e-CFR banner

Home
gpo.gov
govinfo.gov

e-CFR Navigation Aids

Browse

Simple Search

Advanced Search

 — Boolean

 — Proximity

 

Search History

Search Tips

Corrections

Latest Updates

User Info

FAQs

Agency List

Incorporation By Reference

eCFR logo

Related Resources

 

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of November 14, 2019

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter CPart 98Subpart I → §98.98


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 98—MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING
Subpart I—Electronics Manufacturing


§98.98   Definitions.

Except as provided in this section, all of the terms used in this subpart have the same meaning given in the Clean Air Act and subpart A of this part. If a conflict exists between a definition provided in this subpart and a definition provided in subpart A, the definition in this subpart takes precedence for the reporting requirements in this subpart.

Abatement system means a device or equipment that is designed to destroy or remove fluorinated GHGs or N2O in exhaust streams from one or more electronics manufacturing production processes, or for which the destruction or removal efficiency for a fluorinated GHG or N2O has been properly measured according to the procedures under §98.94(f)(4), even if that abatement system is not designed to destroy or remove fluorinated GHGs or N2O. The device or equipment is only an abatement system for the individual fluorinated GHGs or N2O that it is designed to destroy or remove or for the individual fluorinated GHGs or N2O for which destruction or removal efficiencies were properly measured according to the procedures under §98.94(f)(4).

Actual gas consumption means the quantity of gas used during wafer/substrate processing over some period based on a measured change in gas container weight or gas container pressure or on a measured volume of gas.

By-product formation means the creation of fluorinated GHGs during electronics manufacturing production processes or the creation of fluorinated GHGs by an abatement system. Where the procedures in §98.93(a) are used to calculate annual emissions, by-product formation is the ratio of the mass of the by-product formed to the mass flow of the input gas. Where the procedures in §98.93(i) are used to calculate annual emissions, by-product formation is the ratio of the mass of the by-product formed to the total mass flow of all fluorinated GHG input gases.

Chamber cleaning is a process type that consists of the process sub-types defined in paragraphs (1) through (3) of this definition.

(1) In situ plasma process sub-type consists of the cleaning of thin-film production chambers, after processing substrates, with a fluorinated GHG cleaning reagent that is dissociated into its cleaning constituents by a plasma generated inside the chamber where the film is produced.

(2) Remote plasma process sub-type consists of the cleaning of thin-film production chambers, after processing substrates, with a fluorinated GHG cleaning reagent dissociated by a remotely located plasma source.

(3) In situ thermal process sub-type consists of the cleaning of thin-film production chambers, after processing substrates, with a fluorinated GHG cleaning reagent that is thermally dissociated into its cleaning constituents inside the chamber where thin films are produced.

Controlled emissions means the quantity of emissions that are released to the atmosphere after application of an emission control device (e.g., abatement system).

Destruction or removal efficiency (DRE) means the efficiency of an abatement system to destroy or remove fluorinated GHGs, N2O, or both. The destruction or removal efficiency is equal to one minus the ratio of the mass of all relevant GHGs exiting the abatement system to the mass of GHG entering the abatement system. When GHGs are formed in an abatement system, destruction or removal efficiency is expressed as one minus the ratio of amounts of exiting GHGs to the amounts entering the system in units of CO2-equivalents (CO2e).

Fab means the portion of an electronics manufacturing facility located in a separate physical structure that began manufacturing on a certain date.

Fluorinated heat transfer fluids means fluorinated GHGs used for temperature control, device testing, cleaning substrate surfaces and other parts, and soldering in certain types of electronics manufacturing production processes. Fluorinated heat transfer fluids do not include fluorinated GHGs used as lubricants or surfactants. For fluorinated heat transfer fluids under this subpart I, the lower vapor pressure limit of 1 mm Hg in absolute at 25 °C in the definition of Fluorinated greenhouse gas in §98.6 shall not apply. Fluorinated heat transfer fluids used in the electronics manufacturing sector include, but are not limited to, perfluoropolyethers, perfluoroalkanes, perfluoroethers, tertiary perfluoroamines, and perfluorocyclic ethers.

Fully fluorinated GHGs means fluorinated GHGs that contain only single bonds and in which all available valence locations are filled by fluorine atoms. This includes, but is not limited to, saturated perfluorocarbons, SF6, NF3, SF5CF3, C4F8O, fully fluorinated linear, branched, and cyclic alkanes, fully fluorinated ethers, fully fluorinated tertiary amines, fully fluorinated aminoethers, and perfluoropolyethers.

Gas utilization means the fraction of input N2O or fluorinated GHG converted to other substances during the etching, deposition, and/or wafer and chamber cleaning processes. Gas utilization is expressed as a rate or factor for specific electronics manufacturing process sub-types or process types.

Heel means the amount of gas that remains in a gas container after it is discharged or off-loaded; heel may vary by container type.

Input gas means a fluorinated GHG or N2O used in one of the processes described in §98.90(a)(1) through (4)

Intermittent low-use fluorinated GHG, for the purposes of determining fluorinated GHG emissions using the stack testing method, means a fluorinated GHG that meets all of the following:

(1) The fluorinated GHG is used by the fab but is not used during the period of stack testing for the fab/stack system.

(2) The emissions of the fluorinated GHG, estimated using the methods in §98.93(i)(4) do not constitute more than 5 percent of the total fluorinated GHG emissions from the fab on a CO2e basis.

(3) The sum of the emissions of all fluorinated GHGs that are considered intermittent low use gases does not exceed 10,000 metric tons CO2e for the fab for that year, as calculated using the procedures specified in §98.93(i)(1) of this subpart.

(4) The fluorinated GHG is not an expected or possible by-product identified in Table I-17 of this subpart.

Maximum substrate starts means for the purposes of Equation I-5 of this subpart, the maximum quantity of substrates, expressed as surface area, that could be started each month during a reporting year based on the equipment installed in that facility and assuming that the installed equipment were fully utilized. Manufacturing equipment is considered installed when it is on the manufacturing floor and connected to required utilities.

Modeled gas consumed means the quantity of gas used during wafer/substrate processing over some period based on a verified facility-specific engineering model used to apportion gas consumption.

Nameplate capacity means the full and proper charge of chemical specified by the equipment manufacturer to achieve the equipment's specified performance. The nameplate capacity is typically indicated on the equipment's nameplate; it is not necessarily the actual charge, which may be influenced by leakage and other emissions.

Operational mode means the time in which an abatement system is properly installed, maintained, and operated according to the site maintenance plan for abatement systems as required in §98.94(f)(1) and defined in §98.97(d)(9). This includes being properly operated within the range of parameters as specified in the site maintenance plan for abatement systems.

Plasma etching is a process type that consists of any production process using fluorinated GHG reagents to selectively remove materials from a substrate during electronics manufacturing. The materials removed may include SiO2, SiOX-based or fully organic-based thin-film material, SiN, SiON, Si3N4, SiC, SiCO, SiCN, etc. (represented by the general chemical formula, SiwOXNyXz where w, x, y and z are zero or integers and X may be some other element such as carbon), substrate, or metal films (such as aluminum or tungsten).

Process sub-type is a set of similar manufacturing steps, more closely related within a broad process type. For example, the chamber cleaning process type includes in-situ plasma chamber cleaning, remote plasma chamber cleaning, and in-situ thermal chamber cleaning sub-types.

Process types are broad groups of manufacturing steps used at a facility associated with substrate (e.g., wafer) processing during device manufacture for which fluorinated GHG emissions and fluorinated GHG consumption is calculated and reported. The process types are Plasma etching/Wafer Cleaning and Chamber cleaning.

Properly measured destruction or removal efficiency means destruction or removal efficiencies measured in accordance with EPA 430-R-10-003 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7), and, if applicable, Appendix A to this subpart, or by an alternative method approved by the Administrator as specified in §98.94(k).

The Random Sampling Abatement System Testing Program (RSASTP) means the required frequency for measuring the destruction or removal efficiencies of abatement systems in order to apply properly measured destruction or removal efficiencies to report controlled emissions.

Redundant abatement systems means a system that is specifically designed, installed and operated for the purpose of destroying fluorinated GHGs and N2O gases, or for which the destruction or removal efficiency for a fluorinated GHG or N2O has been properly measured according to the procedures under §98.94(f)(4), and that is used as a backup to the main fluorinated GHGs and N2O abatement system during those times when the main system is not functioning or operating in accordance with design and operating specifications.

Repeatable means that the variables used in the formulas for the facility's engineering model for gas apportioning factors are based on observable and measurable quantities that govern gas consumption rather than engineering judgment about those quantities or gas consumption.

Representative operating levels means (for purposes of verification of the apportionment model or for determining the appropriate conditions for stack testing) operating the fab, in terms of substrate starts for the period of testing or monitoring, at no less than 50 percent of installed production capacity or no less than 70 percent of the average production rate for the reporting year, where production rate for the reporting year is represented in average monthly substrate starts. For the purposes of stack testing, the period for determining the representative operating level must be the period ending on the same date on which testing is concluded.

Stack system means one or more stacks that are connected by a common header or manifold, through which a fluorinated GHG-containing gas stream originating from one or more fab processes is, or has the potential to be, released to the atmosphere. For purposes of this subpart, stack systems do not include emergency vents or bypass stacks through which emissions are not usually vented under typical operating conditions.

Trigger point for change out means the residual weight or pressure of a gas container type that a facility uses as an indicator that operators need to change out that gas container with a full container. The trigger point is not the actual residual weight or pressure of the gas remaining in the cylinder that has been replaced.

Unabated emissions means a gas stream containing fluorinated GHG or N2O that has exited the process, but which has not yet been introduced into an abatement system to reduce the mass of fluorinated GHG or N2O in the stream. If the emissions from the process are not routed to an abatement system, or are routed to an abatement device that is not in an operational mode, unabated emissions are those fluorinated GHG or N2O released to the atmosphere.

Uptime means the ratio of the total time during which the abatement system is in an operational mode, to the total time during which production process tool(s) connected to that abatement system are normally in operation.

Wafer cleaning is a process type that consists of any production process using fluorinated GHG reagents to clean wafers at any step during production.

Wafer passes is a count of the number of times a wafer substrate is processed in a specific process sub-type, or type. The total number of wafer passes over a reporting year is the number of wafer passes per tool multiplied by the number of operational process tools in use during the reporting year.

Wafer starts means the number of fresh wafers that are introduced into the fabrication sequence each month. It includes test wafers, which means wafers that are exposed to all of the conditions of process characterization, including but not limited to actual etch conditions or actual film deposition conditions.

[75 FR 74818, Dec. 1, 2010, as amended at 77 FR 10381, Feb. 22, 2012; 78 FR 68220, Nov. 13, 2013]

Need assistance?