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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of December 5, 2019

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter CPart 97Subpart A → §97.2


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 97—FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM, CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS, CSAPR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS, AND TEXAS SO2 TRADING PROGRAM
Subpart A—NOX Budget Trading Program General Provisions


§97.2   Definitions.

The terms used in this part shall have the meanings set forth in this section as follows:

Account number means the identification number given by the Administrator to each NOX Allowance Tracking System account.

Acid Rain emissions limitation means, as defined in §72.2 of this chapter, a limitation on emissions of sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxides under the Acid Rain Program under title IV of the Clean Air Act.

Administrator means the Administrator of the United States Environmental Protection Agency or the Administrator's duly authorized representative.

Allocate or allocation means, with regard to NOX allowances, the determination by the Administrator of the number of NOX allowances to be initially credited to a NOX Budget unit or an allocation set-aside.

Automated data acquisition and handling system or DAHS means that component of the CEMS, or other emissions monitoring system approved for use under subpart H of this part, designed to interpret and convert individual output signals from pollutant concentration monitors, flow monitors, diluent gas monitors, and other component parts of the monitoring system to produce a continuous record of the measured parameters in the measurement units required by subpart H of this part.

Boiler means an enclosed fossil or other fuel-fired combustion device used to produce heat and to transfer heat to recirculating water, steam, or other medium.

Clean Air Act means the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.

Combined cycle system means a system comprised of one or more combustion turbines, heat recovery steam generators, and steam turbines configured to improve overall efficiency of electricity generation or steam production.

Combustion turbine means an enclosed fossil or other fuel-fired device that is comprised of a compressor, a combustor, and a turbine, and in which the flue gas resulting from the combustion of fuel in the combustor passes through the turbine, rotating the turbine.

Commence commercial operation means, with regard to a unit that serves a generator, to have begun to produce steam, gas, or other heated medium used to generate electricity for sale or use, including test generation. Except as provided in §97.4(b), §97.5, or subpart I of this part, for a unit that is a NOX Budget unit under §97.4(a) on the date the unit commences commercial operation, such date shall remain the unit's date of commencement of commercial operation even if the unit is subsequently modified, reconstructed, or repowered. Except as provided in §97.4(b), §97.5, or subpart I of this part, for a unit that is not a NOX Budget unit under §97.4(a) on the date the unit commences commercial operation, the date the unit becomes a NOX Budget unit under §97.4(a) shall be the unit's date of commencement of commercial operation.

Commence operation means to have begun any mechanical, chemical, or electronic process, including, with regard to a unit, start-up of a unit's combustion chamber. Except as provided in §97.4(b), §97.5, or subpart I of this part for a unit that is a NOX Budget unit under §97.4(a) on the date of commencement of operation, such date shall remain the unit's date of commencement of operation even if the unit is subsequently modified, reconstructed, or repowered. Except as provided in §97.4(b), §97.5, or subpart I of this part, for a unit that is not a NOX Budget unit under §97.4(a) on the date of commencement of operation, the date the unit becomes a NOX Budget unit under §97.4(a) shall be the unit's date of commencement of operation.

Common stack means a single flue through which emissions from two or more units are exhausted.

Compliance account means a NOX Allowance Tracking System account, established by the Administrator for a NOX Budget unit under subpart F of this part, in which the NOX allowance allocations for the unit are initially recorded and in which are held NOX allowances available for use by the unit for a control period for the purpose of meeting the unit's NOX Budget emissions limitation.

Continuous emission monitoring system or CEMS means the equipment required under subpart H of this part to sample, analyze, measure, and provide, by means of readings taken at least once every 15 minutes (using an automated data acquisition and handling system (DAHS)), a permanent record of nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions, stack gas volumetric flow rate or stack gas moisture content (as applicable), in a manner consistent with part 75 of this chapter. The following are the principal types of continuous emission monitoring systems required under subpart H of this part:

(1) A flow monitoring system, consisting of a stack flow rate monitor and an automated DAHS. A flow monitoring system provides a permanent, continuous record of stack gas volumetric flow rate, in units of standard cubic feet per hour (scfh);

(2) A nitrogen oxides concentration monitoring system, consisting of a NOX pollutant concentration monitor and an automated DAHS. A NOX concentration monitoring system provides a permanent, continuous record of NOX emissions in units of parts per million (ppm);

(3) A nitrogen oxides emission rate (or NOX-diluent) monitoring system, consisting of a NOX pollutant concentration monitor, a diluent gas (CO2 or O2) monitor, and an automated DAHS. A NOX concentration monitoring system provides a permanent, continuous record of: NOX concentration in units of parts per million (ppm), diluent gas concentration in units of percent O2 or CO2 (percent O2 or CO2), and NOX emission rate in units of pounds per million British thermal units (lb/mmBtu); and

(4) A moisture monitoring system, as defined in §75.11(b)(2) of this chapter. A moisture monitoring system provides a permanent, continuous record of the stack gas moisture content, in units of percent H2O (percent H2O).

Control period means the period beginning May 1 of a year and ending on September 30 of the same year, inclusive.

Electricity for sale under firm contract to the grid means electricity for sale where the capacity involved is intended to be available at all times during the period covered by a guaranteed commitment to deliver, even under adverse conditions.

Emissions means air pollutants exhausted from a unit or source into the atmosphere, as measured, recorded, and reported to the Administrator by the NOX authorized account representative and as determined by the Administrator in accordance with subpart H of this part.

Energy Information Administration means the Energy Information Administration of the United States Department of Energy.

Excess emissions means any tonnage of nitrogen oxides emitted by a NOX Budget unit during a control period that exceeds the NOX Budget emissions limitation for the unit.

Fossil fuel means natural gas, petroleum, coal, or any form of solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel derived from such material.

Fossil fuel fired means, with regard to a unit:

(1) For units that commenced operation before January 1, 1996, the combustion of fossil fuel, alone or in combination with any other fuel, where fossil fuel actually combusted comprises more than 50 percent of the annual heat input on a Btu basis during 1995, or, if a unit had no heat input in 1995, during the last year of operation of the unit prior to 1995;

(2) For units that commenced operation on or after January 1, 1996 and before January 1, 1997, the combustion of fossil fuel, alone or in combination with any other fuel, where fossil fuel actually combusted comprises more than 50 percent of the annual heat input on a Btu basis during 1996; or

(3) For units that commence operation on or after January 1, 1997:

(i) The combination of fossil fuel, alone or in combustion with any other fuel, where fossil fuel actually combusted comprises more than 50 percent of the annual heat input on a Btu basis during any year; or

(ii) The combination of fossil fuel, alone or in combination with any other fuel, where fossil fuel is projected to comprise more than 50 percent of the annual heat input on a Btu basis during any year, provided that the unit shall be “fossil fuel-fired” as of the date, during such year, on which the unit begins combusting fossil fuel.

General account means a NOX Allowance Tracking System account, established under subpart F of this part, that is not a compliance account or an overdraft account.

Generator means a device that produces electricity.

Heat input means, with regard to a specified period to time, the product (in mmBtu/time) of the gross calorific value of the fuel (in Btu/lb) divided by 1,000,000 Btu/mmBtu and multiplied by the fuel feed rate into a combustion device (in lb of fuel/time), as measured, recorded, and reported to the Administrator by the NOX authorized account representative and as determined by the Administrator in accordance with subpart H of this part. Heat input does not include the heat derived from preheated combustion air, recirculated flue gases, or exhaust from other sources.

Heat input rate means the amount of heat input (in mmBtu) divided by unit operating time (in hr) or, with regard to a specific fuel, the amount of heat input attributed to the fuel (in mmBtu) divided by the unit operating time (in hr) during which the unit combusts the fuel.

Life-of-the-unit, firm power contractual arrangement means a unit participation power sales agreement under which a utility or industrial customer reserves, or is entitled to receive, a specified amount or percentage of nameplate capacity and associated energy from any specified unit and pays its proportional amount of such unit's total costs, pursuant to a contract:

(1) For the life of the unit;

(2) For a cumulative term of no less than 30 years, including contracts that permit an election for early termination; or

(3) For a period equal to or greater than 25 years or 70 percent of the economic useful life of the unit determined as of the time the unit is built, with option rights to purchase or release some portion of the nameplate capacity and associated energy generated by the unit at the end of the period.

Maximum design heat input means the ability of a unit to combust a stated maximum amount of fuel per hour (in mmBtu/hr) on a steady state basis, as determined by the physical design and physical characteristics of the unit.

Maximum potential hourly heat input means an hourly heat input (in mmBtu/hr) used for reporting purposes when a unit lacks certified monitors to report heat input. If the unit intends to use appendix D of part 75 of this chapter to report heat input, this value should be calculated, in accordance with part 75 of this chapter, using the maximum fuel flow rate and the maximum gross calorific value. If the unit intends to use a flow monitor and a diluent gas monitor, this value should be reported, in accordance with part 75 of this chapter, using the maximum potential flowrate and either the maximum carbon dioxide concentration (in percent CO2) or the minimum oxygen concentration (in percent O2).

Maximum potential NOX emission rate means the emission rate of nitrogen oxides (in lb/mmBtu) calculated in accordance with section 3 of appendix F of part 75 of this chapter, using the maximum potential concentration of NOX under section 2 of appendix A of part 75 of this chapter, and either the maximum oxygen concentration (in percent O2) or the minimum carbon dioxide concentration (in percent CO2), under all operating conditions of the unit except for unit start up, shutdown, and upsets.

Maximum rated hourly heat input means a unit specific maximum hourly heat input (in mmBtu/hr) which is the higher of the manufacturer's maximum rated hourly heat input or the highest observed hourly heat input.

Monitoring system means any monitoring system that meets the requirements of subpart H of this part, including a continuous emissions monitoring system, an excepted monitoring system, or an alternative monitoring system.

Most stringent State or Federal NOX emissions limitation means the lowest NOX emissions limitation (in lb/mmBtu) that is applicable to the unit under State or Federal law, regardless of the averaging period to which the emissions limitation applies.

Nameplate capacity means the maximum electrical generating output (in MWe) that a generator can sustain over a specified period of time when not restricted by seasonal or other deratings as measured in accordance with the United States Department of Energy standards.

Non-title V permit means a federally enforceable permit administered by the permitting authority pursuant to the Clean Air Act and regulatory authority under the Clean Air Act, other than title V of the Clean Air Act and part 70 or 71 of this chapter.

NOX allowance means a limited authorization by the Administrator under the NOX Budget Trading Program to emit up to one ton of nitrogen oxides during the control period of the specified year or of any year thereafter, except as provided under §97.54(f). No provision of the NOX Budget Trading Program, the NOX Budget permit application, the NOX Budget permit, or an exemption under §97.4(b) or §97.5 and no provision of law shall be construed to limit the authority of the United States to terminate or limit such authorization, which does not constitute a property right. For purposes of all sections of this part except §97.40, §97.41, §97.42, §97.43, or §97.88, “NOX allowance” also includes an authorization to emit up to one ton of nitrogen oxides during the control period of the specified year or of any year thereafter by the permitting authority or the Administrator in accordance with a State NOX Budget Trading Program established, and approved and administered by the Administrator, pursuant to §51.121 of this chapter.

NOX allowance deduction or deduct NOX allowances means the permanent withdrawal of NOX allowances by the Administrator from a NOX Allowance Tracking System compliance account or overdraft account to account for the number of tons of NOX emissions from a NOX Budget unit for a control period, determined in accordance with subparts H and F of this part, or for any other NOX allowance withdrawal requirement under this part.

NOX Allowance Tracking System means the system by which the Administrator records allocations, deductions, and transfers of NOX allowances under the NOX Budget Trading Program.

NOX Allowance Tracking System account means an account in the NOX Allowance Tracking System established by the Administrator for purposes of recording the allocation, holding, transferring, or deducting of NOX allowances.

NOX allowance transfer deadline means midnight of November 30 or, if November 30 is not a business day, midnight of the first business day thereafter and is the deadline by which NOX allowances must be submitted for recordation in a NOX Budget unit's compliance account, or the overdraft account of the source where the unit is located, in order to meet the unit's NOX Budget emissions limitation for the control period immediately preceding such deadline.

NOX allowances held or hold NOX allowances means the NOX allowances recorded by the Administrator, or submitted to the Administrator for recordation, in accordance with subparts F and G of this part, in a NOX Allowance Tracking System account.

NOX authorized account representative means, for a NOX Budget source or NOX Budget unit at the source, the natural person who is authorized by the owners and operators of the source and all NOX Budget units at the source, in accordance with subpart B of this part, to represent and legally bind each owner and operator in matters pertaining to the NOX Budget Trading Program or, for a general account, the natural person who is authorized, in accordance with subpart F of this part, to transfer or otherwise dispose of NOX allowances held in the general account.

NOX Budget emissions limitation means, for a NOX Budget unit, the tonnage equivalent of the NOX allowances available for compliance deduction for the unit under §97.54(a), (b), (e), and (f) in a control period adjusted by deductions of such NOX allowances to account for actual heat input under §97.42(e) for the control period or to account for excess emissions for a prior control period under §97.54(d) or to account for withdrawal from the NOX Budget Trading Program, or for a change in regulatory status, of a NOX Budget opt-in unit under §97.86 or §97.87.

NOX Budget opt-in permit means a NOX Budget permit covering a NOX Budget opt-in unit.

NOX Budget opt-in unit means a unit that has been elected to become a NOX Budget unit under the NOX Budget Trading Program and whose NOX Budget opt-in permit has been issued and is in effect under subpart I of this part.

NOX Budget permit means the legally binding and federally enforceable written document, or portion of such document, issued by the permitting authority under this part, including any permit revisions, specifying the NOX Budget Trading Program requirements applicable to a NOX Budget source, to each NOX Budget unit at the NOX Budget source, and to the owners and operators and the NOX authorized account representative of the NOX Budget source and each NOX Budget unit.

NOX Budget source means a source that includes one or more NOX Budget units.

NOX Budget Trading Program means a multistate nitrogen oxides air pollution control and emission reduction program established by the Administrator in accordance with this part and pursuant to §52.34 of this chapter, as a means of mitigating the interstate transport of ozone and nitrogen oxides, an ozone precursor.

NOX Budget unit means a unit that is subject to the NOX Budget emissions limitation under §97.4(a) or §97.80.

Operating means, with regard to a unit under §§97.22(d)(2) and 97.80, having documented heat input for more than 876 hours in the 6 months immediately preceding the submission of an application for an initial NOX Budget permit under §97.83(a). The unit's documented heat input will be determined in accordance with part 75 of this chapter if the unit was otherwise subject to the requirements of part 75 of this chapter during that 6-month period or will be based on the best available data reported to the Administrator for the unit if the unit was not otherwise subject to the requirements of part 75 of this chapter during that 6-month period.

Operator means any person who operates, controls, or supervises a NOX Budget unit, a NOX Budget source, or a unit for which an application for a NOX Budget opt-in permit under §97.83 is submitted and not denied or withdrawn and shall include, but not be limited to, any holding company, utility system, or plant manager of such a unit or source.

Opt-in means to be elected to become a NOX Budget unit under the NOX Budget Trading Program through a final, effective NOX Budget opt-in permit under subpart I of this part.

Overdraft account means the NOX Allowance Tracking System account, established by the Administrator under subpart F of this part, for each NOX Budget source where there are two or more NOX Budget units.

Owner means any of the following persons:

(1) Any holder of any portion of the legal or equitable title in a NOX Budget unit or in a unit for which an application for a NOX Budget opt-in permit under §97.83 is submitted and not denied or withdrawn; or

(2) Any holder of a leasehold interest in a NOX Budget unit or in a unit for which an application for a NOX Budget opt-in permit under §97.83 is submitted and not denied or withdrawn; or

(3) Any purchaser of power from a NOX Budget unit or from a unit for which an application for a NOX Budget opt-in permit under §97.83 is submitted and not denied or withdrawn under a life-of-the-unit, firm power contractual arrangement. However, unless expressly provided for in a leasehold agreement, owner shall not include a passive lessor, or a person who has an equitable interest through such lessor, whose rental payments are not based, either directly or indirectly, upon the revenues or income from the NOX Budget unit or the unit for which an application for a NOX Budget opt-in permit under §97.83 is submitted and not denied or withdrawn; or

(4) With respect to any general account, any person who has an ownership interest with respect to the NOX allowances held in the general account and who is subject to the binding agreement for the NOX authorized account representative to represent that person's ownership interest with respect to the NOX allowances.

Percent monitor data availability means, for purposes of §97.43 (a)(1) and §97.84(b), total unit operating hours for which quality-assured data were recorded under subpart H of this part in a control period, divided by the total number of unit operating hours in the control period, and multiplied by 100 percent.

Permitting authority means the State air pollution control agency, local agency, other State agency, or other agency authorized by the Administrator to issue or revise permits to meet the requirements of the NOX Budget Trading Program in accordance with subpart C of this part.

Potential electrical output capacity means 33 percent of a unit's maximum design heat input.

Receive or receipt of means, when referring to the permitting authority or the Administrator, to come into possession of a document, information, or correspondence (whether sent in writing or by authorized electronic transmission), as indicated in an official correspondence log, or by a notation made on the document, information, or correspondence, by the permitting authority or the Administrator in the regular course of business.

Recordation, record, or recorded means, with regard to NOX allowances, the movement of NOX allowances by the Administrator from one NOX Allowance Tracking System account to another, for purposes of allocation, transfer, or deduction.

Reference method means any direct test method of sampling and analyzing for an air pollutant as specified in appendix A of part 60 of this chapter.

Serial number means, when referring to NOX allowances, the unique identification number assigned to each NOX allowance by the Administrator, under §97.53(c).

Source means any governmental, institutional, commercial, or industrial structure, installation, plant, building, or facility that emits or has the potential to emit any regulated air pollutant under the Clean Air Act. For purposes of section 502(c) of the Clean Air Act, a “source,” including a “source” with multiple units, shall be considered a single “facility.”

State means one of the 48 contiguous States or a portion thereof or the District of Columbia that is specified in §52.34 of this chapter and in which are located units for which the Administrator makes an effective finding under §52.34 of this chapter.

Submit or serve means to send or transmit a document, information, or correspondence to the person specified in accordance with the applicable regulation:

(1) In person;

(2) By United States Postal Service; or

(3) By other means of dispatch or transmission and delivery. Compliance with any “submission,” “service,” or “mailing” deadline shall be determined by the date of dispatch, transmission, or mailing and not the date of receipt.

Title V operating permit means a permit issued under title V of the Clean Air Act and part 70 or part 71 of this chapter.

Title V operating permit regulations means the regulations that the Administrator has approved or issued as meeting the requirements of title V of the Clean Air Act and part 70 or 71 of this chapter.

Ton or tonnage means any “short ton” (i.e., 2,000 pounds). For the purpose of determining compliance with the NOX Budget emissions limitation, total tons for a control period shall be calculated as the sum of all recorded hourly emissions (or the tonnage equivalent of the recorded hourly emissions rates) in accordance with subpart H of this part, with any remaining fraction of a ton equal to or greater than 0.50 ton deemed to equal one ton and any fraction of a ton less than 0.50 ton deemed to equal zero tons.

Unit means a fossil fuel-fired stationary boiler, combustion turbine, or combined cycle system.

Unit operating day means a calendar day in which a unit combusts any fuel.

Unit operating hour or hour of unit operation means any hour (or fraction of an hour) during which a unit combusts any fuel.

[65 FR 2727, Jan. 18, 2000, as amended at 69 FR 21645, Apr. 21, 2004]

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