Home
gpo.gov
govinfo.gov

e-CFR Navigation Aids

Browse

Simple Search

Advanced Search

 — Boolean

 — Proximity

 

Search History

Search Tips

Corrections

Latest Updates

User Info

FAQs

Agency List

Incorporation By Reference

eCFR logo

Related Resources

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

We invite you to try out our new beta eCFR site at https://ecfr.federalregister.gov. We have made big changes to make the eCFR easier to use. Be sure to leave feedback using the Help button on the bottom right of each page!

e-CFR data is current as of September 24, 2020

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter DPart 141Subpart W → §141.720


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 141—NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS
Subpart W—Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium


§141.720   Inactivation toolbox components.

(a) Calculation of CT values. (1) CT is the product of the disinfectant contact time (T, in minutes) and disinfectant concentration (C, in milligrams per liter). Systems with treatment credit for chlorine dioxide or ozone under paragraph (b) or (c) of this section must calculate CT at least once each day, with both C and T measured during peak hourly flow as specified in §§141.74(a) through (b).

(2) Systems with several disinfection segments in sequence may calculate CT for each segment, where a disinfection segment is defined as a treatment unit process with a measurable disinfectant residual level and a liquid volume. Under this approach, systems must add the Cryptosporidium CT values in each segment to determine the total CT for the treatment plant.

(b) CT values for chlorine dioxide and ozone. (1) Systems receive the Cryptosporidium treatment credit listed in this table by meeting the corresponding chlorine dioxide CT value for the applicable water temperature, as described in paragraph (a) of this section.

CT Values (mg·min/L) for Cryptosporidium Inactivation by Chlorine Dioxide1

Log credit Water Temperature, °C
≤0.5 1 2 3 5 7 10 15 20 25 30
(i) 0.25159153140128107906945291912
(ii) 0.531930527925621418013889583824
(iii) 1.06376105585114293602771791167549
(iv) 1.595691583876764353941526817411373
(v) 2.0127512201117102385871955335723215098
(vi) 2.515941525139612781072899691447289188122
(vii) 3.0191218301675153412861079830536347226147

1Systems may use this equation to determine log credit between the indicated values: Log credit = (0.001506 × (1.09116)Temp) × CT.

(2) Systems receive the Cryptosporidium treatment credit listed in this table by meeting the corresponding ozone CT values for the applicable water temperature, as described in paragraph (a) of this section.

CT Values (mg·min/L) for Cryptosporidium Inactivation by Ozone1

Log credit Water Temperature, °C
≤0.5 1 2 3 5 7 10 15 20 25 30
(i) 0.256.05.85.24.84.03.32.51.61.00.60.39
(ii) 0.51212109.57.96.54.93.12.01.20.78
(iii) 1.02423211916139.96.23.92.51.6
(iv) 1.5363531292420159.35.93.72.4
(v) 2.048464238322620127.84.93.1
(vi) 2.560585248403325169.86.23.9
(vii) 3.07269635747393019127.44.7

1Systems may use this equation to determine log credit between the indicated values: Log credit = (0.0397 × (1.09757)Temp) × CT.

(c) Site-specific study. The State may approve alternative chlorine dioxide or ozone CT values to those listed in paragraph (b) of this section on a site-specific basis. The State must base this approval on a site-specific study a system conducts that follows a State-approved protocol.

(d) Ultraviolet light. Systems receive Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia, and virus treatment credits for ultraviolet (UV) light reactors by achieving the corresponding UV dose values shown in paragraph (d)(1) of this section. Systems must validate and monitor UV reactors as described in paragraphs (d)(2) and (3) of this section to demonstrate that they are achieving a particular UV dose value for treatment credit.

(1) UV dose table. The treatment credits listed in this table are for UV light at a wavelength of 254 nm as produced by a low pressure mercury vapor lamp. To receive treatment credit for other lamp types, systems must demonstrate an equivalent germicidal dose through reactor validation testing, as described in paragraph (d)(2) of this section. The UV dose values in this table are applicable only to post-filter applications of UV in filtered systems and to unfiltered systems.

UV Dose Table for Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia, and Virus Inactivation Credit

Log credit Cryptosporidium
UV dose (mJ/cm2)
Giardia lamblia
UV dose (mJ/cm2)
Virus
UV dose (mJ/cm2)
(i) 0.51.61.539
(ii) 1.02.52.158
(iii) 1.53.93.079
(iv) 2.05.85.2100
(v) 2.58.57.7121
(vi) 3.01211143
(vii) 3.51515163
(viii) 4.02222186

(2) Reactor validation testing. Systems must use UV reactors that have undergone validation testing to determine the operating conditions under which the reactor delivers the UV dose required in paragraph (d)(1) of this section (i.e., validated operating conditions). These operating conditions must include flow rate, UV intensity as measured by a UV sensor, and UV lamp status.

(i) When determining validated operating conditions, systems must account for the following factors: UV absorbance of the water; lamp fouling and aging; measurement uncertainty of on-line sensors; UV dose distributions arising from the velocity profiles through the reactor; failure of UV lamps or other critical system components; and inlet and outlet piping or channel configurations of the UV reactor.

(ii) Validation testing must include the following: Full scale testing of a reactor that conforms uniformly to the UV reactors used by the system and inactivation of a test microorganism whose dose response characteristics have been quantified with a low pressure mercury vapor lamp.

(iii) The State may approve an alternative approach to validation testing.

(3) Reactor monitoring. (i) Systems must monitor their UV reactors to determine if the reactors are operating within validated conditions, as determined under paragraph (d)(2) of this section. This monitoring must include UV intensity as measured by a UV sensor, flow rate, lamp status, and other parameters the State designates based on UV reactor operation. Systems must verify the calibration of UV sensors and must recalibrate sensors in accordance with a protocol the State approves.

(ii) To receive treatment credit for UV light, systems must treat at least 95 percent of the water delivered to the public during each month by UV reactors operating within validated conditions for the required UV dose, as described in paragraphs (d)(1) and (2) of this section. Systems must demonstrate compliance with this condition by the monitoring required under paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section.

Need assistance?