence of immiscible constituents, Eh, and pH; and

(E) Engineered Controls, including liners, cover systems, and aquifer controls (e.g., lowering the water table). These must be evaluated under design and failure conditions to estimate their long-term residual performance.

(ii) Contaminant fate and transport predictions that maximize contaminant migration and consider impacts on human health and the environment.

(2) The owner or operator of the CCR unit may renew this suspension for additional ten year periods by submitting written documentation that the site characteristics continue to ensure there will be no potential for migration of any of the constituents listed in Appendices III and IV of this part. The documentation must include, at a minimum, the information specified in paragraphs (g)(1)(i) and (g)(1)(ii) of this section and a certification by a qualified professional engineer and approved by the State Director or EPA where EPA is the permitting authority. The owner or operator must submit the documentation supporting their renewal request for the state's or EPA's review and approval of their extension one year before the groundwater monitoring suspension is due to expire. If the existing groundwater monitoring extension expires or is not approved, the owner or operator must begin groundwater monitoring according to paragraph (a) of this section within 90 days. The owner or operator may continue to renew the suspension for ten-year periods, provided the owner or operator demonstrate that the standard in paragraph (g)(1) of this section continues to be met for the unit. The owner or operator must place each completed demonstration in the facility's operating record.

(3) The owner or operator of the CCR unit must include in the annual groundwater monitoring and corrective action report required by §257.90(e) or §257.100(e)(5)(ii) any approved no migration demonstration.

[80 FR 21468, Apr. 17, 2015, as amended at 81 FR 51807, Aug. 5, 2016; 83 FR 36452, July 30, 2018]

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