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e-CFR data is current as of August 6, 2020

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter IPart 257Subpart B → §257.21


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 257—CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND PRACTICES
Subpart B—Disposal Standards for the Receipt of Very Small Quantity Generator (VSQG) Wastes at Non-Municipal Non-Hazardous Waste Disposal Units


§257.21   Applicability.

(a) The requirements in this section apply to units identified in §257.5(a), except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) Ground-water monitoring requirements under §§257.22 through 257.25 may be suspended by the Director of an approved State for a unit identified in §257.5(a) if the owner or operator can demonstrate that there is no potential for migration of hazardous constituents from that unit to the uppermost aquifer during the active life of the unit plus 30 years. This demonstration must be certified by a qualified ground-water scientist and approved by the Director of an approved State, and must be based upon:

(1) Site-specific field collected measurements, sampling, and analysis of physical, chemical, and biological processes affecting contaminant fate and transport; and

(2) Contaminant fate and transport predictions that maximize contaminant migration and consider impacts on human health and environment.

(c) Owners and operators of facilities identified in §257.5(a) must comply with the ground-water monitoring requirements of this section according to the following schedule unless an alternative schedule is specified under paragraph (d) of this section:

(1) Existing units and lateral expansions must be in compliance with the ground-water monitoring requirements specified in §§257.22 through 257.25 by July 1, 1998.

(2) New units identified in §257.5(a) must be in compliance with the ground-water monitoring requirements specified in §§257.22 through 257.25 before waste can be placed in the unit.

(d) The Director of an approved State may specify an alternative schedule for the owners or operators of existing units and lateral expansions to comply with the ground-water monitoring requirements specified in §§257.22 through 257.25. This schedule must ensure that 50 percent of all existing units are in compliance by July 1, 1998, and all existing units are in compliance by July 1, 1999. In setting the compliance schedule, the Director of an approved State must consider potential risks posed by the unit to human health and the environment. The following factors should be considered in determining potential risk:

(1) Proximity of human and environmental receptors;

(2) Design of the unit;

(3) Age of the unit;

(4) The size of the unit; and

(5) Resource value of the underlying aquifer, including:

(i) Current and future uses;

(ii) Proximity and withdrawal rate of users; and

(iii) Ground-water quality and quantity.

(e) Once established at a unit, ground-water monitoring shall be conducted throughout the active life plus 30 years. The Director of an approved State may decrease the 30 year period if the owner/operator demonstrates that a shorter period of time is adequate to protect human health and the environment and the Director approves the demonstration.

(f) For the purposes of this section, a qualified ground-water scientist is a scientist or engineer who has received a baccalaureate or post-graduate degree in the natural sciences or engineering and has sufficient training and experience in ground-water hydrology and related fields as may be demonstrated by State registration, professional Certifications, or completion of accredited university programs that enable that individual to make sound professional judgments regarding ground-water monitoring, contaminant fate and transport, and corrective-action.

(g) The Director of an approved State may establish alternative schedules for demonstrating compliance with §257.22(d)(2), pertaining to notification of placement of certification in operating record; §257.24(c)(1), pertaining to notification that statistically significant increase (SSI) notice is in operating record; §257.24(c) (2) and (3), pertaining to an assessment monitoring program; §257.25(b), pertaining to sampling and analyzing appendix II of part 258 constituents; §257.25(d)(1), pertaining to placement of notice (appendix II of 40 CFR part 258 constituents detected) in record and notification of notice in record; §257.25(d)(2), pertaining to sampling for appendix I and II of 40 CFR part 258; §257.25(g), pertaining to notification (and placement of notice in record) of SSI above ground-water protection standard; §§257.25(g)(1)(iv) and 257.26(a), pertaining to assessment of corrective measures; §257.27(a), pertaining to selection of remedy and notification of placement in record; §257.28(c)(4), pertaining to notification of placement in record (alternative corrective action measures); and §257.28(f), pertaining to notification of placement in record (certification of remedy completed).

(h) Directors of approved States can use the flexibility in paragraph (i) of this section for any non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal unit that receives VSQG waste, if the non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal unit:

(1) Disposes of less than 20 tons of non-municipal waste daily, based on an annual average; and

(2) Has no evidence of ground-water contamination; and either

(3) Serves a community that experiences an annual interruption of at least three consecutive months of surface transportation that prevents access to a regional waste management facility; or

(4) Serves a community that has no practicable waste management alternative and the non-municipal solid waste disposal facility is located in an area that annually receives less than or equal to 25 inches of precipitation.

(5) Owners/operators of any non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal unit that meets the criteria in paragraph (h) of this section must place in the operating record information demonstrating this.

(i) Directors of approved States may allow any non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal unit meeting the criteria in paragraph (h) of this section to:

(1) Use alternatives to the ground-water monitoring system prescribed in §§257.22 through 257.25 so long as the alternatives will detect and, if necessary, assess the nature or extent of contamination from the non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal unit on a site-specific basis; or establish and use, on a site-specific basis, an alternative list of indicator parameters for some or all of the constituents listed in appendix I (Appendix I of 40 CFR part 258. Alternative indicator parameters approved by the Director of an approved State under this section must ensure detection of contamination from the non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal unit.

(2) If contamination is detected through the use of any alternative to the ground-water monitoring system prescribed in §§257.22 through 257.25, the non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal unit owner or operator must perform expanded monitoring to determine whether the detected contamination is an actual release from the non-municipal solid waste disposal unit and, if so, to determine the nature and extent of the contamination. The Director of the approved State shall establish a schedule for the non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal unit owner or operator to submit results from expanded monitoring in a manner that ensures protection of human health and the environment.

(i) If expanded monitoring indicates that contamination from the non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal unit has reached the saturated zone, the owner or operator must install ground-water monitoring wells and sample these wells in accordance with §§257.22 through 257.25.

(ii) If expanded monitoring indicates that contamination from the non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal unit is present in the unsaturated zone or on the surface, the Director of an approved State shall establish a schedule for the owner or operator to submit a description of any necessary corrective measures. The schedule shall ensure corrective measures, where necessary, are undertaken in a timely manner that protects human health and the environment. The proposed corrective measures are subject to revision and approval by the Director of the approved State. The owner or operator must implement the corrective measures according to a schedule established by the Director of the approved State.

(3) When considering whether to allow alternatives to a ground-water monitoring system prescribed in §§257.22 through 257.25, including alternative indicator parameters, the Director of an approved State shall consider at least the following factors:

(i) The geological and hydrogeological characteristics of the site;

(ii) The impact of manmade and natural features on the effectiveness of an alternative technology;

(iii) Climatic factors that may influence the selection, use, and reliability of alternative ground-water monitoring procedures; and

(iv) The effectiveness of indicator parameters in detecting a release.

(4) The Director of an approved State can require an owner or operator to comply with the requirements of §§257.22 through 257.25, where it is determined by the Director that using alternatives to ground-water monitoring approved under this paragraph are inadequate to detect contamination and, if necessary, to assess the nature and extent of contamination.

[61 FR 34269, July 1, 1996, as amended at 81 FR 85805, Nov. 28, 2016]

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