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e-CFR data is current as of December 2, 2020

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter CPart 90Subpart K → §90.1003


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 90—CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS
Subpart K—Prohibited Acts and General Enforcement Provisions


§90.1003   Prohibited acts.

(a) The following acts and the causing thereof are prohibited:

(1)(i) In the case of a manufacturer of new nonroad engines or vehicles for distribution in commerce, the sale, the offering for sale, or the introduction, or delivery for introduction, into commerce, of any new nonroad engine manufactured after the applicable effective date under this part unless such engine is covered by a certificate of conformity issued (and in effect) under regulations found in this part.

(ii) In the case of any person, except as provided by regulation of the Administrator, the importation into the United States of any new nonroad engine manufactured after the applicable effective date under this part unless such engine is covered by a certificate of conformity issued (and in effect) under regulations found in this part.

(2) (i) For a person to fail or refuse to permit access to or copying of records or to fail to make reports or provide information required under §90.1004.

(ii) For a person to fail or refuse to permit entry, testing or inspection authorized under §§90.126, 90.506, 90.705, 90.1004, or 90.1207.

(iii) For a person to fail or refuse to perform tests or to have tests performed as required under §§90.119, 90.504, 90.703, 90.1004, 90.1204.

(iv) For a person to fail to establish or maintain records as required under §§90.209, 90.704, 90.805, or 90.1004.

(v) For a person to fail to submit a remedial plan as required under §90.808.

(3)(i) For a person to remove or render inoperative a device or element of design installed on or in a nonroad engine in compliance with regulations under this part prior to its sale and delivery to the ultimate purchaser, or for a person knowingly to remove or render inoperative such a device or element of design after the sale and delivery to the ultimate purchaser; or

(ii) For a person to manufacture, sell or offer to sell, or install, a part or component intended for use with, or as part of, a nonroad engine, where a principal effect of the part or component is to bypass, defeat, or render inoperative a device or element of design installed on or in a nonroad engine in compliance with regulations issued under this part, and where the person knows or should know that the part or component is being offered for sale or installed for this use or put to such use.

(4) For a manufacturer of a new nonroad engine subject to standards prescribed under this part:

(i) To sell, offer for sale, or introduce or deliver into commerce, a nonroad engine unless the manufacturer has complied with the requirements of §90.1103.

(ii) To sell, offer for sale, or introduce or deliver into commerce, a nonroad engine unless a label or tag is affixed to the engine in accordance with regulations under this part.

(iii) To fail or refuse to comply with the requirements of §90.808.

(iv) To provide directly or indirectly in any communication to the ultimate purchaser or a subsequent purchaser that the coverage of a warranty under the Act is conditioned upon use of a part, component, or system manufactured by the manufacturer or a person acting for the manufacturer or under its control, or conditioned upon service performed by such persons, except as provided in subpart L of this part.

(v) To fail or refuse to comply with the terms and conditions of the warranty under subpart L of this part.

(5) For a manufacturer of new nonroad vehicles to distribute in commerce, sell, offer for sale, or introduce into commerce, nonroad vehicles which contain an engine not covered by a certificate of conformity (except as specified in paragraph (b)(4) of this section) or which contain a handheld engine in a nonhandheld vehicle.

(6) For a person to circumvent or attempt to circumvent the residence time requirements of Paragraph (a) (2)(iii) of this Section of the nonroad engine definition in §90.3.

(b) For the purposes of enforcement of this part, the following apply:

(1) Nothing in paragraph (a) of this section is to be construed to require the use of manufacturer parts in maintaining or repairing a nonroad engine.

(2) Actions for the purpose of repair or replacement of a device or element of design or any other item are not considered prohibited acts under §90.1003(a) if the actions are a necessary and temporary procedure, the device or element is replaced upon completion of the procedure, and the action results in the proper functioning of the device or element of design.

(3) The following provisions apply for converting nonroad engines to use alternative fuels:

(i) Until December 31, 2009, converting an engine to use a clean alternative fuel (as defined in Title II of the Act) is not considered a prohibited act under paragraph (a) of this section if the engine complies with the applicable standard when operating on the alternative fuel. Also, in the case of engines converted to dual fuel or flexible use, the action must result in the proper functioning of the nonroad engine when it operates on conventional fuel.

(ii) The provisions of 40 CFR 1054.645 apply starting January 1, 2010.

(4) Certified nonroad engines shall be used in all equipment or vehicles that are self-propelled, portable, transportable, or are intended to be propelled while performing their function, unless the manufacturer of the equipment or vehicle can prove that the vehicle or equipment will be used in a manner consistent with paragraph (2) of the definition of Nonroad engine in §90.3. Nonroad vehicle and equipment manufacturers may continue to use noncertified nonroad engines built prior to the applicable implementation date of the Phase 1 rule until noncertified engine inventories are depleted; further after the applicable implementation of the Phase 2 regulations in this part, nonroad vehicle and equipment manufacturers may continue to use Phase 1 engines until Phase 1 engine inventories are depleted. Stockpiling (i.e., build up of an inventory of uncertified engines or Phase 1 engines beyond normal business practices to avoid or delay compliance with the Phase 1 or Phase 2 regulations in this part, respectively) will be considered a violation of this section.

(5) A new nonroad engine, intended solely to replace an engine in a piece of nonroad equipment that was originally produced with an engine manufactured prior to the applicable implementation date as described in §§90.2, 90.103 and 90.106, or with an engine that was originally produced in a model year in which less stringent standards under this part were in effect, shall not be subject to the requirements of §90.106 or prohibitions and provisions of paragraphs (a)(1) and (b)(4) of this section provided that:

(i) The engine manufacturer has ascertained that no engine produced by itself or the manufacturer of the engine that is being replaced, if different, and certified to the requirements of this subpart, is available with the appropriate physical or performance characteristics to repower the equipment; and

(ii) The engine manufacturer or its agent takes ownership and possession of the old engine in partial exchange for the replacement engine; and

(iii) The replacement engine is clearly labeled with the following language, or similar alternate language approved in advance by the Administrator:

THIS ENGINE DOES NOT COMPLY WITH FEDERAL NONROAD OR ON-HIGHWAY EMISSION REQUIREMENTS. SALE OR INSTALLATION OF THIS ENGINE FOR ANY PURPOSE OTHER THAN AS A REPLACEMENT ENGINE IN A NONROAD VEHICLE OR PIECE OF NONROAD EQUIPMENT WHOSE ORIGINAL ENGINE WAS NOT CERTIFIED, OR WAS CERTIFIED TO LESS STRINGENT EMISSION STANDARDS THAN THOSE THAT APPLY TO THE YEAR OF MANUFACTURE OF THIS ENGINE, IS A VIOLATION OF FEDERAL LAW SUBJECT TO CIVIL PENALTY;

and

(iv) Where the replacement engine is intended to replace an engine built after the applicable implementation date of regulations under this part, but built to less stringent emission standards than are currently applicable, the replacement engine shall be identical in all material respects to a certified configuration of the same or later model year as the engine being replaced.

(v) In cases where an engine is to be imported for replacement purposes under the provisions of this paragraph (b)(5), the term “engine manufacturer” shall not apply to an individual or other entity that does not possess a current Certificate of Conformity issued by EPA under this part.

(6)(i) Regulations elsewhere in this part notwithstanding, for three model years after the phase-in of each set of Class I through Class V Phase 2 standards; i.e. up to and including August 1, 2010 for Class I engines, up to and including model year 2008 for Class II engines, up to and including model year 2008 for Class III and Class IV engines, and up to and including model year 2010 for Class V engines, small volume equipment manufacturers as defined in this part, may continue to use, and engine manufacturers may continue to supply, engines certified to Phase 1 standards (or identified and labeled by their manufacturer to be identical to engines previously certified under Phase 1 standards), provided the equipment manufacturer has demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Administrator that no certified Phase 2 engine is available with suitable physical or performance characteristics to power a piece of equipment in production prior to the initial effective date of Phase 2 standards, as indicated in §90.103(a). The equipment manufacturer must also certify to the Administrator that the equipment model has not undergone any redesign which could have facilitated conversion of the equipment to accommodate a Phase 2 engine. These provisions do not apply to Class I-A and Class I-B engines.

(ii) Regulations elsewhere in this part notwithstanding, for the duration of the Phase 2 rule in this part, equipment manufacturers that produce small volume equipment models, as defined in this part, for a Class I model in production prior to August 1, 2007, or a Class II model in production prior to the 2001 model year, or a Class III or Class IV model in production prior to the 2002 model year, or a Class V model in production prior to the 2004 model year, may continue to use in that small volume equipment model, and engine manufacturers may continue to supply, engines certified to Phase 1 requirements (or identified and labeled by their manufacturer to be identical to engines previously certified under Phase 1 standards). To be eligible for this provision, the equipment manufacturer must have demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Administrator that no certified Phase 2 engine is available with suitable physical or performance characteristics to power the small volume equipment model. The equipment manufacturer must also certify to the Administrator that the equipment model has not undergone any redesign which could have facilitated conversion of the equipment to accommodate a Phase 2 engine. These provisions do not apply to Class I-A and Class I-B engines.

(iii) An equipment manufacturer which is unable to obtain suitable Phase 2 engines and which can not obtain relief under any other provision of this part, may, prior to the date on which the manufacturer would become in noncompliance with the requirement to use Phase 2 engines, apply to the Administrator to be allowed to continue using Phase 1 engines, through August 1, 2008 for Class I engines, through the 2006 model year for Class II engines, through the 2006 model year for Class III and Class IV engines, and through the 2008 model year for Class V engines, subject to the following criteria (These provisions do not apply to Class I-A and Class I-B engines.):

(A) The inability to obtain Phase 2 engines is despite the manufacturer's best efforts and is the result of an extraordinary action on the part of the engine manufacturer that was outside the control of and could not be reasonably foreseen by the equipment manufacturer; such as canceled production or shipment, last minute certification failure, unforeseen engine cancellation, plant closing, work stoppage or other such circumstance; and

(B) the inability to market the particular equipment will bring substantial economic hardship to the equipment manufacturer resulting in a major impact on the equipment manufacturer's solvency.

(iv) The written permission from the Administrator to the equipment manufacturer shall serve as permission for the engine manufacturer to provide such Phase 1 engines required by the equipment manufacturers under this paragraph (b)(6) of this section. As Phase 1 engines, these engines are exempt from Production Line Testing requirements under subpart H of this part and in-use testing provisions under subpart M of this part, and are excluded from the certification averaging, banking and trading program of subpart C of this part.

(7) Actions for the purpose of installing or removing altitude kits and performing other changes to compensate for altitude change as described in the application for certification pursuant to §90.107(d) and approved at the time of certification pursuant to §90.108(a) are not considered prohibited acts under paragraph (a) of this section.

[60 FR 34598, July 3, 1995, as amended at 62 FR 42644, Aug. 7, 1997; 64 FR 15252, Mar. 30, 1999; 65 FR 24313, Apr. 25, 2000; 73 FR 59182, Oct. 8, 2008]

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