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e-CFR data is current as of August 6, 2020

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter IPart 257Subpart D → §257.70


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 257—CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND PRACTICES
Subpart D—Standards for the Disposal of Coal Combustion Residuals in Landfills and Surface Impoundments


§257.70   Design criteria for new CCR landfills and any lateral expansion of a CCR landfill.

(a)(1) New CCR landfills and any lateral expansion of a CCR landfill must be designed, constructed, operated, and maintained with either a composite liner that meets the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section or an alternative composite liner that meets the requirements in paragraph (c) of this section, and a leachate collection and removal system that meets the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section.

(2) Prior to construction of an overfill the underlying surface impoundment must meet the requirements of §257.102(d).

(b) A composite liner must consist of two components; the upper component consisting of, at a minimum, a 30-mil geomembrane liner (GM), and the lower component consisting of at least a two-foot layer of compacted soil with a hydraulic conductivity of no more than 1 × 10−7 centimeters per second (cm/sec). GM components consisting of high density polyethylene (HDPE) must be at least 60-mil thick. The GM or upper liner component must be installed in direct and uniform contact with the compacted soil or lower liner component. The composite liner must be:

(1) Constructed of materials that have appropriate chemical properties and sufficient strength and thickness to prevent failure due to pressure gradients (including static head and external hydrogeologic forces), physical contact with the CCR or leachate to which they are exposed, climatic conditions, the stress of installation, and the stress of daily operation;

(2) Constructed of materials that provide appropriate shear resistance of the upper and lower component interface to prevent sliding of the upper component including on slopes;

(3) Placed upon a foundation or base capable of providing support to the liner and resistance to pressure gradients above and below the liner to prevent failure of the liner due to settlement, compression, or uplift; and

(4) Installed to cover all surrounding earth likely to be in contact with the CCR or leachate.

(c) If the owner or operator elects to install an alternative composite liner, all of the following requirements must be met:

(1) An alternative composite liner must consist of two components; the upper component consisting of, at a minimum, a 30-mil GM, and a lower component, that is not a geomembrane, with a liquid flow rate no greater than the liquid flow rate of two feet of compacted soil with a hydraulic conductivity of no more than 1 × 10−7 cm/sec. GM components consisting of high density polyethylene (HDPE) must be at least 60-mil thick. If the lower component of the alternative liner is compacted soil, the GM must be installed in direct and uniform contact with the compacted soil.

(2) The owner or operator must obtain certification from a qualified professional engineer or approval from the Participating State Director or approval from EPA where EPA is the permitting authority that the liquid flow rate through the lower component of the alternative composite liner is no greater than the liquid flow rate through two feet of compacted soil with a hydraulic conductivity of 1x10−7 cm/sec. The hydraulic conductivity for the two feet of compacted soil used in the comparison shall be no greater than 1x10−7 cm/sec. The hydraulic conductivity of any alternative to the two feet of compacted soil must be determined using recognized and generally accepted methods. The liquid flow rate comparison must be made using Equation 1 of this section, which is derived from Darcy's Law for gravity flow through porous media.

eCFR graphic er30jy18.002.gif

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Where:

Q = flow rate (cubic centimeters/second);

A = surface area of the liner (squared centimeters);

q = flow rate per unit area (cubic centimeters/second/squared centimeter);

k = hydraulic conductivity of the liner (centimeters/second);

h = hydraulic head above the liner (centimeters); and

t = thickness of the liner (centimeters).

(3) The alternative composite liner must meet the requirements specified in paragraphs (b)(1) through (4) of this section.

(d) The leachate collection and removal system must be designed, constructed, operated, and maintained to collect and remove leachate from the landfill during the active life and post-closure care period. The leachate collection and removal system must be:

(1) Designed and operated to maintain less than a 30-centimeter depth of leachate over the composite liner or alternative composite liner;

(2) Constructed of materials that are chemically resistant to the CCR and any non-CCR waste managed in the CCR unit and the leachate expected to be generated, and of sufficient strength and thickness to prevent collapse under the pressures exerted by overlying waste, waste cover materials, and equipment used at the CCR unit; and

(3) Designed and operated to minimize clogging during the active life and post-closure care period.

(e) Prior to construction of the CCR landfill or any lateral expansion of a CCR landfill, the owner or operator must obtain a certification from a qualified professional engineer or approval from the Participating State Director or approval from EPA where EPA is the permitting authority that the design of the composite liner (or, if applicable, alternative composite liner) and the leachate collection and removal system meets the requirements of this section.

(f) Upon completion of construction of the CCR landfill or any lateral expansion of a CCR landfill, the owner or operator must obtain a certification from a qualified professional engineer or approval from the Participating State Director or approval from EPA where EPA is the permitting authority that the design of the composite liner (or, if applicable, alternative composite liner) and the leachate collection and removal system have been constructed in accordance with the requirements of this section.

(g) The owner or operator of the CCR unit must comply with the recordkeeping requirements specified in §257.105(f), the notification requirements specified in §257.106(f), and the Internet requirements specified in §257.107(f).

[80 FR 21468, Apr. 17, 2015, as amended at 83 FR 36451, July 30, 2018]

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